Section R

racing pulse


A pulse having seven or more beats per respiration, i.e., at least one beat or more per respiration than the rapid pulse. It is a sign of in exhaustion of yin and yang and original qi about to desert, and is observed in acute febrile disease and vacuity traxation. It is usually a critical sign. A racing pulse in a healthy pregnant women is a sign of imminent birth.

raised chest

xiöng gäo

Abnormal elevation of the anterior chest; observed in pulmonary distention.

raised-shoulder breathing


Raising of the shoulders to assist breathing in severe panting patterns. See gaping mouth and raised shoulders.

raising pus and dispelling putridity


Treating welling-abscess yong1 and other sores to draw out pus and reduce ulceration. Representative formulas include Five-to-Five Elixir (  dän) or Nine-to-One Elixir (jîu  dän).

raising the pot and removing the lid

  jië gài 

To free urine by diffusing the lung or by upraising. The lung together with the spleen, kidney, triple burner, and bladder are responsible for water metabolism and keep the waterways free and regulated. The lung governs qi, and is the upper source of the waterways. When lung qi is blocked, and depurative downbearing fails, this can cause qi transformation failure in other organs, causing hasty panting, fullness in the chest, inhibited urination, and puffy swelling. This is treated by the method of diffusing the lung and downbearing qi, which is referred to by the metaphor of raising the pot and removing the lid, the pot apparently having a hole in its bottom from which water drains only when the lid is removed.

raking the firewood from beneath the cauldron

  chöu xïn

A method of eliminating repletion heat by freeing the stool with cold-natured draining precipitants. See cold precipitation; emergency precipitation to preserve yin.

rapid hungering


Tendency to become hungry soon after eating. See increased eating with rapid hungering.

rapid pulse

shuò mài

A rapid pulse has six beats per respiration. The rapid pulse is usually associated with heat, but may also be an indication of vacuity. A forceful rapid pulse indicates repletion heat and is most commonly seen in external heat (febrile) disease. A fine weak rapid pulse indicates effulgent yin vacuity fire. A large weak rapid pulse generally indicates qi vacuity. A rapid pulse is normal in infants, and a slippery rapid pulse is normal in pregnancy. The rapid pulse is usually quite smooth-flowing, so it is often confused with a slippery pulse. However, the term ``rapid'' refers exclusively to the pace, whereas ``slippery'' denotes a quality. The Bin-Hu Sphygmology (bïn  mài xué)(1564) clearly points out, ``Rapid and slippery should not be considered as being the same; rapid refers to the pace only.'' A pulse having seven or more beats per respiration is known as a racing pulse. Its significance is basically the same as that of the rapid pulse, though the possibility of vacuity is higher.

rashness, impatience, and irascibility


A sign of binding depression of liver qi.



Synonym:  crude .

Uncooked or unprocessed.

reachable sore


An effusion of the back, so called because the patient can reach it with his or her own hand. See effusion of the back.



In the doctrine of the five phases, a reversal of the restraining relationship, where one of the five phases is disproportionately strong and rebels against the phase that should normally restrain it. For example, wood is normally restrained by metal, but if it becomes too strong it will rebel against metal. Powerless to withstand the attack, metal will succumb. In terms of the bowels and viscera, this means that when the liver, normally restrained by the lung, becomes too strong, it will rebel against the lung and overcome it.


yîn shôu

Springing back against the hand as pressure is released. Rebounding is a test used in external medicine to determines whether or not pus has formed. If a sore springs back after the pressure applied to it is released, there is pus. If the sore does not spring back immediately, there is no pus.

rectal prolapse hemorrhoids

tuö gäng zhì with prolapse of the rectum.

Prolapse of the rectum may occur in patients who have suffered from hemorrhoids for a long time, when repeated contractions of damp-heat evil leads to qi vacuity and loss of containing power. The condition is characterized by prolapse when straining during defecation with pain and bleeding, and in some cases with exudation of yellow watery fluid.

Medication:  Clear heat and transform dampness; boost qi and raise the fall. Use Rectum-Lifting Powder ( gäng sân).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points GV, BL, ST, and LI. Select GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , BL-25 ( cháng shü, Large Intestine Transport) , GV-1 (cháng qiáng, Long Strong) , BL-35 (huì yáng, Meeting of Yang) , BL-57 (chéng shän, Mountain Support) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , and SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) ; needle with drainage.


To correct (counterflow, stagnant qi, or static blood). See rectifying qi; rectifying the blood.

rectifying qi


Correction of any morbidity of qi (qi stagnation, qi counterflow, qi vacuity, qi fall), and especially to treat qi stagnation or qi counterflow. See moving qi (which includes coursing depression and rectifying qi and harmonizing the stomach and rectifying qi); downbearing counterflow and precipitating qi (which includes downbearing counterflow and checking vomiting and downbearing qi and calming panting). , including the next three items

rectifying qi and harmonizing construction


A method of treatment used to address binding depression of liver qi and construction-blood disharmony in the treatment of pathoconditions characterized by emotional depression, vexation and agitation, rib-side pain, qi stagnation in the chest, and in some cases distention of the breasts, menstrual irregularities, and menstrual pain.

Medication:  medicinals used include liver-coursing and qi rectifying medicinals such as Bupleuri Radix (chái ), Citri Exocarpium Immaturum (qïng ), Cyperi Rhizoma (xiäng  ), and Toosendan Fructus (chuän liàn ), combined with blood-nourishing, construction-harmonizing medicinals like Angelicae Sinensis Radix (däng guï), Paeoniae Radix (sháo yào), and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix (dän shën). Blood-quickening stasis-transforming medicinals such as Corydalis Tuber (yán  suô), Carthami Flos (hóng huä), Rubiae Radix (qiàn câo gën), and Curcumae Tuber ( jïn) may be added where pain is particularly pronounced or static blood signs are present. Conditions involving liver fire may call for the admixture of medicinals such as Gardeniae Fructus (shän zhï ) and Moutan Radicis Cortex ( dän ). A representative formula is Free Wanderer Powder (xiäo yáo sân).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on PC, LR, and SP. Select PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , LR-14 ( mén, Cycle Gate) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage.

rectifying qi and harmonizing the stomach


harmonizing the stomach and rectifying qi.

rectifying the blood


Correction of any blood-aspect pathologies; includes supplementing the blood; cooling the blood; dispelling stasis and quickening the blood; warming the blood; stanching bleeding.

rectifying the center


A method of treatment used to regulate the stomach and spleen, especially warming the center and dissipating cold.



The color of pale cinnabar; the color of fire. Red is associated with fire in the five phases. Diagnostically, it is associated with fire or heat. Generally speaking, the darker the red, the more severe the heat, and in externally contracted disease, the deeper the level of penetration into the body. See also crimson.

red and white dysentery

chì bái 

Dysentery with sticky stool that contains red blood and white pus. See dysentery.

red and white turbidity

chì bái zhuó

Synonym:  two turbidities .

The generic term for red turbidity and white turbidity, in both of which a distinction is made between urinary turbidity and essence turbidity.

red and white vaginal discharge

chì bái dài xià

Mixed red and white vaginal discharge, i.e., a discharge part white and part tinged with red, that flows continuously from the vagina. Red and white vaginal discharge is attributable to liver qi invading the stomach and damp-heat pouring into the thoroughfare , controlling , and girdling vessels. In modern practice, red and white vaginal discharge usually prompts tests for cancer. See liver channel damp-heat vaginal discharge; damp toxin vaginal discharge.

red and white wandering wind

chì bái yóu fëng

Synonym:  wandering wind .

A disease characterized by the sudden appearance, usually on the lips, eyelids, and earlobes, or the chest and abdomen or shoulder and back, of red or white cloud-shaped patches of smooth, puffy skin that feel hard to the touch, associated with burning sensation, numbness, and mild itching. Red and white wandering wind is attributed to spleen-lung dryness-heat or insecurity of exterior qi allowing wind evil to invade the interstices, cause congestion, and disturb construction and defense. When the evil is stagnating in the blood aspect, the patches are red in color red wandering wind(); when stagnating in the qi aspect, the patches are white white wandering wind(). Usually there are no generalized signs, but abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting may be observed.

Western Medical Concept:  edema*!angioneurotic angioedema* edema*!Quincke's Quincke's edema* edema*!wandering urticaria*!giant angioneurotic edema (called also Quincke's edema, Milton's edema, wandering edema, angioedema, and giant urticaria).

Medication:  Treat by dissipating wind, clearing heat, and disinhibiting dampness, assisted by regulating construction and defense. Wind-Dispersing Powder (xiäo fëng sân). apply Jade Dew Powder (  sân) or Golden Yellow Powder (jïn huáng sân). See also kidney qi wandering wind.

red areola surrounding the dark of the eye

 lún chì yün

A condition characterized by reddening of the white of the eye in the area surrounding the dark of the eye in which ``red blood threads'' (i.e., blood vessels) are dimly distinguishable and do not disappear if pressure is applied. Red areola surrounding the dark of the eye it observed in a number of eye diseases including green wind internal obstruction (glaucoma).

Western Medical Concept:  glaucoma* congestion*!ciliary ciliary congestion.

red bayberry sore

yáng méi chuäng

Sores that occur after lower body gan and bubo sore, that are heralded by generalized heat~effusion, headache, and joint pain, that start with faint red areolas, and then develop into red bayberry patches, red bayberry pox, red bayberry papules, and everted-flower red bayberry. In the advanced stage, the toxin invades the bones, joints, and internal organs in what is called ``red bayberry toxin bind.'' Red bayberry sores were first recorded in the Jin-Yuan period. By the Qing Dynasty, the disease was understood to be transmitted directly through sexual intercourse (by ``essence transformation''), indirectly (by ``qi transformation''), and from mother to fetus.

Western Medical Concept:  syphilis* syphilis.

