Section G



The bowel that stands in interior-exterior relationship with the liver. The gallbladder's main function is to secrete bile, which is formed from an excess of liver qi. The gallbladder is also a curious organ since its bile is considered to be ``clear fluid'' rather than waste. A bitter taste in the mouth may be a sign of gallbladder disease. It is also said that the gallbladder governs decision, which means that the ability to maintain balanced judgment in the face of adversity is attributed to the gallbladder. When gallbladder qi is weak and timid, there are signs such as lack of courage and decision, timidity, doubt and suspicion, and frequent sighing. The ``gallbladder governs decision'' can be interpreted in modern terms to mean that certain aspects of the nervous system are traditionally ascribed in Chinese medicine to the gallbladder. More at gallbladder disease.

gallbladder channel

dân jïng

foot lesser yang gallbladder channel.

gallbladder cough

dân  with vomiting of bile or green-

colored bitter tasting water.

Gallbladder Disease Patterns

gallbladder disease

dân bìng

Any morbidity of the gallbladder. The most common morbidities of the gallbladder are gallbladder heat (or exuberant gallbladder fire), constrained emotions causing inhibition of gallbladder qi, and gallbladder vacuity. Gallbladder disease manifests headache, dizziness, tinnitus, and profuse dreaming. It may also manifest as alternating heat~effusion and aversion to cold, bitter taste in the mouth, retching of bitter fluid, yellow eyes, rib-side pain, and qi fullness in the abdomen and inability to eat, or as dizziness, blurred vision, insomnia, susceptibility to fright and fear, and sighing.

Medication:  Depending on the pattern, treat by draining the gallbladder and clearing heat or by warming the gallbladder and calming the spirit. See gallbladder heat and gallbladder vacuity

gallbladder distention

dân zhàng


Pain and distention below the rib-side, with bitter taste in the mouth, and sighing. Gallbladder distention is usually the result of cold evil affecting the gallbladder.

Medication:  Use medicinals such as Bupleuri Radix (chái ), Curcumae Tuber ( jïn), Citri Exocarpium (chén ), Angelicae Sinensis Radix (däng guï), Poria ( líng), Gardeniae Epicarpium (shän zhï ), Tribuli Fructus (  ), Aurantii Fructus (zhî ), and Albizziae Flos ( huän huä).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, LR, GB, TB, PC, and SP. Select BL-19 (dân shü, Gallbladder Transport) BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) TB-6 (zhï göu, Branch Ditch) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , LR-14 ( mén, Cycle Gate) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , and GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) . Needle with even supplementation and drainage, adding moxa.

Definition:  A distention pattern with the above-mentioned signs.

Medication:  Add gallbladder channel medicinals such as Bupleuri Radix (chái ), Citri Exocarpium Immaturum (qïng ), and Forsythiae Fructus (lián qiào) to the formula that addresses the main distention pattern.

Acupuncture:  Add to the above points ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , needling with drainage and adding moxa.

gallbladder fire sleeplessness

dân huô   

See sleeplessness.

gallbladder governs decision

dân zhû jué duàn

The ability to maintain balanced judgment in the face of adversity is attributed to the gallbladder. Strong gallbladder qi ensures greater invulnerability to such stimuli. When gallbladder qi is weak and timid, fear and fright may lead to disease. See gallbladder vacuity and qi timidity.

gallbladder heat


Heat in the gallbladder arising when evil heat invades the gallbladder channel, causing depression of channel qi. The main signs of gallbladder heat are headache on both sides of the head, pain in the canthi, dizziness, tinnitus, bitter taste in the mouth, dry throat, fullness and pain in the chest and rib-side, and alternating heat~effusion and aversion to cold. Other signs include vomiting of bitter water, vexation and agitation, and irascibility, as well as insomnia. In some cases, there is jaundice. The tongue is red with yellow fur. The pulse is stringlike, rapid, and forceful.

Medication:  Clear heat and disinhibit the gallbladder. Use Sweet Wormwood and Scutellaria Gallbladder-Clearing Decoction (häo qín qïng dân täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GB and LR. Select GB-24 ( yuè, Sun and Moon) , LR-14 ( mén, Cycle Gate) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , and GB-43 (xiá , Pinched Ravine) ; needle with drainage. Selection of points according to signs: For headache add GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , and GB-4 (hàn yàn, Forehead Fullness) . For fullness and pain in the chest, add CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) . For fullness and pain in the rib-side, add TB-6 (zhï göu, Branch Ditch) . For alternating heat~effusion and aversion to cold, add GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) .

Analysis:  The gallbladder channel is the lesser yang channel, which starts at the outer canthus, skirts around the ear, and spreads over the chest. Gallbladder heat is especially associated with signs on this part of the pathway. Signs associated with the gallbladder include alternating heat~effusion and aversion to cold, bitter taste in the mouth, dry throat, and dizzy vision. The gallbladder stands in exterior-interior relationship with the liver, and gallbladder heat patterns are associated with the liver signs.

gallbladder heat profuse sleeping

dân  duö shuì

Increased sleep due to gallbladder repletion heat with phlegm in the chest and diaphragm. Gallbladder heat profuse sleeping is characterized by long periods of sleep between which the patient occasionally gets up. Other signs include ungratifying thought, head clouded and oppressed as though drunken, vexation and congestion in the heart and chest, bitter taste in the mouth, and heavy clouded head and vision.

Medication:  Clear the gallbladder and discharge heat. Use Root Poria Powder ( shén sân).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, HT, SP, LR, GB, and ST. Select BL-19 (dân shü, Gallbladder Transport) , BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , GB-43 (xiá , Pinched Ravine) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , and ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) . Needle with drainage.

gallbladder holds the office of justice, from which decision emanates

dân zhe3, zhöng zhèng zhï guan1, jué duàn chü yän <

gallbladder holds the office of justice> See gallbladder governs decision.

gallbladder jaundice

dân huáng (

yellowing of the skin and eyes) that arises when gallbladder qi is damaged by great fright or fear or through injury from fighting. Gallbladder jaundice is characterized by a greenish-yellow coloring of the skin, and is accompanied by qi fullness or hardness in the chest, no thought of food or drink, and clouded head and fatigue.

Medication:  Treat by supplementing qi with warm sweet medicinals, stemming desertion with sour constraining medicinals, assisted by quieting the spirit with heavy settlers.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, ST, SP, and HT. Select BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-19 (dân shü, Gallbladder Transport) , BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , and GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) ; needle with supplementation and, if appropriate, add moxa. Selection of points according to signs: For qi fullness and hardness in the chest, add CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , and CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) . For no thought of food and drink, add CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) and ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) . See yin jaundice.

gallbladder lacking decisiveness

dân  jué duàn

Failure of the gallbladder's function of governing decision-making. See gallbladder governs decision.

gallbladder pure heat

dân dän

A disease manifesting as bitter taste in the mouth and arising when depressed heat in the gallbladder that fails to be discharged by free coursing flows upward into the mouth. Elementary Questions ( wèn) ``When there is illness marked by bitter taste in the mouth the disease is called `gallbladder pure heat'.''