Medication:  Clear the blood and resolve toxin. One-Packet Red Bayberry Powder (yáng méi   sân) or Smooth Greenbrier Mixture (  líng  ). Gosling Yellow Powder (é huáng sân).

red blood threads

hóng chì xuè 

Red filiform markings in the white of the eye observed in blood-shot eyes (ciliary congestion). Compare red areola surrounding the dark of the eye.

reddening of the cheeks

quán hóng

Diffuse flushing of cheeks that usually occurs in liver-kidney yin depletion with vacuity fire flaming upward. Reddening of the cheeks is often seen in enduring illness and consumption. It usually recurs in the afternoon (hence also the term tidal reddening of the face) and is associated with tidal heat~effusion, vexing heat in the five hearts, red tongue with little liquid, and a forceless rapid fine pulse. The term reddening of the cheeks is not conventionally used to denote rosy cheeks of healthy individuals.

Medication:  Enrich yin and subdue yang. Anemarrhena, Phellodendron, and Rehmannia Pill (zhï bâi  huáng wán) plus Haliotidis Concha (shí jué míng) and Ostreae Concha ( ).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on KI and LR. Needle with supplementation at BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and with drainage at KI-1 (yông quán, Gushing Spring) , HT-8 (shào , Lesser Mansion) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , and LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) . See red facial complexion.

reddening of the eyes


See red eyes.

reddish urine

niào chì

Synonym:  dark-

colored urine .

Urine that is considerably darker than normal color; a sign of heat. Not to be confused with bloody urine. See urine.

red dysentery


Dysentery with bloody stool, i.e., blood dysentery. See dysentery.

red ears

êr chì

Pronounced flushing of the ears. Red face and ears indicate yang heat, and are observed in patterns such as large intestinal heat bind.

red eyes


From Elementary Questions ( wèn) Red whites of the eye of either or both eyes. Zhang1's Clear View of Medicine (zhäng shì  töng) states, ``There are three kinds of red eyes: the first is wind assisting fire to become depressed in the upper body; the second is exuberant fire; the third is dryness damaging the liver.'' Sudden reddening of the eyes is observed in externally contracted wind-fire (wind-heat) and in heaven-current red eye. In wind-fire patterns, the eyes are swollen and painful with hot tears and aversion to light. Accompanying signs include aversion to cold and heat~effusion, headache and nasal congestion, a thin white tongue fur, and a rapid floating pulse. Heaven-current red eye, also associated with discharge, is marked by being contagious. Reddening of the eyes of gradual onset is observed in internal damage patterns such as a) liver heat attacking the upper body (liver fire flaming upward) marked by red whites of eyes or red areola surrounding the dark of the eye; and b) liver-kidney yin vacuity or liver-lung yin vacuity, characterized by pale red whites of the eyes with mild intermittent pain and clouded vision. In alcoholics, red or yellow-red eyes are attributable to internally brewing liquor toxin.

Medication:  For wind-fire eye or heaven-curent red eye, course wind, discharge heat, and resolve toxin, use Wind-Expelling Heat-Dissipating Drink ( fëng sàn  yîn zi). For liver heat attacking upward, clear the liver and drain fire, using Gentian Liver-Draining Decoction (lóng dân xiè gän täng). For liver-kidney yin vacuity or liver-lung yin vacuity, enrich yin and nourish the blood, and clear the liver and downbear fire. Use Ten-Gem Decoction (shí zhën täng) which contains Rehmanniae Radix Exsiccata seu Recens (shëng  huáng), Angelicae Sinensis Radix (däng guï), Paeoniae Radix Alba (bái sháo yào), Lycii Radicis Cortex (  ), Anemarrhenae Rhizoma (zhï ), Moutan Radicis Cortex ( dän ), Asparagi Tuber (tiän mén döng), Ophiopogonis Tuber (mài mén döng), Ginseng Radix (rén shën), and Glycyrrhizae Radix (gän câo). For internally brewing liquor toxin in alcoholics, clear heat and disinhibit dampness, using Capillaris and Poria (Hoelen) Five Powder (yïn chén  líng sân).

Acupuncture:  Points in the region of the eye should only be given mild stimulation. For wind-fire eye or heaven-curent red eye, base treatment mainly on BL, GB, LI, and LR. Draim BL-1 (jïng míng, Bright Eyes) , GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , and LI-4 ( , Union Valley) ; prick , GV-23 (shàng xïng, Upper Star) , and LU-11 (shào shäng, Lesser Shang) to bleed. For liver heat attacking upward, base treatment mainly on GB and LR. Select BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , GB-43 (xiá , Pinched Ravine) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , GB-1 (tóng  liáo, Pupil Bone-Hole) , GB-15 (tóu lín , (Head) Overlooking Tears) , and ; needle with drainage. For liver-kidney yin vacuity or liver-lung yin vacuity, base treatment mainly on KI, LR, BL, and GB. Select BL-1 (jïng míng, Bright Eyes) , GB-37 (guäng míng, Bright Light) , ST-1 (chéng , Tear Container) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , and BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) ; needle with supplementation. See also tangled red-thread vessels; red areola surrounding the dark of the eye; red vessels invading the eye.

red face

miàn chì

red facial complexion.

red face wind

chì miàn fëng

A condition that begins with reddening and itching of the face, subsequently giving way to swelling and scorching heat.

Western Medical Concept:  dermatitis*!drug-induced dermatitis*!allergic allergic dermatitis (including drug-induced dermatitis).

red facial complexion

miàn  hóng

Synonym:  red face .

A complexion redder than normal; a sign of heat. External wind-heat exterior patterns are characterized by a red face with pronounced heat~effusion and mild aversion to cold, thirst, sweating, red sore swollen throat, a red tongue tip and margins, a thin yellow tongue fur, and a rapid floating pulse. Yang brightness channel heat is marked by a continuous full red facial complexion ( mian4 se4 yuan2 yuan2 zheng4 chi4) with high fever, sweating, aversion to heat rather than to cold, thirst with intake of fluids, a dry yellow tongue fur, and a large surging pulse. Heat entering construction-blood is characterized by redness of the whole face ( man3 mian4 tong1 hong2) with a generalized heat~effusion that is most pronounced at night, dry mouth with little intake of fluid, heart vexation and sleepless, periodic delirious speech, maculopapular eruptions, ejection of blood and spontaneous external bleeding, bloody stool, bloody urine, a red or crimson tongue body, and a fine rapid pulse. Yin vacuity internal heat is characterized by a somber white facial complexion with postmeridian reddening of the cheeks; ( wu3 hou4 liang3 quan2 fa1 chi4) this is associated with emaciation, dry mouth and throat dizziness, insomnia, tidal heat~effusion, night sweating, vexing heat in the five hearts, red tongue with scant fur, and fine rapid pulse. Vacuous yang floating astray (also called upcast yang) is marked by cheeks that are a floating red as if dabbed with rouge ( liang3 quan2 fan4 hong2 ru2 zhuang1) (``floating'' describes how the patches constantly change location); this is observed in severe illnesses and is accompanied by generalized heat~effusion despite a desire to keep well wrapped, thirst with liking for warm drinks, short hasty breathing, cold sweating, reversal cold of the limbs, clear urine and sloppy stool, pale lips and tongue, white or gray-black moist tongue fur, and a faint pulse on the verge of expiration.

red flaming sore

chì yán chuäng

A disease characterized by the intermittent appearance over the whole body of small red speckles. Red flaming sore is attributable to wind-heat that invades the lung and becomes depressed in the skin or to heart fire invading the lung.

Medication:  Course wind, clear heat, and cool the blood. Take Ledebouriella Sage-Inspired Powder (fáng fëng töng shèng sân) orally.

red flesh

chì ròu


The dorsal aspect of the hands and feet that is dark in color, in contradistinction to white flesh, i.e., the paler flesh of the palmar or plantar aspect.

Definition:  The deeper layer of flesh that is red in color (muscle).

red-hot needling


fire needling.

red nose


drinker's nose.

red sore swollen eyes

yân jïng hóng zhông tòng

Observed, for example, in cinnabar eye.

red-thread clove sore

hóng  dïng

A clove sore with a red threadlike line running from it toward the trunk. If the thread is fine, recovery can be rapid. A thick long thread is an unfavorable sign, especially if there are signs of traveling.

Acupuncture:  Apply the treatment given under and prick the red thread from the tail upward with a three-edged needle to drain the malign blood. See clove sore; running yellow.

red thread mark

hóng lüê chì hén

Small red markings on the surface of the skin composed of red thread-like lines up to a few millimeters long radiating from a central point.

Western Medical Concept:  spider nevi* spider nevi. Red threat marks are a sign of blood amassment creating distention.

red tongue

shé hóng

A tongue redder than normal. A red tongue indicates either vacuity heat or repletion heat. Crimson (deep red or maroon), is also associated with heat, but the added depth of color indicates that the heat is located in the construction or blood aspect.

red turbidity

chì zhuó


Murky urine that is red in color. See bloody urine.

Definition:  The discharge of a turbid substance containing blood from the urethra associated with burning or stabbing pain on urination, but no blood in the urine. This is one form of essence turbidity.

reduced food intake


See poor appetite.

reducing urine

suö niào

A method of treatment used to address enuresis and frequent long voidings of clear urine.