Medication:  Use formulas such as Gentian Liver-Draining Decoction (lóng dân xiè gän täng).

gallbladder qi vacuity


gallbladder vacuity.

gallbladder qi vacuity and timidity

dân   qiè

insufficiency of gallbladder qi.

gallbladder qi vacuity cold

dân   hán

gallbladder vacuity.

gallbladder repletion

dân shí

Inhibited gallbladder qi characterized by fullness and oppression in the chest and stomach duct, pain and distention in the rib-side, dry mouth with bitter taste, pain in the sides of the forehead and region of the outer canthus.

gallbladder timidity

dân qiè

Synonym:  gallbladder timidity and susceptibility to fright .

Fear in the heart with no courage to face people. This is poorly distinguished from heart vacuity and gallbladder timidity.

gallbladder timidity and susceptibility to fright

dân qiè  jïng <

gallbladder timidity> gallbladder timidity.

gallbladder vacuity


Synonym:  gallbladder vacuity and qi timidity ;

Synonym:  insufficiency of gallbladder qi ;

Synonym:  gallbladder qi vacuity ;

Synonym:  gallbladder qi vacuity cold .

A pattern of gallbladder vacuity and failure of the decision-making capacity. The chief signs are anxiety and indecision, clouded vision, tinnitus and poor hearing, dizzy head, ``timid gallbladder'' (lack of courage) and susceptibility to fright. Other signs include lassitude of spirit, insomnia, sighing, distention and fullness under the rib-side, and sloppy diarrhea. The tongue fur is thin, white, and glossy. The pulse is stringlike, fine, and slow. The Pulse Canon (mài jïng) gives a somewhat different list of signs: ``In gallbladder vacuity dizziness, reversal, wilting, inability to the shake the toes, crippling, inability to sit but not stand, sudden collapse, yellow eyes, seminal emission, and blurred vision.''

Analysis:  The gallbladder governs decision. When this function is impaired, there is anxiety and indecision. The eyes, ears, and rib-side lie on the pathway of the gallbladder channel; gallbladder vacuity is associated with clouded vision, tinnitus, and distention and fullness under the rib-side, and frequent sighing. With the liver, the gallbladder shares signs such as distention and pain in the chest and rib-side, sighing, and a stringlike pulse.

Medication:  Boost qi and warm the gallbladder. Use Ten-Ingredient Gallbladder-Warming Decoction (shí wèi wën dân täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, GB, and HT. Select BL-19 (dân shü, Gallbladder Transport) , BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , GB-40 (qïu , Hill Ruins) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) ; needle with supplementation and moxa. See also gallbladder governs decision. Compare disquieting of heart qi.

gallbladder vacuity and qi timidity

dân   qiè

gallbladder vacuity.

gallbladder vacuity sleeplessness

dân    mián (

insomnia) due to gallbladder vacuity and the presence of evils causing disquietude of the spirit. Gallbladder vacuity insomnia is characterized by waking with a sudden fright or start after falling asleep and is accompanied by heart vexation, heart palpitations, and disquieted spirit.

Medication:  Warm the gallbladder using Gallbladder-Warming Decoction (wën dân täng) or ground stir-fried Ziziphi Spinosi Semen (suän zâo rén) taken with wine.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on HT, GB, and LR. Select , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-19 (dân shü, Gallbladder Transport) , BL-14 (jué yïn shü, Reverting Yin Transport) , GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , and GB-40 (qïu , Hill Ruins) ; needle with supplementation.

gallbladder wind toxin qi

dân fëng  

Wind-toxin qi invading the gallbladder and causing clouded head and profuse sleeping.

galloping gan

zôu  gän

galloping gan of the teeth and gums.

galloping gan of the teeth and gums

zôu   gän

Synonym:  galloping gan .

Rapidly developing gan of the teeth and gums. Galloping gan of the gums begins with soreness, reddening, swelling, and hardening of the edges of the gum, in severe cases with whitening and putrefaction of the gums. The white color of the gum can easily turn black, and exude a purple-black bloody discharge that is accompanied by a foul smell. The ulcerated area is sore and slightly itchy. If the ulceration is deep, the wings of the nose and surrounding area assume a green-blue or brown color. In the worst cases, the lips are affected, the teeth may drop out, the ulceration may pierce the cheeks, and the bridge of the nose may collapse.

Medication:  Clear heat, resolve toxin, and dispel putridity, using Aloe Gan-Dispersing Beverage ( huì xiäo gän yîn). For spleen vacuity, Ginseng and Poria Gruel ren2 shen1 fu2 ling2 zhou1, which consists of Ginseng Radix (rén shën) and Poria ( líng) ground to a powder and cooked as a gruel, may also be taken with the formula.



Synonym:  gan pattern,

gan disease .

Definition:  A disease of infancy or childhood characterized by emaciation, dry hair, heat~effusion of varying degree, abdominal distention with visible superficial veins, yellow face and emaciated flesh, and loss of essence-spirit vitality. Pathomechanically, it essentially involves dryness of the fluids due to damage to spleen and stomach owing to dietary factors, evils, and in particular, worms. Other viscera besides the spleen may be affected, hence there are the five gan (i.e., gan of the heart, gan of the lung, gan of the liver, gan of the spleen, and gan of the kidney). Gan disease is also labeled differently according to the specific area affected, e.g., gan of the brain and gan of the spine. Signs specifically attributed to gan include gan diarrhea, gan dysentery, gan heat~effusion, gan swelling and distention, and gan thirst.

Western Medical Concept:  indigestion*!chronic chronic indigestion* infestation*!parasite parasite infestation* malnutrition; chronic indigestion; parasite infestation.

Definition:  Various kinds of ulcerations and sores, e.g., child eye gan, gan of the teeth and gums, fire gan, lower body gan, and gan of the nose.

gan accumulation



Gan of the spleen.

Definition:  Gan pattern.

gan consumption

gän láo

A severe form of gan of the lung, characterized by bright white complexion, steaming bone tidal heat~effusion, postmeridian reddening of both cheeks caused by spleen-lung vacuity, lassitude of essence-spirit, periodic dry cough and throat diseases, and night sweating. Traditionally, conditions of this nature were considered as consumption in patients over fifteen years of age and gan in patients under fifteen years of age.

Western Medical Concept:  pulmonary tuberculosis* pulmonary tuberculosis.

Medication:  Chinese medicine treats gan consumption by boosting qi and fostering yin, and by supplementing the lung and nourishing the spleen. Representative formulas include Adenophora/Glehnia and Ophiopogon Decoction (shä shën mài döng täng) or Turtle Shell Powder (bië jiâ sân), which can be varied according to need.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LU, SP, ST, KI, and back transport points. Select LU-9 (tài yuän, Great Abyss) , BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-43 (gäo huäng shü, Gao-Huang Transport) , CV-10 (xià wân, Lower Stomach Duct) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-5 (shäng qïu, Shang Hill) , , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) ; needle with supplementation. Selection of points according to signs: For steaming bone tidal heat~effusion, add KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , KI-2 (rán , Blazing Valley) , LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , and LU-10 ( , Fish Border) . For cough and sore pharynx, add LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , and prick LU-11 (shào shäng, Lesser Shang) to bleed. For night sweating, add HT-6 (yïn , Yin Cleft)

gan diarrhea

gän xiè

Gan disease with diarrhea. Diarrhea is a common phenomenon in gan disease, and is related to morbidity of the stomach and spleen.

Medication:  Support the spleen and harmonize the stomach. Use formulas devised to take account of the root and tip of the disease, such as Ginseng, Poria (Hoelen), and Ovate Atractylodes Powder (shën líng bái zhú sân) varied according to signs.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on SP and ST. Select CV-10 (xià wân, Lower Stomach Duct) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-5 (shäng qïu, Shang Hill) , , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , LR-13 (zhäng mén, Camphorwood Gate) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , and BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) . Needle with supplementation and add moxa.

gan disease


See gan.

gan disease ascending to the eye

gän  shàng 

See gan; child eye gan.

gan dysentery


Gan disease complicated by dysentery. Gan dysentery is usually caused by unclean food. Treatment should take account of the guiding principle ``in acute conditions treat the tip; in moderate (i.e., chronic) diseases treat the root'' and ``acting in accordance with personal factors.'' See child dysentery.

gan heat~effusion


Gan disease with heat~effusion. Gan disease is related to insufficiency of the fluids, and hence one common sign is heat~effusion. The fever may be high or low, enduring or short-lived. There may be morning heat~effusion abating in the evening, night heat~effusion abating in the daytime, hot head without hot body, or tidal heat~effusion in the five hearts. Since gan disease can manifest in different patterns, the heat~effusion is explained and treated in different ways.

gan of the bone


gan of the kidney.

gan of the brain

nâo gän

Sores of the head or dryness of the hair in gan disease. Gan of the brain is at root attributable to insufficiency of qi and blood. Although it is called gan of the brain, it is not to be confused with other diseases involving the brain proper.

gan of the heart

xïn gän

One of the five gan; a pattern of depressed heat in the heart channel attributed to breast-feeding difficulties. Gan of the heart is characterized by generalized heat~effusion, yellow face with reddening of the cheeks, mouth and tongue sores, vexing oppression in the chest and diaphragm, thirst and desire for cold drinks, dysentery with stool containing pus and blood, night sweating, grinding of teeth, and susceptibility to fright.

Medication:  Clear the heart and drain fire using formulas such as Heart-Draining Red-Abducting Decoction (xiè xïn dâo chì täng).

gan of the kidney

shèn gän

Synonym:  gan of the bone .

One of the five gan; a pattern of deep-lying heat attributed to breast-feeding difficulties or to insufficiency of kidney qi. Gan of the kidney is characterized by emaciation, blackish complexion, gum sores, upper body heat and lower body cold heat~effusion and aversion to cold, vomiting, reduced suckling, efflux diarrhea with prolapse of the anus in severe cases, ulceration of the anus, often together with signs of insufficiency of kidney qi such nonclosure of the fontanels, slowness to teethe, and slowness to walk.

Medication:  Enrich the kidney and supplement the spleen using Six-Ingredient Rehmannia Pill (lìu wèi  huáng wán) supplemented with other medicinals.

gan of the liver

gän gän

Synonym:  wind gan ;

Synonym:  gan of the sinew .

One of the five gan; a pattern of heat invading the liver channel owing to breast-feeding problems; characterized by emaciation, abdominal distention, green-yellow face, dysentery with frequent defecation and stool containing blood or mucus, shaking of the head and rubbing of the eyes, night blindness, and reluctance to open the eyes.

Medication:  Clear the liver and drain heat with Bupleurum Liver-Clearing Beverage (chái  qïng gän yîn).

gan of the lung

fèi gän

One of the five gan; a pattern of damage to the lung by depressed heat usually stemming from breast-feeding problems. Gan of the lung is characterized by cough, inhibited throat, copious snivel making the child cry, abdominal distention, diarrhea with stool like rice water, reduced suckling, fishy smell in the mouth, dry skin, and emaciated limbs. In some cases, sores under the nose, vigorous heat~effusion, and abhorrence of cold are observed.

Medication:  Clear the lung and drain heat using formulas such as White-Draining Powder (xiè bái sân) supplemented with other medicinals.

gan of the mouth

kôu gän

Gan disease with sores of the mouth. Gan of the mouth is attributed to damp-heat brewing internally and insufficiency of liver yin.

Medication:  Clear heat and disinhibit dampness using Indigo Powder (qïng dài sân) and variations taken orally.

gan of the nose


A disease characterized by redness, itching, and sores of the nose spreading to the lips associated with copious yellow snivel (nasal mucus), dry skin and hair, dry skin, and tidal heat~effusion in the extremities. Gan of the nose is attributed to accumulated upper burner heat scorching and congesting in the lung. In some cases, attributable to damp-heat heat, the sides of the nose are purple, ulcerated, exude pus, and are itchy but not painful.

Medication:  Clear heat and cool the blood with formulas such as Five Happinesses Toxin-Transforming Elixir (  huà  dän). Damp-heat is treated by clearing heat and disinhibiting dampness with Red-Abducting Powder (dâo chì sân) plus Gardeniae Fructus (shän zhï ) and Alismatis Rhizoma ( xiè). Indigo Powder (qïng dài sân) can be applied topically.

gan of the sinew

jïn gän

gan of the liver.

gan of the spine


Gan disease with emaciation of the back and protrusion of the bones of the spine.

gan of the spleen


Synonym:  gan accumulation .

One of the five gan; a condition characterized by a yellow facial complexion, emaciation, ability to take food with rapid hungering, stool sometimes hard sometimes thin, unquiet sleep, copious sweating, grinding of the teeth, and tendency to lie face downward. Spleen gan is attributed to enduring food accumulation and stagnation and spleen-stomach vacuity and malnutrition stemming from breast-feeding difficulties; hence the alternate name gan accumulation.