Medication:  The most commonly used urine-reducing medicinals include Mantidis O"otheca (säng piäo xiäo), Dioscoreae Rhizoma (shän yào), Rubi Fructus ( pén ), and Alpiniae Oxyphyllae Fructus ( zhì rén). Certain essence-securing medicinals such as Rosae Laevigatae Fructus (jïn yïng ), Euryales Semen (qiàn shí), and Nelumbinis Stamen (lián ) may also be used to reduce urine. Among formulas, Mantis Egg-Case Powder (säng piäo xiäo sân) has the added action of promoting interaction between the heart and kidney, and is most used for enuresis in children. Stream-Reducing Pill (suö quán wán), which warms and supplements kidney qi, is used to treat copious urine in vacuity patterns in elderly patients.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV, SP, and back transport points. Select BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and CV-2 ( , Curved Bone) ; needle with supplementation and moxa.

red vaginal discharge

chì dài

The continuous dribbling discharge of a sticky mucus from the vagina that is red like blood, but not completely composed of blood. Red vaginal discharge arises when anxiety and thought damage the spleen, disturbing movement and transformation. It also arises when depression and anger damage the liver and liver depression transforms into fire, and blood thus fails to be stored and flows with damp-heat down to the girdling vessel. In modern clinical practice, red vaginal discharge is taken as a prompt for cancer tests.

Medication:  Clear the liver and support the spleen. Use variations of Free Wanderer Powder (xiäo yáo sân) combined with Gentian Liver-Draining Decoction (lóng dân xiè gän täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on CV, GIV, SP, and LR. Select GB-26 (dài mài, Girdling Vessel) , BL-30 (bái huán shü, White Ring Transport) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , and PC-5 (jiän shî, Intermediary Courier) ; needle with drainage. See liver channel damp-heat vaginal discharge; damp toxin vaginal discharge.

red vessels invading the eye

chì mài qïn jïng

red vessels spreading across the eye.

red vessels spreading across the eye

chì mài chuán jïng

Synonym:  red vessels invading the eye .

A pathocondition characterized by visible red vessels ramifying outward from the inner or outer canthus, sometimes stretching into the dark of the eye, and associated with dry itchy eyes, in some cases tearing and discharge. Red vessels invading the eye are attributable to ascendant hyperactivity of heart fire, kidney water vacuity, or triple burner accumulated heat.

Western Medical Concept:  hyperemia*!ciliary ciliary hyperemia.

Repletion fire  (shí huô) is characterized by large thick red vessels, itching, dryness, a stabbing pain, and dry discharge and hot tears.

Medication:  Clear heat and drain fire. Use Three Yellows Heart-Draining Decoction (sän huáng xiè xïn täng) plus Forsythiae Fructus (lián qiào), Schizonepetae Herba et Flos (jïng jiè), Paeoniae Radix Rubra (chì sháo yào), Plantaginis Semen (chë qián ), Menthae Herba ( ), and Chrysanthemi Flos ( huä).

Vacuity fire  ( huô) is characterized by pale red vessels, and only slight itching and pain.

Medication:  Enrich yin and downbear fire. Use Heart-Supplementing Decoction ( xïn täng) or variations of Six-Ingredient Rehmannia Pill (lìu wèi  huáng wán). Compare tangled red-thread vessels.

red wandering cinnabar

chì yóu dän

Synonym:  red wandering cinnabar toxin .

A type of infantile cinnabar toxin, attributed to contraction of heat in the uterus, heralded by generalized heat~effusion, crying, fright, and spasm, and characterized by the appearance of red swollen areolas the color of cinnabar that gradually spread and wander with no fixed location. Spreading from abdomen and back to the limbs is favorable; starting at the limbs and moving into the chest and abdomen is unfavorable.

Medication:  Clear heat and resolve toxin. In the initial stage, use Forsythia Drink (lián qiào yîn zi) followed by Toxin-Dispersing Rhinoceros Beverage (xiäo   jiâo yîn). Remove malign blood with Alumen (bái fán), and then place thin slices of beef or goat's meat on the patches, and allow them to dry slightly before changing them. If the meat slices do not dry, use Agreeable Golden Yellow Powder (  jïn huáng sân) mixed with the juice of Indigonis Residuum (lán diàn). See cinnabar toxin.

red wandering wind

chì yóu fëng


The red form of red and white wandering wind.

Definition:  fetal heat cinnabar toxin.

red wandering cinnabar toxin

chì yóu dän 

red wandering cinnabar.


chì chóng

See redworm disease.

redworm disease

chì chóng bìng

From The Origin and Indicators of Disease (zhü bìng yuán hòu lùn) One of the nine worm diseases. A worm disease characterized by rumbling intestines, diarrhea, and sometimes stool containing pus and blood.

refloating the grounded ship

zëng shuî xíng zhöu

increasing water to move the ship.

refuse pressure

 àn (

Of pain or discomfort, especially in the chest or abdomen) to be exacerbated by pressure; as sign of interior repletion.

region below the heart

xïn xià

The area below the heart, i.e., the stomach duct. See also heart.

region below the lower extreme

xià  zhï xià

Synonym:  nose pillar ;

Synonym:  nose beam .

The stem of the nose.

regular channel

zhèng jïng

Any one of the twelve channels.

regularly interrupted pulse

dài mài

intermittent pulse.

regular water

zhèng shuî

From Essential Prescriptions of the Golden Coffer (jïn guì yào lüè) arising when spleen-kidney yang vacuity allow water to collect in the interior and ascend to distress the lung. Regular water is marked by general water swelling, abdominal fullness, rapid panting, and a slow sunken pulse. The lung is the tip, whereas the spleen and kidney are the root. It is treated by fortifying the spleen, warming the kidney, and promoting qi absorption. See water swelling.



To restore normal regular activity.

regulating menstruation

tiáo jïng

A method of treatment used to eliminate menstrual irregularities such as advanced menstruation, delayed menstruation, menstruation at irregular intervals, and profuse menstruation or scant menstruation.

regulating qi



A method of treatment used to eliminate qi stagnation or qi counterflow, thus restoring the normal smooth flow of qi; to move or downbear qi.

Definition:  In acupuncture, the use of supplementation and drainage to balance yin and yang in the body and improve physiological functioning.

reinforcing yang

zhù yáng

supplementing yang.

relaxing tension


See relaxing tension and relieving pain.

relaxing tension and relieving pain

huân  zhî tòng

A method of treatment used to alleviate hypertonicity and pain with agents such as Glycyrrhizae Radix (gän câo). For this purpose, licorice is often combined with Paeoniae Radix Alba (bái sháo yào), which nourishes the blood and constrains yin, and emolliates the liver and relieves pain.

repelled yang


See exuberant yin repelling yang.

repelling foulness


A method of treatment used to eliminate foul turbidity.

replete metal failing to sound

jïn shí  míng

sudden loss of voice.

replete pulse

shí mài

A large pulse that is forceful at all levels; its beats are equally forceful when coming as when going away. Compare surging pulse.



The opposite of vacuity. See vacuity and repletion; repletion pattern.

repletion cold

hán shí

cold repletion.

repletion constipation

shí  occurring in repletion patterns such as

heat constipation, phlegm constipation, qi constipation, etc.

repletion distention

shí zhàng occurring in repletion patterns of qi stagnation and damp obstruction,

brewing damp-heat, depressed heat and static blood, or food accumulation; characterized by a firm tender abdomen, constipation, yellow or reddish urine, and a forceful slippery rapid pulse.

Medication:  Treatment focuses on dispelling the evil. See heat distention; qi distention; blood drum; food distention.

repletion evil

shí xié


An evil giving rise to a repletion pattern; exuberant evil qi. Elementary Questions ( wèn) states, ``When evil qi is exuberant, there is repletion.

Definition:  One of the five evils. Evil qi transmitted from the child viscus in disease arising when the child steals the mother's qi.

repletion fire

shí huô

Repletion heat patterns caused by exuberant evil heat. The most common repletion fire patterns are gastrointestinal repletion fire or liver-gallbladder repletion fire. They are characterized by high fever, headache, red eyes, bitter taste in the mouth, dry mouth, thirst with desire for cold drinks, vexation and agitation, rib-side pain, abdominal pain that refuses pressure, constipation, red tongue with dry yellow and sometimes prickly fur, and a rapid replete pulse. In severe cases, there is blood ejection or spontaneous external bleeding, or maculopapular eruptions.

repletion glomus


Fullness, oppression, and sensation of blockage in the stomach duct attributed to stagnating evils. Repletion glomus can arise in damp turbidity obstruction, cold stagnating in the spleen and stomach, and binding of phlegm-food. It may also occur in patterns of liver qi depression or external evils lodged in the inner body. In severe cases, there may be pain, vomiting, constipation, or inability to eat.

Medication:  Regulate qi dynamic, dispel damp-phlegm, and free bowel qi. Use formulas such as Stomach-Calming Powder (píng wèi sân) or Unripe Bitter Orange and Glomus-Dispersing Pill (zhî shí xiäo  wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV, ST, and SP. Main points: PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) . Selection of points according to pattern: For internal damp turbidity obstruction, add SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , LR-13 (zhäng mén, Camphorwood Gate) , and BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , needle with even supplementation and drainage and add moxa. For cold stagnating in the spleen and stomach, add BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) , and CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , needling with drainage and adding moxa. For phlegm and food binding internally, add ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , and SP-4 (göng sün, Yellow Emperor) , needling with drainage and adding moxa. For liver qi depression, add LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , and LR-13 (zhäng mén, Camphorwood Gate) , needling with drainage. For lodged external evils, add GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , TB-5 (wài guän, Outer Pass) , and LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , needling with drainage and, for cold evil, moxa.

repletion heat


Signs include high fever, vexation and thirst with intake of fluid, constipation sometimes with abdominal pain that refuses pressure, yellow or reddish urine, dry yellow tongue fur, and a surging rapid pulse.

repletion hiccough

shí è

Powerful sonorous hiccough associated with a large slippery pulse. Repletion hiccough is usually attributable to stomach repletion with fire, or phlegm-damp obstruction. The root cause may be damage to the stomach by voracious eating causing food to stagnate in the stomach duct.

Western Medical Concept:  neurosis*!gastric gastritis*!acute observed in gastric neurosis and acute gastritis.