Medication:  In the early stages, it can be treated by regulating the spleen and stomach using formulas such as Harmony-Preserving Pill (bâo  wán). In advanced stages, there are pronounced signs of gan accumulation such as withered-yellow facial complexion, congestion and oppression in the chest and diaphragm, distention and enlargement of the abdomen, reduced suckling, persistent diarrhea with sour-smelling stool, lassitude of spirit and lack of strength, laziness to speak and reduced physical movement. This can be treated by dispersing gan (accumulation) and fortifying the spleen using formulas such as Chubby Child Pill (féi ér wán) and Ginseng, Poria (Hoelen), and Ovate Atractylodes Powder (shën líng bái zhú sân).

gan of the teeth and gums


A condition of red swollen gums, in severe cases with putrefaction, suppuration, and ulceration, and bleeding. See wind-heat gan of the teeth and gums; green-leg gan of the teeth and gums; galloping gan of the teeth and gums.

gan pattern

gän zhèng

See gan.

gan sore

gän chuäng

lower body gan.

gan swelling and distention

gän zhông zhàng

Gan disease with swelling and distention. Gan swelling and distention is caused by nondiffusion of lung qi, splenic movement and transformation failure, and kidney vacuity.

Medication:  If swelling and distention of the abdomen is accompanied by signs such as qi counter cough and panting, glomus and oppression in the chest and diaphragm, treatment should aim to diffuse the lung and dispel dampness, using Imperial Garden Qi-Evening Powder ( yuàn yún  sân). If kidney qi is insufficient and is unable to dam water causing swelling of the limbs, treatment should focus on disinhibiting water and harmonizing the spleen using formulas such as Five-Peel Beverage (  yîn) or Polyporus Powder (zhü líng sân).

gan thirst


Gan disease with thirst and desire for fluids. Gan thirst is usually caused by stomach heat or insufficiency of the fluids.

Medication:  Stomach heat should be treated by clearing heat and harmonizing the stomach, whereas insufficiency of the fluids should be treated by boosting qi and engendering liquid. Formulas such as Sweet Dew Beverage (gän  yîn) plus Gypsum (shí gäo) and Anemarrhenae Rhizoma (zhï ) to clear heat, or Pulse-Engendering Powder (shëng mài sân) supplemented with additional qi-boosting yin-nourishing medicinals may be used. zydc1286, now qing1 re4 gan1 lu4 yin3}

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on SP and ST. Main points: CV-10 (xià wân, Lower Stomach Duct) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-5 (shäng qïu, Shang Hill) , , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) . For stomach heat, add ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) and LI-4 ( , Union Valley) ; needle with drainage. For insufficiency of the fluids, add TB-2 ( mén, Humor Gate) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , and KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , needling with supplementation.

gan toxin eye

gän  yân

child eye gan.



The region below the heart. See gao-huang.


gäo huäng

The region below the heart and above the diaphragm. When a disease is said to have entered the gao-huang, it is difficult to cure.

gaping gums


Exposure of the roots of the teeth, often associated swelling, bleeding, putrefaction, etc. Gaping gums are usually caused by stomach channel heat accumulation, but especially in the elderly it may be the result of insufficiency of kidney qi.

Western Medical Concept:  periodontitis* periodontitis; gingival atrophy.

Stomach channel heat accumulation:  (wèi jïng  ) When gaping gums is due to stomach heat, they start with swelling of the gums, and as the roots of the teeth become exposed, the gums may bleed, putrefy and suppurate. Associated signs include bad breath, thirst, desire for cool drinks, constipation, slippery rapid pulse, and a thick yellow tongue fur.

Medication:  Stomach heat patterns are treated by clearing the stomach and draining fire with formulas such as Stomach-Clearing Powder (qïng wèi sân) or Jade Lady Brew ( nüê jiän).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on ST and LI. Select ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , and SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , needling with drainage. Also bleed the gums between the teeth.

Insufficiency of kidney qi:  (shèn yïn  ) When due to insufficiency of kidney qi, gaping gums usually appear after loosening of the teeth.

Medication:  Insufficiency of kidney qi is treated by banking up the kidney origin with variations of Six-Ingredient Rehmannia Pill (lìu wèi  huáng wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on KI and LI. Select BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , and LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) ; needle with supplementation and moxa. See gum.

gaping mouth and raised shoulders

zhäng kôu tái jiän

A sign of severe panting in which the patient opens his mouth wide and lifts his shoulders in order to facilitate respiration.



Of or relating to the stomach.

gastric disharmony


disharmony of stomach qi.

gastric dispersion

wèi xiäo

stomach dispersion.

gastric harmonization


harmonizing the stomach.

gastric juices

wèi zhï

stomach yin.

gastric pain

wèi tòng

stomach pain.

gastric stagnation

wèi zhì

stomach qi stagnation.



A combining form meaning ``stomach,'' used in combinations such as gastrointestinal, of or pertaining to the stomach and/or intestines.

gastrointestinal accumulation

cháng wèi  zhì

Accumulation of food in the stomach and intestines.

Comparison:  Gastrointestinal accumulation shares the basic characteristics of food damage (aversion to food, nausea, vomiting or belching (with putrid smelling vomitus or gas), diarrhea or constipation, foul-smelling stool and flatus, relief from pain and distention after defecation or the passing of flatus. However, gastrointestinal accumulation is usually more severe than most cases of food damage, especially with the addition of palpable accumulation lumps in the abdomen, painful distention that refuses pressure, diarrhea with ungratifying defecation, or tenesmus. Causes include excessive consumption, especially of cold, raw, fried, rich, or fatty foods, and ingestion of unclean foodstuffs.

Medication:  Use offensive precipitation in accordance with the principle that ``lodging is treated by attack.'' Both abductive dispersers and offensive precipitants are used. Commonly used formulas include Minor Qi-Coordinating Decoction (xiâo chéng  täng), Unripe Bitter Orange Stagnation-Abducting Pill (zhî shí dâo zhì wán), and Saussurea and Areca Pill ( xiäng bïng láng wán).

gastrointestinal disharmony

cháng wèi  

Any disturbance of the function of the stomach and/or intestine; characterized by any of a variety of signs such as glomus and fullness, nausea, vomiting, belching, hiccough, diarrhea, constipation, etc. Gastrointestinal disharmony is attributable to pathologies of the stomach, spleen, intestines, liver, kidney, and lung.

gastrointestinal harmonization

tiáo  cháng wèi

See harmonizing the stomach and intestines.

gastrointestinal heat bind

 jié cháng wèi

heat binding in the stomach and intestines.

gastrointestinal qi distention

wèi cháng zhàng 

See qi distention.

gate tower


The glabella, or region between the eyebrows.


A type of abdominal lump. See concretions, conglomerations, accumulations, and gatherings.

gathering place of the ancestral sinews

zöng jïn suô 

The anterior yin; the penis. See ancestral sinew.

gathering place of the ancestral vessels

zöng mài suô 

The ears or eyes.

gathering qi


ancestral qi.



Abbreviation for the gallbladder or foot lesser yang gallbladder channel.




generalized heat~effusion


Synonym:  hot body .