Medication:  Treat by harmonizing the stomach and downbearing qi, and by clearing stomach fire or transforming phlegm-damp. For stomach fire, use variations of Bamboo Leaf and Gypsum Decoction (zhú  shí gäo täng) or Minor Qi-Coordinating Decoction (xiâo chéng  täng), adding Kaki Calyx (shì ) to downbear qi. For phlegm-damp, use Inula and Hematite Decoction (xuán  huä dài zhê shí täng) minus Ginseng Radix (rén shën), Glycyrrhizae Radix Cruda (shëng gän câo), and Ziziphi Fructus ( zâo), plus Poria ( líng) and Citri Exocarpium (chén ). If the root cause is food damage, add stir-fried Hordei Fructus Germinatus (mài ), stir-fried Oryzae Fructus Germinatus ( ), Crataegi Fructus (shän zhä), and Massa Medicata Fermentata (shén ) to rectify qi and disperse food.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on ST, LR, and PC. Main points: BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , CV-14 ( què, Great Tower Gate) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , and LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) . Selection of points according to cause: For stomach fire, add LI-4 ( , Union Valley) and ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) . For phlegm-damp, add ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) and SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) . For food damage, add CV-10 (xià wân, Lower Stomach Duct) , , and CV-21 (xuán , Jade Swivel) ; Drain all points.

repletion is treated by draining

shí  xiè zhï

From Elementary Questions ( wèn) Disease patterns that arise when evil qi is exuberant and right qi is not debilitated (e.g., external contractions, phlegm-rheum, static blood, food stagnation, and cold accumulation patterns) are treated by methods that remove the evil qi such as resolving the exterior, dispelling phlegm, quickening the blood and transforming stasis, softening hardness, draining precipitation, and abductive stagnation.

repletion is treated by draining the child

shí  xiè  

Use of the mother-child, i.e., the engendering, relationship of the five phases involving the draining of the viscus that is the child of a viscus affected by repletion. For example, since liver-wood engenders heart-fire, the liver is the mother and the heart is the child. Hence, liver repletion can be treated not only by draining the liver, but also by draining heart-fire. Thus, for example, the method of draining heart fire can be combined with that of calming and draining the liver to treat repletion fire signs such as headache, dizziness, tinnitus, rashness, impatience and irascibility, red face and red ears, scorching pain in the chest and rib-side, yellow or reddish urine, bitter taste in the mouth, constipation, yellow tongue fur, and a rapid stringlike pulse.

repletion panting

shí chuân due to exuberant evil qi repletion.

Repletion panting is attributable to congestion of lung qi and impairment of depurative downbearing by six excesses invading the body, depressed phlegm-fire, or water rheum intimidating the heart. It is of rapid onset and short duration, and characterized by forceful, rough, hasty rapid breathing. See wind-cold rapid panting; cold panting; heat panting; phlegm panting; water panting; fire depression panting.

repletion pattern

shí zhèng

Any condition in which the presence of an evil is resisted by the body; the opposite of vacuity pattern. Repletion patterns are attributed to external evils, water-damp, phlegm-rheum, static blood, worm accumulations, or food accumulations. They reflect the nature of the evil (e.g., cold being characterized by pale or green-blue complexion, clear thin cold fluids), and the location (e.g., stomach disease being marked by vomiting, belching etc., or exterior disease being characterized by heat~effusion, aversion to cold, and sweating). Most importantly, however, there are signs of right qi fighting the evil such as pulses that are forceful at the deep level (e.g., rapid surging pulses, slippery stringlike pulses, and large replete pulses), pain or discomfort that refuses pressure, and sudden onset of disease.

repletion swelling

shí zhông

See water swelling.

repletion with vacuity complication

shí zhöng jiä 

Disease patterns characterized by evil exuberance and vacuity of right, i.e., disease patterns caused by repletion evils, but in which there are also signs of vacuity. For example, drum distention characterized by abdominal distention, inhibited stool and urine, emaciation, withered-yellow facial complexion, reduced food intake, shortness of breath and lack of strength, and a fine stringlike pulse, repletion pattern of binding depression of qi and blood complicated by insufficiency of the spleen and kidney.

repress the liver


See quelling the liver.

residual heat


The continuing presence of heat, as manifest if heat and dryness signs, after its abatement in heat (febrile) disease.

residual screen


A screen scar left when any disease of the dark of the eye manifesting in redness, soreness, and aversion to light has abated.

Medication:  Supplement vacuity and drain repletion; brighten the eyes and abate screens. Use Abalone Shell Powder (shí jué míng sân) as oral medication; apply Seven-Jewel Powder ( bâo sân) topically.

Acupuncture:  Main points: TB-23 ( zhú köng, Silk Bamboo Hole) , BL-2 (zân zhú, Bamboo Gathering) , , and . For repletion, add TB-20 (jiâo sün, Angle Vertex) , BL-1 (jïng míng, Bright Eyes) , and GB-41 ( lín , Foot Overlooking Tears) , needling with drainage and retaining the needles for 20--30 minutes. For vacuity, add BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , and KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , needling with supplementation (needles can be retained for 10 minutes).



To terminate (disease patterns), eliminate (evils), or free (parts of the body from evils). ``Resolve'' appears in the following terms: resolve the exterior (liberate it from an evil): resolve the flesh (liberate them from an evil); resolve toxin (dispel); resolve depression (relieve, dispel).

resolving both exterior and interior

biâo  shuäng jiê

A method of treatment used to address interior and exterior patterns at the same time. There are two main forms: Treating exterior evils in the outer body with repletion accumulation in the interior marked by aversion to cold, heat~effusion, abdominal distention and pain, nausea and constipation, and a slippery floating pulse. A representative formula is Magnolia Bark Seven Agents Decoction (hòu    täng), which contains Cinnamon Twig Decoction (guì zhï täng) minus Paeoniae Radix (sháo yào) to resolve the exterior, and Magnolia Bark Three Agents Decoction (hòu  sän  täng) to treat the interior. Treating exuberant interior heat with a concurrent exterior pattern, marked by high fever without sweating, red face and eyes, generalized hypertonicity, dry nose, thirst, bitter taste in the mouth, vexation and agitation, delirious speech, dry tongue, and a rapid surging pulse. A representative formula is Three Yellows and Gypsum Decoction (sän huáng shí gäo täng) in which Ephedrae Herba ( huáng) and Litseae Rhizoma et Radix (dòu chî jiäng) resolve the exterior, while Gypsum (shí gäo), Scutellariae Radix (huáng qín), Coptidis Rhizoma (huáng lián), and Gardeniae Fructus (shän zhï ) clear the interior. See resolving the exterior.

resolving depression


coursing depression and rectifying qi.

resolving tetany

jiê jìng

A method of treatment used to address tetanic disease characterized by signs such as tremor, convulsions, or arched-back rigidity with liver-calming, settling and subduing, and wind-dispelling agents. See extinguishing wind; tetany.

resolving the exterior

jiê biâo

A method of treatment used to eliminate evil from the fleshy exterior by effusing sweat (see sweating). Exterior-resolving medicinals include Schizonepetae Herba et Flos (jïng jiè), Ledebouriellae Radix (fáng fëng), Notopterygii Rhizoma (qiäng huó), Perillae Folium (  ), Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens (shëng jiäng), Allii Fistulosi Bulbus (cöng bái), Ephedrae Herba ( huáng), and Cinnamomi Ramulus (guì zhï). The method of resolving the exterior takes various forms depending on the evil. See the entries listed below.

Resolving the Exterior

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LU, LI, GB, and TB. Main points: GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , and TB-5 (wài guän, Outer Pass) . Point selection according to pattern: For wind-cold, add BL-11 ( zhù, Great Shuttle) , GV-16 (fëng , Wind Mansion) , BL-12 (fëng mén, Wind Gate) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , and LU-7 (liè quë, Broken Sequence) ; needle with drainage and moxa. For wind-heat, add GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , and LU-10 ( , Fish Border) ; needle with drainage and prick LU-11 (shào shäng, Lesser Shang) to bleed with a three-edged needle.

resolving the exterior with coolness and acridity

xïn liáng jiê biâo <

resolving the exterior> A method of treatment used to address exterior heat patterns with mild aversion to cold and pronounced heat signs, thirst, red sore pharynx, red tongue with dry thin white fur, and rapid floating pulse. The main medicinals are Menthae Herba ( ), Mori Folium (säng ), Glycines Semen Fermentatum Insulsum (dàn dòu chî), Arctii Fructus (níu bàng ), Puerariae Radix ( gën), and Tamaricis Ramulus et Folium (chëng lîu), Of these, Menthae Herba ( ), Mori Folium (säng ), Glycines Semen Fermentatum Insulsum (dàn dòu chî), and Arctii Fructus (níu bàng ) are the most commonly used. Mint has the strongest sweat-effusing and heat-abating effect of all cool exterior-resolving medicinals. Also, mulberry leaf can clear lung and liver heat and is thus particularly suitable for patterns involving headache, red eyes and cough. Fermented soybean is effective in outthrusting evils and abating heat~effusion. Arctium has the additional effect of clearing the throat, promoting lung qi diffusion, and clearing phlegm-heat. Pueraria is suitable for patterns also involving diarrhea and stiffness in the neck and back. Tamarisk may be used to outthrust papules in measles and can also dispel wind-damp. In cool acrid exterior resolution, the emphasis is on cool rather than acrid. For intense heat patterns, medicinals that clear heat and resolve toxin such as Scutellariae Radix (huáng qín), Gardeniae Fructus (shän zhï ), Lonicerae Flos (jïn yín huä), Forsythiae Fructus (lián qiào), Isatidis Radix (bân lán gën), and Taraxaci Herba cum Radice ( göng yïng) may also be used. The use of certain warm exterior-resolving medicinals such as Schizonepetae Herba et Flos (jïng jiè), Ledebouriellae Radix (fáng fëng), Notopterygii Rhizoma (qiäng huó), and Ephedrae Herba ( huáng) is not excluded in the treatment of exterior heat patterns when used with large quantities of heat-clearing medicinals. For example, Lonicera and Forsythia Powder (yín qiào sân) includes schizonepeta, and Notopterygium, Arctium, Dandelion, and Mint Decoction (qiäng bàng   täng) includes notopterygium although both are cool acrid exterior-resolving formulas. Cool acrid exterior-resolving formulas include Lonicera and Forsythia Powder (yín qiào sân), Mulberry Leaf and Chrysanthemum Beverage (säng  yîn), and Notopterygium, Arctium, Dandelion, and Mint Decoction (qiäng bàng   täng). The most commonly used is Lonicera and Forsythia Powder. Notopterygium, Arctium, Dandelion, and Mint Decoction, a formula tested in modern clinical practice, contains cool and warm acrid medicinals, with the addition of heat-clearing toxin-resolving medicinals. For treatment of measles, see outthrusting papules. See also resolving the exterior; wind-heat.

resolving the exterior with warmth and acridity

xïn wën jiê biâo <

resolving the exterior> To treat exterior cold patterns marked by marked aversion to cold, pronounced headache and aching bones, high or low fever moist white tongue fur, tight floating pulse, and absence of any heat signs such as red tongue, dry mouth, or red sore swollen tongue.

Medication:  The main warm acrid exterior-resolving medicinals are listed below. Of these, Schizonepetae Herba et Flos (jïng jiè) and Ledebouriellae Radix (fáng fëng) are the most commonly used. Notopterygii Rhizoma (qiäng huó) possesses a much stronger sweat-effusing heat-abating and pain-relieving effect than either of these, and is mainly prescribed for severe joint pain. Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens (shëng jiäng) and Allii Fistulosi Bulbus (cöng bái) are often used in combination with other warm acrid exterior-resolving medicinals, but may also be used alone. Perillae Folium (  ) warms and dissipates, and can also harmonize the center; it is mainly used in exterior cold patterns where gastrointestinal signs are also present. Ephedrae Herba ( huáng) is mainly used in exterior cold patterns where cough, panting, or water swelling are also present. Cinnamomi Ramulus (guì zhï) and Paeoniae Radix Alba (bái sháo yào) are used in exterior cold patterns involving construction-defense disharmony. The main formulas are Ephedra Decoction ( huáng täng), Cinnamon Twig Decoction (guì zhï täng), and Schizonepeta and Ledebouriella Toxin-Vanquishing Powder (jïng fáng bài  sân). Ephedra Decoction is for repletion patterns with cough and panting. Cinnamon Twig Decoction is for patterns of construction-defense disharmony, exterior vacuity and heat~effusion unabated by sweating. Schizonepeta and Ledebouriella Toxin-Vanquishing Powder is used for general colds and influenza caused attributable to wind-cold. See also resolving the exterior; wind-cold.

resolving the flesh


A method of treatment used to address exterior patterns marked by sweating. Warm acrid flesh-resolving formulas such as Cinnamon Twig Decoction (guì zhï täng) are used when there is headache, heat~effusion, sweating, aversion to cold, noisy nose, dry retching, weak floating pulse, white glossy tongue fur, and no thirst and drinking. Cool acrid flesh-resolving formulas such as Bupleurum and Pueraria Flesh-Resolving Decoction (chái  jiê  täng) are used for pronounced generalized heat~effusion, slight aversion to cold, slight sweating, thirst, thin yellow tongue fur, and a rapid floating pulse. Flesh-resolving formulas help, without additional clothing or bedclothes, to encourage a mild generalized sweat that brings about resolution. See resolving the exterior.




respiratory supplementation and drainage


A method of achieving supplementation and drainage that involves asking the patient to breath in or out on insertion and extraction of the acupuncture needle. Insertion on exhalation and extraction on inhalation supplement, whereas insertion on inhalation and extraction on exhalation drain. See needle manipulation.

restore flow


See free.



The sequence in which the five phases keep each other in check, i.e., wood (liver) earth (spleen) water (kidney) fire (heart) metal (lung) wood (liver). When the restraining cycle breaks down, the resulting disharmony can be explained in terms of the rebellion or overwhelming.

retained cupping

líu guàn 

stationary cupping.


yuë shù


retarded closure of the fontanel gate

xìn mén chí 

See ununited skull.



See vomiting.

retching of blood

ôu xuè

The bringing up of blood with relatively little food from the stomach. Retching of blood is attributed to anger damaging the liver, excessive liquor consumption, dietary irregularities and taxation fatigue damaging the spleen and stomach, or sexual taxation damaging the kidney causing lower body vacuity and upper body exuberance.

Medication:  For anger damaging the liver, treat by coursing the liver and draining fire. Use Bupleurum Liver-Coursing Powder (chái  shü gän sân) plus wine-processed Rhei Rhizoma ( huáng) or Moutan and Gardenia Free Wanderer Powder (dän zhï xiäo yáo sân). For excessive liquor consumption with accumulated heat stirring the blood, treat by draining fire and stanching bleeding, using Coptis and Pueraria Flower Pill ( huáng wán). For dietary irregularities or taxation fatigue damaging the spleen, fortify the spleen and contain the blood with Spleen-Returning Decoction (guï  täng) with judicious addition of Agrimoniae Herba (xiän  câo), Bletillae Tuber (bái ), and Sepiae seu Sepiellae Os (hâi piäo xiäo). For sexual taxation damaging the kidney with lower body vacuity and upper body exuberance, with signs such as vexation, agitation, and thirst, red face and cold lower extremities, base treatment mainly on supplementing the kidney. Use Six-Ingredient Rehmannia Pill (lìu wèi  huáng wán) plus Cinnamomi Cortex (ròu guì) and Schisandrae Fructus ( wèi ) combined with Pulse-Engendering Powder (shëng mài sân). See vomiting; blood ejection.

retention of dead fetus

täi   xià

Failure to expel a fetus that has died in the uterus. This may happen at any time during pregnancy or during labor. Retention of dead fetus is attributable either to qi-blood vacuity or to uterine stasis obstruction.

Qi-blood vacuity  ( xuè  ruò) retention of a dead fetus is characterized by discontinuation of growth and slight shrinkage of the abdomen, pale red discharge, fatigued essence-spirit, somber complexion, and poor appetite with bad breath.

Medication:  Treat by supplementing qi and boosting the blood, assisted by precipitating the fetus, using formulas such as Child-Curing Powder (liáo ér sân), which contains Ginseng Radix (rén shën), Angelicae Sinensis Radix (däng guï), Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix (níu ), Olibanum ( xiäng), Myrrha ( yào), and Dysosmae Versipellis Rhizoma (guî jìu).

Static blood obstruction  ( xuè  zhì) retention of dead fetus is characterized by cessation of movement of the fetus and a discharge of purple-black blood from the vagina. When the fetus dies shortly before birth, lumbar pain, and fullness and oppression in the chest with panting, and a dark green-blue complexion are observed.

Medication:  Move the blood and dispel stasis with formulas such as Falling Flower Brew (tuö huä jiän), which contains Angelicae Sinensis Radix (däng guï), Ligustici Rhizoma (chuän xiöng), Cinnamomi Cortex (ròu guì), Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix (níu ), Plantaginis Herba (chë qián), and Carthami Flos (hóng huä).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LI, CV, and SP. Select LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , and CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) to move qi, quicken blood, and expel the fetus. Use filiform needles, and needle more than moxa. Selection of points according to pattern: For qi-blood vacuity, add ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , and BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) ; needle with supplementation. For static blood obstruction, add SP-8 ( , Earth's Crux) and SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage or with drainage.

retention of the lochia

è   xià

Synonym:  postpartum retention of the lochia .

Absence of normal postpartum discharge. Retention of the lochia is when cold evil exploits the sudden vacuity of qi and blood created by childbirth, and invades the uterine vessels, where it congeals and causes blood stasis. It may also arise in patients with constitutional vacuity when damage to qi and blood through childbirth causes sluggish movement of the blood.

Cold qi invading the uterus  (hán  fàn bäo) is marked by smaller-abdominal fullness with stabbing pain at irregular intervals.

Western Medical Concept:  lochioschesis* lochiostasis* lochioschesis, lochiostasis.

Medication:  Dissipate cold, quicken the blood, and transform stasis. Use variations of Engendering Transformation Decoction (shëng huà täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV and SP. Select CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , ST-30 ( chöng, Qi Thoroughfare) , SP-8 ( , Earth's Crux) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa.

Vacuity  () is characterized by intermittent or continual unabating mild smaller-abdominal distention without pain.

Medication:  Supplement qi and blood with formulas such as Eight-Gem Decoction ( zhën täng) plus Zingiberis Rhizoma Tostum (páo jiäng) and Cinnamomi Cortex (ròu guì).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV, SP, ST, and back transport points. Select CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , and SP-8 ( , Earth's Crux) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa. See postpartum blood dizziness; postpartum panting; postpartum vacuity swelling of the limbs; postpartum fearful throbbing; three postpartum surges; postpartum raving and hallucination.

retention of the afterbirth

bäo   xià

Failure of the afterbirth to be discharged within half an hour after birth; attributable to major qi vacuity. This was traditionally treated by introducing the hand into the womb and following the umbilical cord to its end to locate the placenta, which was then detached from the uterus. This was followed by medicinal therapy and/or acupuncture.

Western Medical Concept:  retained placenta* incarcerated placenta* retained placenta; incarcerated placenta.