A condition in which the whole of the body is is hot. See heat~effusion.

generalized heaviness

shën zhòng

heavy body.

generalized impediment


Generalized wandering pain, heaviness, and numbness due to wind-cold-damp evil invading the blood vessels.

generalized pain

shën tòng

Pain felt in all four limbs, the back, and the lumbus. It may occur in externally contracted disease or when enduring disease causes damage to qi and blood. Generalized aching accompanied by heat~effusion and aversion to cold generally occurs in exterior patterns such as wind-cold fettering the exterior, or damp in the fleshy exterior.

generalized slimy tongue fur

kên täi

See slimy tongue fur.

genital cold

yïn hán

Synonym:  yin cold .

A subjective feeling of cold in the anterior yin (i.e., the external genitals). Genital cold occurs in patterns of vacuity cold of the lower origin, liver channel damp-heat, and damp phlegm pouring downward.

Vacuity cold of the lower origin  (xià yuán  lêng) with congealing of cold qi gives rise to genital cold accompanied by impotence in males and by cold in the abdomen and impaired fertility in women.

Medication:  Warm the kidney and dissipate cold. Use Golden Coffer Kidney Qi Pill (jïn guì shèn  wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV and the three yin channels of the foot. Select CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , and GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa.

Liver channel damp-heat  (gän jïng shï ) can cause coldness of the anterior yin, testicles, and sacrum and coccyx, aversion to cold and liking for warmth, watery sweating of the genitals, limp wilting anterior yin (impotence), and dribble after voiding. Genital cold due to liver channel damp-heat was first recorded in Zhang's Clear View of Medicine (zhäng shì  töng) and is mentioned in some modern texts. The logic of how damp-heat can cause genital cold is obscure.

Medication:  Clear heat and transform dampness with Bupleurum Dampness-Overcoming Decoction (chái  shèng shï täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on SP, LR, and GB. Select LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , GB-43 (xiá , Pinched Ravine) , GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , SI-3 (hòu , Back Ravine) , and KI-7 ( lïu, Recover Flow) ; needle with drainage.

Damp phlegm pouring downward  (shï tán xià zhù) causes genital cold in obese females. Genital cold in women accompanied by itching and continuous vaginal discharge is due to cold-damp.

Medication:  Dry dampness and abduct phlegm with Two Matured Ingredients Decoction (èr chén täng) plus Atractylodis Rhizoma (cäng zhú), Atractylodis Ovatae Rhizoma (bái zhú), Notopterygii Rhizoma (qiäng huó), and Ledebouriellae Radix (fáng fëng). Cold-damp with itching and vaginal discharge is treated by inserting Cnidium Seed Powder (shé chuáng  sân) in the vagina.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV and ST. Select CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) ; needle with drainage. For cold-damp, base treatment mainly on ST and SP. Select ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , and LI-4 ( , Union Valley) ; needle with drainage and large amounts of moxa. Selection of points according to signs: For genital itch, add CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , BL-34 (xià liáo, Lower Bone-Hole) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) . For continuous vaginal discharge, add GB-26 (dài mài, Girdling Vessel) , BL-30 (bái huán shü, White Ring Transport) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , SP-12 (chöng mén, Surging Gate) , and ST-30 ( chöng, Qi Thoroughfare) .

genital erosion

yïn shí

Synonym:  invisible worm sore of the genitals .

From The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (shén nóng bên câo jïng) Erosion of the genitals arising when affect-mind depressed fire damages the liver and spleen, causing damp-heat to pour downward to the lower body, where it lies depressed and steams, thereby engendering worms. Genital erosion is characterized by ulceration of the external genitals exuding pus and blood, possibly with itching and soreness, swelling, and sagging sensation. It is usually associated with red and white vaginal discharge and dribbling urination.

Medication:  Clear heat, disinhibit dampness, and kill worms. Use Fish Poison Yam Dampness-Percolating Decoction ( xiè shèn shï täng). Decoct Itch-Soothing Decoction ( yâng täng) as a steam-wash.

genital sweating

yïn hàn

See yin sweating.

ghost gate

guî mén

Sweat pore.

ghost talk

guî yán

Speaking as if possessed by a ghost.

ginkgo poisoning

bái guô zhòng 

A condition resulting from excessive consumption of raw ginkgo nuts and characterized by heat~effusion, vomiting, diarrhea, fright reversal, convulsions, rigidity of the limbs, green-blue or purple skin complexion, weak chaotic pulse, and in severe cases, coma and death.

Medication:  Take a decoction of 30~g Glycyrrhizae Radix (gän câo) or 30--60~g Ginkgo Testa (bái guô ).

girdling fire cinnabar

chán yäo huô dän

Synonym:  girdling snake cinnabar ;

Synonym:  fire-girdle sore .

A sore on one side of the chest, rib-side, or abdomen characterized initially by pain and reddening of the skin and in advanced stages by blisters containing clear fluid in a long belt formation. It usually starts with a stabbing pain, slight heat~effusion, and fatigue, developing from one side of the trunk, and gradually turning from a bright to a turbid red color. It is attributed to wind-fire in the heart and liver channels, or to spleen-lung channel damp-heat. It usually only affects one side of the body. In older patients, it can last 1--2 months, or even longer.

Western Medical Concept:  herpes zoster* shingles* herpes zoster (shingles).

Medication:  Clear heat, disinhibit dampness, and resolve toxin. In the early stages, with burning pain and itching, take Gentian Liver-Draining Decoction (lóng dân xiè gän täng); if there are blisters, ulceration, and exudation, and severe pain, take Dampness-Eliminating Stomach-Calming Poria (Hoelen) Five Decoction (chú shï wèi líng täng), and apply powdered Realgar (xióng huáng) blended with the juice pressed from Allii Tuberosi Folium (jîu cài).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on points surrounding the affected area, LI, LR, and SP. Select LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , TB-5 (wài guän, Outer Pass) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and points surrounding the affected area; needle with drainage and retain the needles for 30 minutes. Treat twice a day. Selection of points according to patterns: For wind-fire in the heart and liver channels, add HT-8 (shào , Lesser Mansion) , PC-8 (láo göng, Palace of Toil) , GB-43 (xiá , Pinched Ravine) , and LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) . For spleen-lung channel damp-heat, add ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , and LI-4 ( , Union Valley) . Selection of points according to affected area: For the rib-side, add LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , TB-6 (zhï göu, Branch Ditch) and GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) . For anywhere above the waist, add TB-6 (zhï göu, Branch Ditch) , and PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) . For anywhere below the waist, add SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) . Ear acupuncture: Lung , Heart , Spleen , Liver , Spirit Gate , and Sympathetic . If heat is pronounced, add Gallbladder ; if dampness is pronounced, add Stomach . Choose 2--3 points at at time; apply a strong stimulus and retain needles for 20--30 minutes. Treat 1--2 times a day.