Medication:  Use Perfect Major Supplementation Decoction (shí quán   täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV, GB, LI, SP, BL, and empirical points. Select CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , GB-21 (jiän jîng, Shoulder Well) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-60 (kün lún, Kunlun Mountains) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage or with drainage. Moxa . For pronounced vacuity cold, pole CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) and CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) .

retracted external kidney

wài shèn suö 

Retraction of the male genitals. See retracted genitals.

retracted genitals

yïn suö

The drawing into the body of the anterior yin (i.e., the genitals) in either males or females. It may be the result of cold entering the reverting yin , yang brightness heat entering the reverting yin, or vacuity fall of original qi due to great vomiting and diarrhea.

Cold entering the reverting yin  (hán  jué yïn) is associated with cold pain and tension in the lesser abdomen. Other signs include fear of cold and cold limbs, and, in severe cases, green-blue lips and curled tongue, heavy body and body pains, long clear voidings of urine or possibly incontinence, and clear-food diarrhea.

Medication:  Warm and dissipate the evil with Tangkuei Counterflow Cold Decoction (däng guï   täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV and LR. Select LR-12 ( mài, Urgent Pulse) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , and LR-1 ( dün, Large Pile) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa.

Yang brightness heat evil entering the reverting yin  (yang míng  xié  jué yïn) is characterized by yang brightness heat signs including constipation.

Medication:  Treat by swift precipitation with Major Qi-Coordinating Decoction ( chéng  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on ST, LR, and GB. Select ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , and GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) ; needle with drainage.

Vacuity fall of original qi  (yuán  xià xiàn) patterns are characterized by counterflow cold of the limbs, black facial complexion, panting, cold sweating, and, in severe cases, loss of consciousness.

Medication:  Immediate treatment should be given to return yang and stem desertion using Counterflow Cold Decoction (  täng) plus Ginseng Radix (rén shën) and Cinnamomi Cortex (ròu guì).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV and GV. Select GV-26 (shuî göu, Water Trough) , GV-25 ( liáo, White Bone-Hole) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , and KI-1 (yông quán, Gushing Spring) ; needle with supplementation or direct moxa. Apply moxa on salt or ginger at CV-8 (shén què, Spirit Gate Tower) . Compare retracted scrotum.

retracted scrotum

náng suö

Synonym:  retracted testicles .

The drawing of the scrotum into the body. Retracted scrotum is usually a severe condition and is observed in both heat and cold patterns. Yang brightness exuberant heat passing to reverting yin is treated by emergency precipitation to preserve yin with formulas such as Major Qi-Coordinating Decoction ( chéng  täng), whereas cold evil directly striking the lesser yin is treated with Counterflow Cold Decoction (  täng) or Tangkuei Counterflow Cold Decoction (däng guï   täng). Compare retracted genitals.

retracted testicles

luân suö

Testicles drawn upward and into the body. Retracted testicles are usually attributed to disease of the foot reverting yin liver channel. The Magic Pivot (líng shü) states, ``When reverting yin qi expires, the sinew expires. The reverting yin is the liver vessel. The liver is the union of the sinews. The sinew gather at the yin organs (genitals) and net the root of the tongue. When the vessel loses its luxuriance, the sinews become tense. When the sinews become tense, they pull the tongue and testicles. Hence, green-blue lips, curled tongue, and retracted testicle mean the death of the sinews.'' This falls within the scope of retracted genitals and retracted scrotum.



See following entries.

returning fire to its source

yîn huô guï yuán

A method of treatment used to address upbearing kidney fire using medicinals that enrich kidney yin and conduct fire downward. Upbearing kidney fire is a pattern of upper body heat and lower body cold characterized by floating red complexion, dizziness, tinnitus, ulceration of the mouth and tongue, loose teeth, aching lumbus and weak legs, cold in the lower extremities, tender-red tongue, and a vacuous pulse.

Medication:  Combine kidney-enriching medicinals such as Rehmanniae Radix Conquita (shú  huáng), Dioscoreae Rhizoma (shän yào), Corni Fructus (shän zhü ), Schisandrae Fructus ( wèi ), and Ligustri Fructus (nüê zhën ), with Aconiti Tuber Laterale ( ) and Cinnamomi Cortex (ròu guì), which supplement true yang and conduct fire downward.

returning yang and stemming counterflow

huí yáng jìu 

A method of treatment used to address great yang collapse vacuity desertion, characterized by aversion to cold, curled-up lying posture, counterflow cold of the limbs, drop in both body temperature and blood pressure, cold sweats, a somber white complexion, and a faint, fine pulse or vacuous rapid pulse.

Medication:  Base treatment on yang-warming medicinals such as Aconiti Tuber Laterale ( ), Zingiberis Rhizoma Exsiccatum (gän jiäng), and Cinnamomi Cortex (ròu guì), combined with qi-boosting medicinals such as Glycyrrhizae Radix (gän câo) and Codonopsitis Radix (dâng shën). In severe cases, add Ginseng Radix (rén shën). If copious sweat indicates a desertion trend, include medicinals such as Mastodi Ossis Fossilia (lóng ) and Ostreae Concha ( ) to constrain sweat and stem desertion. For yin humor depletion, use yin-constraining and humor-nourishing medicinals such as Schisandrae Fructus ( wèi ) and Rehmanniae Radix Conquita (shú  huáng). A commonly used formula is Counterflow Cold Decoction (  täng).

Acupuncture:  See yang collapse.



The term jue2 is explained as meaning sudden clouding reversal, i.e., fainting or syncope. counterflow cold spreading upward from the extremity of the limbs. Thus, jue2 means disruption (in the flow of qi, blood) and recession of the outward spread (of yang qi). The term ``reversal'' is closely related in meaning to ``counterflow.'' Reversal cold of the limbs and counterflow cold of the limbs are identical in meaning. ``Counterflow,'' unlike ``reversal,'' is commonly used to denote disruption of the qi dynamic of organs such as the liver, stomach and lung and does not appear in terms denoting loss of consciousness. See reversal pattern; reverse-flow.

reversal cold of the extremities

shôu  jué lêng

Synonym:  counterflow cold of the extremities ;

Synonym:  counterflow cold of the limbs ;

Synonym:  reversal cold of the limbs ;

Synonym:  limb reversal .

Pronounced cold in the extremities up to the knees and elbows or beyond, as occurs in yang collapse or internal heat evil block. Reversal cold of the extremities is similar to lack of warmth in the extremities. However, the latter differs in that it is less pronounced, does not reach as far as the knees and elbows, and is observed in general yang vacuity patterns. Reversal cold of the extremities is called reversal because yang qi recedes away from the extremities. Distinction is made between cold and heat.

Cold  (hán) patterns are attributed to debilitation of yang qi and exuberant internal yin cold, and are associated with fear of cold, clear-food diarrhea, and a faint sunken pulse.

Medication:  Return yang and stem counterflow with Counterflow Cold Decoction (  täng) or Aconite Main Tuber Brew ( tóu jiän).

Heat  () patterns are attributed to depressed heat evil preventing yang qi from reaching the four limbs, and are associated with heat vexation in the chest and abdomen and with thirst.

Medication:  Diffuse depressed heat with Counterflow Cold Powder (  sân), White Tiger Decoction (bái  täng), or one of the Qi-Coordinating Decoctions (chéng  täng). Reversal cold of the extremities is observed in cold damage, reversal patterns, and in mounting . See reversal.

reversal cold of the limbs

 zhï jué lêng

reversal cold of the extremities.

reversal desertion

jué tuö

A desertion pattern characterized by reversal cold of the limbs.

reversal headache

jué tóu tòng

liver reversal headache.

reversal heart pain

jué xïn tòng

Heart pain stretching to the back. See cold reversal heart pain; heat reversal heart pain.

reversal mounting

jué shàn

See yin mounting .

reversal pattern

jué zhèng

Any condition a)~clouding collapse (fainting) and loss of consciousness and/or b)~reversal cold of the limbs (marked cold in the extremities). Reversal patterns occur in the follow circumstances. They occur in patients usually suffering from effulgent liver yang or dietary irregularities when mental stimulus or acute pain causes counterflow and derangement of qi dynamic. The blood moves counterflow with the qi or phlegm rises with the qi, causing clouding of the heart spirit. They occur in patients suffering from weak original qi, damage to qi and liquid after enduring illness, or loss of blood, when the supply of qi and blood fails. In reversal patterns, loss of consciousness comes suddenly and is usually temporary. The patient in most cases gradually recovers. Reversal patterns can be divided into ones characterized by loss of consciousness and ones characterized by reversal cold of the extremities. See the entries listed below. Note that all the reversal patterns listed were mentioned in The Inner Canon (nèi jïng) except for liver reversal. See reversal.

Reversal Patterns




reversal cold of the extremities. On Cold Damage (shäng hán lùn) states, ``Lesser yin disease with clear-food diarrhea, interior cold and external heat, reverse-flow of the extremities, faint pulse on the verge of expiration is treated with Vessel-Freeing Counterflow Cold Decoction (töng mài   täng).

Definition:  From The Magic Pivot (líng shü) Acute pain in the chest with sudden cold of the lower extremities, heart vexation, inability to eat, and a rough pulse.

Definition:  From Elementary Questions ( wèn) A kind of enduring headache. Elementary Questions ( wèn) states, ``When a person is ill, with a headache that has lasted incessantly for years he must have been invaded by great cold that has reached the bone and marrow. The marrow is mainly the brain. Counterflow to the brain causes headache with pain in the teeth too. This disease is called reverse-flow. See reversal pattern.

reverse-flow headache

jué  tóu tòng characterized by pain in the head stretching into the teeth and attributed to cold evil invading the brain.