girdling snake cinnabar

chän yäo shé dän

girdling fire cinnabar.

girdling vessel

dài mài

Abbreviation: GIV. One of the eight extraordinary vessels; the vessel that encircles the body at the waste. Starting below the lateral tip of the tenth rib, the girdling vessel encircles the trunk like a belt, dipping down into the lower abdominal region anteriorly, and running across the lumbar region posteriorly. The girdling vessel has no points of its own, but it intersects with three points on the foot lesser yang gallbladder channel, GB-26 (dài mài, Girdling Vessel) , GB-27 ( shü, Fifth Pivot) , and GB-28 (wéi dào, Linking Path) . Some books also give LR-13 (zhäng mén, Camphorwood Gate) . This channel serves to bind up all the channels running up and down the trunk, thus regulating the balance between upward and downward flow of qi in the body. (White) vaginal discharge, prolapse of the uterus, abdominal distention and fullness, limp lumbus.


dài mài

Abbreviation for the girdling vessel.


yìn táng

The region between the eyebrows. Also called the gate tower; middle gate tower.

glans penis

yïn tóu

yin head.


A localized subjective feeling of fullness and blockage. In the chest glomus in the chest(), it can be associated with a feeling of oppression in severe cases; hence the terms fullness in the chest, distention in the chest, glomus in the chest, and oppression in the chest are largely synonymous. In the abdomen, glomus is the sensation of a lump that cannot be detected by palpation. , which can be subjectively felt and objectively palpated, is a sign of evil heat with water collecting in the stomach. Any palpable abdominal mass is referred to as glomus lump, although in texts predating On Cold Damage (shäng hán lùn) these were referred to as glomus. Lump glomus in traditional literature are labeled differently, according to shape, behavior, and pathomechanism; see concretions, conglomerations, accumulations, and gatherings; deep-lying beam; strings and aggregations; inquiry; palpation.

glomus below the heart

xïn xià 

Feeling of fullness and oppression, and sensation of blockage below the heart, i.e., in the stomach duct. See glomus.

glomus blockage

  with a sensation of blockage.

See glomus.

glomus in the chest


Synonym:  thoracic glomus .

A localized feeling of fullness in the chest, often associated with oppression. Glomus in the chest is observed in pulmonary welling-abscess , external contraction, heart impediment, and liver qi depression. In pulmonary welling-abscess, it is a manifestation of lung qi congestion and is associated with dull pain and ejection of turbid, fishy-smelling phlegm or pus and blood. In externally contracted wind-cold or wind-heat that has entered the interior before the exterior pattern of heat~effusion and aversion to cold has been resolved it also indicates lung qi congestion. In heart impediment, characterized by dull pain radiating into the shoulder and arm and attacks of gripping heart pain (angina pectoris), glomus in the chest is caused by blood stasis, which can further be observed from stasis speckles on the tongue and interrupted ( jie2 dai4) pulses. Finally, glomus in the chest can be a manifestation of liver qi depression, always readily identifiable by its classic signs---sighing, rib-side distention, menstrual irregularities, and irascibility.

Acupuncture:  CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , and PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , can be selected to treat glomus in the chest. Points may be added on the basis of pattern identification.

glomus lump


Any palpable abdominal mass. These are classified in ancient literature as concretions, conglomerations, accumulations, and gatherings, sometimes being given more specific names as strings and aggregations or deep-lying beam. The presence of a glomus lump invariably heralds pronounced abdominal distention.

Western Medical Concept:  tumor or enlargement of an organ.

glomus qi



One of the five accumulations, the accumulation of the spleen; a prominent mass in the stomach duct shaped like an upturned dish, accompanied by emaciation of the flesh and lack of strength in the limbs, and if persistent, may also be associated with jaundice. Glomus qi is attributable to spleen vacuity and qi depression causing glomus blockage and binding accumulation.

Medication:  Treat by fortifying the spleen and dissipating stagnation. Use Glomus Qi Pill (  wán) from Three Causes Formulary (sän yïn fäng) which contains Aconiti Tuber (chuän  tóu), Aconiti Tuber Laterale ( ), Halloysitum Rubrum (chì shí zhï), Zanthoxyli Pericarpium (huä jiäo), Zingiberis Rhizoma Exsiccatum (gän jiäng), and Cinnamomi Cortex Rasus (guì xïn).

Definition:  Fullness and discomfort in the anterior chest, mostly arising after inappropriate precipitation cold damage when the disease evil fails to disperse and turbid qi gathers and binds.

Medication:  Use Pinellia Heart-Draining Decoction (bàn xià xiè xïn täng) or Unripe Bitter Orange Center-Rectifying Pill (zhî shí  zhöng wán) and variations.

glossy scalp wind

yóu fëng

Synonym:  demon-

licked head .

A disease of sudden onset marked by dryness and falling of the hair in patches leaving the scalp red, smooth, and lustrous, with or without itching.

Western Medical Concept:  alopecia areata* pelade* alopecia areata (pelade).

Medication:  Nourish the blood and dispel wind. Wondrous Response True-Nourishing Elixir (shén yìng yâng zhën dän). Rub slices of Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens (shëng jiäng) on the affected area. For persistent conditions, perform tapping with a seven-star needle once a day.

glossy tongue fur

huá täi

A moist shiny tongue fur. A glossy thin white tongue fur is a sign of cold or cold-damp. A glossy thick white tongue fur is a sign of internally exuberant damp turbidity. A glossy sticky white tongue fur indicates phlegm-damp. A glossy thin yellow tongue fur indicates damp-heat, or an external evil starting to transform into heat and enter the interior before damaging the fluids. A glossy thick yellow tongue fur indicates severe damp-heat or phlegm-heat.



The reduced extract of boiled skins, bone, shells or horns. Glues are hard and even somewhat brittle at normal temperature, their gluey quality only becoming fully apparent when heated. Most are supplementing medicinals. Examples include Asini Corii Gelatinum (ë jiäo), Tigris Gelatinum Ossis (  jiäo), Amydae Carapacis Gelatinum (bië jiâ jiäo), Testudinis Plastri Gelatinum (guï bân jiäo), and Cervi Gelatinum Cornu ( jiâo jiäo).

going alone

dän xíng

See seven relations.


yîng enlargement of the thyroid gland*

Swelling at the front and sides of the neck that moves up and down as the patient swallows. Goiter largely corresponds in Western medicine to enlargement of the thyroid gland. Records of it in Chinese literature first appeared in the 3rd century The disease is mentioned in Zhuang Zi, and in . The latter text states, ``In places of light 輕 water, there is much baldness and many people with goiters,'' which indicates that a connection between goiter, environmental factors, and baldness had been observed. In A Thousand Gold Pieces Prescriptions for Emergencies (bèi  qiän jïn yào fäng) by Sun Si-Miao ( 581--682) of the Tang Dynasty, many formulas contain Algae Thallus (kün ), Sargassi Herba (hâi zâo), and Suis Glandula Thyroidea (zhü ), now all known to be rich in iodine, deficiency of which is now known to be a major cause. A Unified Treatise on Diseases, Patterns, and Remedies According to the Three Causes (sän yïn   bìng zhèng fäng lùn) of the Song classifies goiter into five kinds, stone, flesh, sinew, blood, and qi goiter. is marked by hard, fixed lumps in the neck that feel uneven to the touch. It is accompanied by irascibility, profuse sweating, oppression in the chest, and heart palpitations. In advanced cases, the wind-pipe, gullet, and vocal chords are all subjected to pressure. Stone goiter is attributed to qi depression, damp phlegm, and static blood congealing and stagnating.