Medication:  Warm and dissipate cold evil using formulas such as Notopterygium and Aconite Decoction (qiäng huó   täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GV. Select GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , SI-3 (hòu , Back Ravine) , , GB-8 (shuài , Valley Lead) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , GV-16 (fëng , Wind Mansion) , and GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) ; needle with drainage and moxa. See headache. Compare reversal headache.

reverse-flow of the extremities

shôu  jué 

See reverse-flow.

reverse-flow of the limbs

 zhï jué 

See reverse-flow.

reverting yin

jué yïn

The hand reverting yin pericardium and foot reverting yin liver channels. The name reverting yin indicates yin qi developing to its final stage and then reverting toward yang. The reverting yin is located within the greater yin and lesser yin , and hence it is said that ``reverting yin is the closedness.''

reverting yin channel

jué yïn jïng

See reverting yin.

reverting yin disease

jué yïn bìng

In the classical sequence, the reverting yin is the last of the three yin channels. Hence, it should theoretically be associated with the most severe diseases. Elementary Questions ( wèn) states, ``The reverting yin channel skirts round the genitals and connects with the liver, so that diseases include vexation and fullness, and retracted scrotum.'' The same chapter also mentions, among the signs of reverting yin disease, ``deafness, retraction of the scrotum, inability to ingest even liquid foods, and unconsciousness.'' Elementary Questions ( wèn) enumerates symptoms but prescribes no formulas. Because the reverting yin patterns described in On Cold Damage (shäng hán lùn) are less severe, the real nature of reverting yin disease is still in question. Further research is required to clarify the matter fully. Reverting yin disease as described in On Cold Damage (shäng hán lùn) is characterized by upper body heat and lower body cold, and may take the form of dispersion-thirst, qi surging up into the heart region, pain and heat in the heart region, hunger with no desire to eat, or vomiting of roundworm. Reversal cold of the limbs is also observed in some cases. Pathomechanically, upper body heat and lower body cold is explained as a cold-heat complex resulting from interior vacuity. Dispersion-thirst, qi surging up into the heart region, pain and heat in the heart [region], and clamoring stomach discomfort are the manifestations of upper body heat (heat in the area just above the diaphragm). No desire for food and vomiting of roundworm reflect lower body cold (in the intestines). This impairs movement and transformation of the food, which disquiets the roundworm and causes it to rise counterflow. The reversal cold of the limbs indicates failure of yang qi to reach the periphery of the body, arising when a cold-heat complex disrupts qi dynamic.

reverting yin headache

jué yïn tóu tòng

Definition:  due to reverting yin disease in cold damage,

characterized by headache and neck pain, dry retching, ejection of foaming drool, and reversal cold of the limbs.

Medication:  Treat with Evodia Decoction ( zhü  täng).

Acupuncture:  Select GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) ; needle with drainage and add moxa. Apply moxa at LR-1 ( dün, Large Pile) .

Definition:  located on the reverting yin channel (i.e., the vertex), for which Evodiae Fructus ( zhü ) can be used as a channel conductor.

Acupuncture:  Select GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , , LR-8 ( quán, Spring at the Bend) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and KI-1 (yông quán, Gushing Spring) . See headache.

reverting yin transforming into wind

jué yïn huà fëng

liver yang transforming into wind. See liver wind stirring internally.



See phlegm-rheum.

rheum aggregation

A condition characterized by a stringlike tautness under the ribs, with periodic sound of water, pain brought on by exposure to cold, and periodic vomiting of foamy drool, and attributed to devitalization of center yang and gathering of water rheum.

Medication:  Treat with Drool-Controlling Elixir (kòng xián dän).


fëng shï

See wind-damp.

rheum evil congesting the lung

yîn xié yöng fèi

A form of propping rheum characterized by panting and fullness in the chest, thin clear phlegm, and, in severe cases, scant urine, white slimy tongue fur, and a stringlike sunken pulse.

Medication:  Drain the lung and expel rheum with Tingli and Jujube Lung-Draining Decoction (tíng   zâo xiè fèi täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LU, LI, SP, and ST. Select BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , CV-22 (tiän , Celestial Chimney) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , and ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) ; needle with drainage.



The area from the armpit down to bottom of the ribs. (i.e., to lowest of the 12 ribs).

Western Medical Concept:  hypochondrium* The rib-side includes the hypochondrium. See chest and rib-side.

rib-side pain

xié tòng

Pain in the area between the armpits and the lowest rib. The rib-side is traversed by the foot reverting yin liver and foot lesser yang gallbladder channels; hence pain in this area is associated with disease of the liver and gallbladder. In addition, heart, lung, spleen, and kidney disease can also affect the chest and rib-side or rib-side and abdomen. Rib-side pain is observed in both external contractions and internal damage patterns. External contraction patterns include wind-damp, summerheat-heat, and epidemic scourges. Internal damage includes qi depression, phlegm-rheum, static blood, and food accumulations. See entries listed below.

Rib-Side Pain
Rib-side pain may also occur in disharmony of liver qi, liver blood vacuity, liver yin vacuity, liver-kidney yin vacuity, depletion of liver-spleen qi and blood, and depressed liver-gallbladder heat. It may be observed in jaundice. From the modern clinical viewpoint, rib-side pain is also noted in hepatomegaly or splenomegaly.

rib-side pain and distention

xié  zhàng tòng

Pain and subjective feeling of distention in the rib-side region. Rib-side pain and distention is variously attributed to qi depression, congealing phlegm, and stagnation in the vessels. See rib-side pain.

rich paste


A paste preparation to be taken orally. The ingredients are usually boiled 2--3 times, for 2--3 hours each time, until the smell is only faint. After each boiling, the decoction should be strained off, and fresh water added to the pot for the next boiling. Then, all the decoctions are slow-boiled together until they are reduced to a thick, viscous paste. The correct consistency is reached as soon as no water separates out from a globule of the paste when dropped on paper. If the paste becomes too thick, it is likely to stick to the pot and burn. If too thin, it is difficult to store. Then, a quantity of honey or sugar, equal to a specified proportion of the original materials (usually an equal proportion) is added before a final boiling. The paste is then put in earthenware or glass jars. Pastes keep for long periods, and are usually used for chronic diseases. See paste.



Synonym:  correct .

Definition:  Normal or rendering normal. Right complexion refers to the normal complexion of the healthy individual. Right qi denotes the forces that maintain normal bodily functions and that seek to re-establish them when evil qi is present.

Definition:  (usually `the right') right qi. Compare evil.

right complexion


A normal complexion. The healthy complexion of the Chinese is traditionally described as a ``bright, lustrous, contained complexion with a faint red and yellow hue.'' A bright, lustrous complexion indicates the presence of spirit. A ``contained'' complexion, i.e., one in which color is held within the skin and is not exposed (see true visceral complexion), indicates the presence of stomach. A right complexion indicates harmony of qi and blood and internal fullness of essential qi. A distinction is made between the governing complexion and the visiting complexion. The governing complexion is each person's basic complexion; the visiting complexion is any deviation from governing complexion brought about by changes in the weather and environment or in physiological state. Neither the governing nor the visiting complexion is pathological.

righting qi


rectifying qi.

right qi



True qi, especially in opposition to disease. Right qi is the active aspect of all components including the organs, blood, fluids, and essence and the above-mentioned forms of qi in maintaining health and resisting disease. Right qi stands in opposition to evil qi, which is any entity in its active aspect of harming the body.

Definition:  The normal qi of the seasons, warmth in spring, heat in summer, coolness in autumn, and cold in winter.

right vacuity and evil repletion

zhèng  xié shí

Simultaneous existence in one patient of vacuity and repletion. Rich vacuity and evil repletion occurs when a disease is not treated properly or evil qi is excessively exuberant, or when vacuity of right develops while evil repletion is still present. It may also occur when patients suffering from constitutional vacuity contract an evil and display signs of both vacuity and repletion. Elementary Questions ( wèn) states, ``When evil qi is exuberant, there is repletion; when essential qi is despoiled, there is vacuity.'' In most cases, the right vacuity is the root, whereas the evil repletion is the tip.


qiáng zhí

Severe stiffness, such as of the neck or back.

rigid center

qiáng zhöng


Synonym:  yin protrusion .

Lasting stiff erections with spontaneous discharge of semen or inability to ejaculate. Rigid center has been attributed to excessive consumption of ``elixirs'' containing metals, exuberant internal fire toxin, and to excessive libido causing liver-kidney yin depletion and yang hyperactivity.

Medication:  Enrich yin and drain fire. Use Gypsum and Apricot-Leaved Adenophora Decoction (shí    täng) or Coptis and Pig's Stomach Pill (huáng lián zhü  wán). For exuberant fire and yin vacuity, add Scrophulariae Radix (xuán shën), Ophiopogonis Tuber (mài mén döng), and Rehmanniae Radix Exsiccata seu Recens (shëng  huáng). For debilitation of kidney qi and frenetic stirring of vacuity fire, warm and supplement the kidney origin using Cistanche Pill (cöng róng wán) from A Unified Treatise on Diseases, Patterns, and Remedies According to the Three Causes (sän yïn   bìng zhèng fäng lùn) or Velvet Deerhorn Pill ( róng wán) from The Great Peace Sagacious Benevolence Formulary (tài píng shèng huì fäng) See yang rigidity.

Definition:  A type of dispersion-thirst pattern. see nan75 link up to sexual intemperance}

rigidity of the neck

xiàng qiáng

From Elementary Questions ( wèn) Tension in the muscles of the neck; attributed a) to contraction of wind, cold, or damp evil in the greater yang channel, b) to invasion of disease evil through wounds of the skin and flesh, or c) to damage to yin through loss of blood, great sweating, or great heat~effusion with insufficiency of liquid and blood depriving the sinews of nourishment. Rigidity of the neck is observed in cold damage, wind stroke, tetany, and crick in the neck.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GV, GB, and SI. Main points: GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) , GB-39 (jué , Severed Bone) , and SI-3 (hòu , Back Ravine) ; add points and select appropriate stimimulus according to the cause.

rigidity of the penis

jïng qiáng

yang rigidity.

river point

jïng xué

channel point.