Western Medical Concept:  tumor of thyroid* tumor of thyroid.

Medication:  Transform phlegm and relieve depression; move stasis and soften hardness. Use Sargassum Jade Flask Decoction (hâi zâo   täng). Apply Harmonious Yang Decongealing Plaster (yáng  jiê níng gäo) and dab on powdered Asafoetida (ë wèi). is characterized by single or multiple lumps like upturned cups, whose skin color is normal, and that are soft and spongy or firm like steamed bread. This goiter never ruptures. It may be accompanied by rash temperament, profuse sweating, heart palpitations, and oppression in the chest, and is attributed to binding depression damaging the spleen and preventing spleen qi from moving.

Western Medical Concept:  thyroid adenoma* adenoma*!thyroid enlargement of the thyroid gland*!tubercular thyroid adenoma and tubercular enlargement of the thyroid gland.

Medication:  Treat by relieving depression and transforming phlegm, assisted by softening hardness. Use Sargassum Jade Flask Decoction (hâi zâo   täng). Apply Harmonious Yang Decongealing Plaster (yáng  jiê níng gäo) and dab on Cinnamon Bark and Musk Powder (guì shè sân), which comprises Ephedrae Herba ( huáng), Asiasari Herba cum Radice ( xïn), Cinnamomi Cortex (ròu guì), Gleditsiae Fructus Parvus (zhü  zào), Pinelliae Tuber Crudum (shëng bàn xià), Arisaematis Rhizoma Crudum (shëng nán xïng), Moschus (shè xiäng), and Borneolum (bïng piàn). is characterized by a hard lump with green-blue veins lit. sinews knotted like worms. It is attributed to anger qi damaging the liver with effulgent fire and dryness of the blood.

Medication:  Clear the liver and resolve depression; nourish the blood and soothe the sinews (veins). Use Liver-Clearing Aloe Pill (qïng gän  huì wán). is characterized by lumps on the neck with a purple-red coloration of the skin and entangled red thread-like vessels. It is attributed to fulminant liver fire causing the blood to boil and further complicated by contending external evils.

Western Medical Concept:  hemangioma of the neck* hemangioma of the neck.

Medication:  Enrich yin and repress fire; nourish the blood and transform stasis. Use Scutellaria and Coptis Two Matured Ingredients Decoction (qín lián èr chén täng) or combine Sargassi Herba (hâi zâo), Cyclinae (seu Meretricis) Concha Pulverata (hâi  fên), Algae Thallus (kün ), Alismatis Rhizoma ( xiè), Suis Glandula Thyroidea (zhü ), Scutellariae Radix (huáng qín), and Coptidis Rhizoma (huáng lián), with Four Agents Decoction (  täng). is a large lump on the neck, of normal skin coloration. It is soft to the touch and varies in size according with joyful or angry moods. It is attributed to affect-mind depression or to ``water and earth'' (local environmental) factors.

Western Medical Concept:  endemic goiter* endemic goiter.

Medication:  Rectify qi and resolve depression; transform phlegm and soften hardness; fortify the spleen and eliminate dampness. Use variations of Depression-Overcoming Pill (yuè  wán), Four Seas Depression-Soothing Pill ( hâi shü  wán), or Sargassum Jade Flask Decoction (hâi zâo   täng). Analysis of goiter varies considerably. One modern analysis makes a fourfold distinction: qi depression and phlegm obstruction; phlegm bind and blood stasis; exuberant liver fire; and heart-liver yin vacuity.

Qi depression and phlegm obstruction  (  tán ) can cause diffuse symmetrical lumps at the front of the neck that are soft to the touch and have smooth skin. These are accompanied by oppression in the chest, sighing, and scurrying pain in the chest and rib-side.

Medication:  Rectify qi and soothe depression; transform phlegm and disperse goiter. Use Four Seas Depression-Soothing Pill ( hâi shü  wán).

Phlegm bind and blood stasis  (tán jié xuè ) causes goiter characterized by persistent lumps that are hard and noded. There is oppression in the chest, poor intake of food, and stasis speckles or macules on the tongue.

Medication:  Rectify qi and transform phlegm; quicken the blood and disperse goiter. Use Sargassum Jade Flask Decoction (hâi zâo   täng).

Exuberant liver fire  (gän huô kàng shèng) gives rise to soft smooth lumps with heat vexation, profuse sweating, rashness and impatience, baking heat in the face, bitter taste in the mouth, protruding eyeballs, tremors of the extremities, red tongue with yellow fur, and rapid stringlike pulse.

Medication:  Clear the liver and discharge fire; calm the liver and extinguish wind. Use Gardenia Liver-Clearing Decoction (zhï  qïng gän täng).

Heart-liver yin vacuity  (gän xïn yïn ) gives rise to soft smooth lumps accompanied by heart palpitations, heart vexation, reduced sleep, dry eyes, dizzy vision, tremor of the hands, emaciation and lack of strength, and a rapid fine stringlike pulse.

Medication:  Enrich and nourish yin-essence; quiet the heart and emolliate the liver. Use Celestial Emperor Heart-Supplementing Elixir (tiän wáng  xïn dän) or All-the-Way-Through Brew ( guàn jiän).

goose-claw wind

é zhâo zhuâ fëng

ashen nail.

goose-foot wind

é zhâng fëng

A skin disease of the hand characterized by vesicles, itching, and thickening of the skin. Goose-foot wind is caused by wind toxin or dampness invading the skin. In the initial stages, it is characterized by small vesicles and itching. Later, the white skin sheds. When it persists for long periods, the skin becomes thick and rough and tends to crack, especially in winter, and, in severe cases, the nails may thicken, turn gray, and crack.

Western Medical Concept:  tinea manus* eczema rhagadiforme* tinea manus and eczema rhagadiforme.