A method of drawing out unwanted oils or irritants from medicinal materials and reducing their toxicity by exposure to heat. Materials are usually wrapped in wet paper or coated in flour and water paste, and then placed in hot embers until the wrapping becomes burnt and black. They may also be put at the side of the fire, in an oven, or tossed in a wok. Myristicae Semen (ròu dòu kòu) and Kansui Radix (gän suì) may be treated in this way.



A hard uneven swelling on the surface of the body, of fixed location, and unassociated with change in skin color. After it has ruptured, it appears like a pomegranate with the skin peeling away, purple in color, giving off a malign odor, acutely painful, and healing readily. See tongue mushroom; cocoon lip; loss-of-luxuriance; mammary rock; kidney rock.

root and tip

biäo bên

Primary and secondary aspects of disease. The word ``root'' is used in opposition to ``tip,'' the two terms being of varying significance according to context. Root refers to the essential nature of the disease, when tip is the signs; the cause of disease, when the tip is clinically observable changes in the body; right qi, when the tip is the evil; or the primary condition, when tip are the resulting secondary condition.

root of earlier heaven

xiän tiän zhï bên

The kidney as the seat of that which is inherited at conception in the fetal origin and which provides the basis for growth, development, reproductive ability, and resistance to disease. The root of earlier heaven stands in complementary opposition to the root of later heaven, which is the stomach and spleen as the source of engendering transformation, i.e., producing from food what is required for the growth, development, and life activity. See earlier heaven; kidney is the root of earlier heaven.

root of later heaven

hòu tiän zhï bên

The spleen and stomach as the source of engendering transformation, i.e., producing from food what is required for the growth, development, and life activity. See spleen is the root of later heaven.

root-severing therapy

jié gën liáo 

picking therapy.




The state of rotting. See putrefaction.

Definition:  A disease characterized by rotting, e.g., foot rot.

rotating supplementation and drainage

niân zhuân  xiè

twirling supplementation and drainage.

rough breathing


Breathing characterized by a rough sound in the nose. Rough breathing generally occurs in repletion patterns and arises when contraction of external evils or exuberant internal phlegm turbidity inhibits qi dynamic. Vacuity patterns are characterized by faint weak breathing and are attributed to lung-kidney qi vacuity. See breathing.

rough pulse


The opposite of a slippery pulse. A pulse that does not flow smoothly, felt to be like a knife lightly scratching bamboo. The rough tends to be somewhat fine, is generally slightly slower than the normal pulse. The Bin-Hu Sphygmology (bïn  mài xué) states, ``The rough pulse is fine and slow, comes with difficulty, is short and scattered, or stops and then returns, at threes and fives, like a knife lightly scratching bamboo, like rain wetting sand, or like sick silkworms eating leaves.'' ( ``at threes and fives,'' san1 wu3 bu4 tiao2, means irregular; ``like rain wetting sand,'' ru2 yu3 zhan1 sha1, refers to splodgy patterns created by raindrops on a smooth sandy surface; ``sick silkworms eating leaves'' bing4 can2 shi2 ye4, refers to the fact that sick silkworms leave irregular edges on leaves after gnawing at them, as opposed to the smooth edges left by healthy silkworms.) The rough pulse is often seen in blood stasis patterns and dual vacuity of blood and qi. A forceful rough pulse indicates repletion, whereas a forceless rough pulse indicates vacuity.

rough tongue fur

cäo täi

A dry tongue fur that is rough to the touch. See dry tongue fur.

rough voidings of reddish urine

xiâo biàn chì 

Scant dark-colored urine passed in short inhibited (disfluent) voidings. Rough voidings of reddish urine are observed in repletion patterns of heat or damp-heat pouring downward.


huí chóng

Synonym:  heart worm disease ;

Synonym:  long worm .

One of the nine worm diseases. See roundworm disease.

roundworm disease

huí chóng bìng

Synonym:  heart worm disease ;

Synonym:  long worm disease .

One of the nine worm diseases. A disease caused by the presence of roundworm in the body; attributed to spleen-stomach vacuity, indiscriminate eating of cold, raw, sweet, and fatty foods, or of unclear gourds, fruits, and vegetables. Roundworm disease is characterized by intermittent abdominal pain. A lump may form at the painful spot, which wriggles up and down. Pain abates when the movement ceases. The face is bright white or mixed yellow and white, sometimes with whitish patches called worm macules. Other signs include emaciation and vomiting of clear water sometimes containing roundworm.

Medication:  Treat principally by expelling worms. If there is spleen-stomach vacuity or accumulation and stagnation, the methods of fortifying the spleen and abductive dispersion may also be applied. Medicinals used to expel roundworm include. Quisqualis Fructus (shî jün ), Meliae Radicis Cortex ( liàn gën ), Toosendan Fructus (chuän liàn ), Artemisiae Cinae Flos et Folium (shän dào nián häo), and Torreyae Semen (fêi ). Formulas include Mume Pill ( méi wán), Worm-Transforming Pill (huà chóng wán), and Myriad Applications Pill (wàn yìng wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on SP, ST, LI, and points for expelling worms. Select , SP-15 ( hèng, Great Horizontal) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and ST-4 ( cäng, Earth Granary) ; needle with drainage.

roundworm gan

huí gän

Gan disease due to persistent worm accumulation. Roundworm gan is characterized by emaciation, disquieted spirit, abdominal pain, knitting of the eyebrows, crying, vomiting of clear fluid, grinding of teeth at night, rapid hungering, and perverted appetite.

Medication:  Expel worms and supplement the spleen, taking care to avoid indiscriminate use of attack (offensive treatment). Initial medication can take the form of Center-Rectifying Roundworm-Quieting Decoction ( zhöng än huí täng), which can be followed by Worm-Transforming Pill (huà chóng wán) or Chubby Child Pill (féi ér wán). For worms coming out of the mouth or nose, use Mume Pill ( méi wán).

roundworm reversal

huí jué

From On Cold Damage (shäng hán lùn) Episodic abdominal pain, vexation and agitation, and reversal cold of the limbs due to roundworm.

Western Medical Concept:  ascariasis*!biliary obstruction*!ascaris intestinal biliary ascariasis, ascaris intestinal obstruction.

Medication:  Quiet and kill roundworm using formula such as Mume Pill ( méi wán). See reversal.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV, LR, and ST. Select CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , LR-13 (zhäng mén, Camphorwood Gate) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , , BL-25 ( cháng shü, Large Intestine Transport) , BL-27 (xiâo cháng shü, Small Intestine Transport) , and ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) . Needle with supplementation and add moxa.

roundworm stomach duct pain

huí dòng wèi wân guân tòng

Stomach pain due to roundworm, characterized by episodes of acute pain associated with somber white complexion, reversal cold of the limbs, and in some cases vomiting of roundworm. Between episodes the complexion is yellow, sometimes with white patches, and despite normal appetite the body is emaciated.

Medication:  The condition can be treated with a decoction of Mume Fructus ( méi), Arecae Semen (bïng láng), and Meliae Radicis Cortex ( liàn gën ).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on alarm and uniting points of ST, PC, SP, and empirical points. Select CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , SP-4 (göng sün, Yellow Emperor) , and ; needle with drainage.

roundworm vomiting


Expulsion of vomitus containing roundworm. Vomiting of roundworm is mentioned in the On Cold Damage (shäng hán lùn) The Zhang's Clear View of Medicine (zhäng shì  töng) states, ``When there is roundworm in the stomach and intestines, if there is cold, or heat, or a cold-heat complex in the stomach and spleen, this can disquiet roundworm, which ascend counterflow to be vomited out. If there is cold, there is reversal cold of the extremities, and the vomited roundworm are pale white in color; for this, use Center-Rectifying Decoction ( zhöng täng) plus Mume Fructus ( méi), Coptidis Rhizoma (huáng lián), and Dichroae Folium (shû ). If there is heat, the vomited roundworm are red and lively; for this, use Roundworm-Quieting Powder (än huí sân). For a cold-heat complex with periodic heart heart vexation, and vomiting after eating, use Mume Pill ( méi wán).

rumbling intestines

cháng míng

Synonym:  borborygmus .

Any sound made by food in the intestines. See also gurgling intestines.

running piglet

bën tún

One of the five accumulations (kidney accumulation). A sensation of upsurge from the lower abdomen to the chest and throat, accompanied by gripping abdominal pain, oppression in the chest, rapid breathing, dizziness, heart palpitations, and heart vexation. This pattern is considered to be one of the five accumulations, and is a result of an upsurging of yin cold qi of the kidney or liver channel qi fire ascending counterflow.

Medication:  For an upsurging of yin cold qi of the kidney, use Cinnamon Twig Decoction Plus Extra Cinnamon (guì zhï jiä guì täng) or Poria (Hoelen), Cinnamon Twig, Licorice, and Jujube Decoction ( líng guì zhï gän câo  zào täng) to warm and dissipate cold evil. For liver channel qi fire ascending counterflow, use Running Piglet Decoction (bën tún täng) to clear the liver and downbear counterflow.

running yellow

zôu huáng

clove sore running yellow.

runny nose


Profuse production of snivel (nasal mucus).

rushing gate

bën mén

The upper orifice of the stomach, i.e., the cardia. One of the seven gates.

rushing respiration


Hasty rapid breathing with qi rushing counterflow upward; the lung accumulation among the five accumulations. Rushing respiration is marked by upward rush of qi, a lump under the left rib-side like an upturned cup, heat~effusion and aversion to cold, oppression in the chest, counterflow retching, and coughing up of blood and pus. In enduring cases, it can develop into a pulmonary welling-abscess .

Medication:  Clear and downbear lung qi; flush phlegm and discharge heat. Use Rushing Respiration Decoction ( bën täng).