Medication:  Use Vinegar Soaking Formula ( pào fäng). This formula is is made by soaking Schizonepetae Herba et Flos (jïng jiè), Ledebouriellae Radix (fáng fëng), Lycii Radicis Cortex (  ), Carthami Flos (hóng huä), Gleditsiae Fructus (zào jiá), Hydnocarpi Semen ( fëng ), and Alumen (bái fán) in vinegar for three or four days. The formula is applied by soaking the affected parts for half and hour each evening (each batch can be used for two weeks).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LI, SI, and PC. Select LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , SI-3 (hòu , Back Ravine) , PC-8 (láo göng, Palace of Toil) , HT-8 (shào , Lesser Mansion) , PC-7 ( líng, Great Mound) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , and . Needle with drainage.

goose-mouth sore

é kôu chuäng

Synonym:  snow mouth .

A mouth disease in the newborn, caused by accumulated heat in the spleen and heart channels and characterized by ulceration of the mouth, white scales all over the tongue, sore mouth and tongue, and, in severe cases, vexation and agitation. This disease is one form of fetal heat.

gourd tongue

páo shé

phlegm pouch.



To control or be closely associated with. Early texts commonly use political government as a source of metaphors to express physiological activity and relationships. For example, The Inner Canon (nèi jïng) states, ``The stomach and spleen hold the office of the granaries; they manage the five flavors i.e., food.'' Thus, ``the stomach governs intake of food'' and ``the spleen governs movement and transformation of the essence of grain and water.''

governing complexion


See right complexion.

governings of the five viscera

 zàng suô zhû

Synonym:  five governings .

The specific parts of the body governed by the viscera. The heart governs the vessels; the lung governs the skin and body hair; the liver governs the sinew; the spleen governs the flesh; the kidney governs the bone. Note that the flesh overlaps the category of the sinews, and therefore these are not strict anatomical categories. See sinew.

governing vessel


GV. One of the eight extraordinary vessels; a vessel whose main pathway ascends the spine, and whose main function is regulate the yang channels. The governing vessel has four courses. According to The Magic Pivot (líng shü) the main course of this vessel originates in the pelvic cavity. Emerging in the perineum at CV-1 (huì yïn, Meeting of Yin) , it then passes posteriorly to GV-1 (cháng qiáng, Long Strong) at the tip of the coccyx. From this point, it ascends along the spine to GV-16 (fëng , Wind Mansion) in the nape of the neck. It enters the brain and ascends to the vertex, emerging at GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) and continuing forward along the midline to the forehead, running down the nose and across the philtrum to terminate in the upper gum. The second channel starts in the lower abdomen and runs down through the genitals into the perineal region. From here it passes through the tip of the coccyx, where it diverts into the gluteal region. Here it intersects both the leg lesser yin kidney channel and the leg greater yang tai4 yang2 bladder channel before returning to the spinal column. It then travels up the spine and links through to the kidney. A third path starts at the same two bilateral points as the foot greater yang bladder channel at the inner canthi of the eyes. The branches rise up over the forehead to meet at the vertex. The channel then enters the brain and splits into two channels that descend along opposite sides of the spine to the waist, to join with the kidney. The fourth path starts in the lower abdomen, travels up past the navel, continues upward to join with the heart, then enters the throat, crosses the cheek, splits into two and rounds the lips, and runs up the cheek to the center of the infraorbital region. The governing vessel is the sea of the yang channels. All six yang channels converge at the point GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) . The governing vessel has a regulating effect on the yang channels, so it is said that it governs all the yang channels of the body. The governing vessel homes to the brain and nets the kidney. The kidney engenders marrow and the brain is known as the ``sea of marrow.'' Therefore, the governing vessel reflects the physiology and pathology of the brain and the spinal fluid, as well as their relationship with the reproductive organs. Arched-back rigidity, pain and stiffness in the back, child fright reversal, heavy-headedness, hemorrhoids, infertility, malaria, mania and withdrawal, and visceral agitation (mental disorders).



The (organ) that governs.

grain and water



grandchild network vessel

sün luò

Synonym:  grandchild vessel .

Any of the finer network vessels. The Magic Pivot (líng shü) states, ``The channels are in the interior; the lateral branches are the network vessels; the branches of the network vessels are the grandchildren.'' See network vessel.

grandchild vessel

sün mài

grandchild network vessel.

grand cleft


The depression between the nose and the upper lip. In Western medicine, this is called the nasolabial groove or sulcus nasolabialis.

grande piqure


great needling.



Some hard, bony materials such as Antelopis Cornu (líng yáng jiâo), and Rhinocerotis Cornu ( jiâo) are grated in small particles using a steel rasp.

graying of the hair


Partial or complete whitening of the hair in youth or middle age; attributable to liver-kidney depletion and insufficiency of yin-blood depriving the hair of nourishment.

Medication:  Enrich the liver and kidney; boost qi and nourish the blood. Use Flowery Knotweed Life-Extending Elixir (shôu  yán shòu dän) or a decoction of pure Polygoni Multiflori Radix ( shôu ). Mulberry Paste (säng shèn  gäo) can be taken as a regular drink.

greater abdomen


The part of the abdomen above the umbilicus.

Western Medical Concept:  upper abdomen.

greater yang

tài yáng


The hand greater yang small intestine and foot greater yang bladder channels. Greater yang is the exuberance of yang qi. The greater yang channels are the most exterior of all the yang channels, and are most susceptible to contraction of external evils; hence it is said that ``greater yang governs openness.''

Definition:  temple.

greater yang bowel disease

tài yáng  bìng

In six-channel pattern identification, disease of the bladder. Greater yang bowel patterns arise when evil passes into the bladder, which is the bowel of the greater yang. Distinction is traditionally made between water amassment and blood amassment patterns. Blood amassment is characterized by smaller-abdominal pain and distention, and manic states. It is distinguished from the water amassment by uninhibited urination. However, according to Medical Insights ( xué xïn ) tou wei2}, 外關}}, 合谷}}, 妍屈}, nd 京骨}}. EINITION Heahe haraterized by pain on the path of the greater yang ai4 yang2} channel, i.e., one that runs over the vertex and that is aociated with stifnes of the neck, bk, and lumb. EDICATION ormula ued to treat it often contain 泖} nd 麻開}, which at a condtors. CUPUNCTUR Select 天柱}}, 仍挻}, 艱}, nd 昆侖}}. See ahe}. ] ] 54] ] ater yin} E The hand greater yin ai4 yin1} lung nd oot greater yin ai4 yin1} pleen channels. Greater yin is charaterized by an exuerance of yin qi. Among the yin channels the greater yin are the most closely aociated with the exterior; hence it is sid that `greater yin governs opening.'' ] ater yin channel} E See ater yin}. ater yin diseae} E Greater yin diseae is charaterized by aominal fllnes with periodic pain, vomiting, diarrhea nonmovement of ingested food aence of thirst, and a weak, moderate pulse. The pathomechanism of greater yin diseae is filure of movement and transormation of the food reslting from devitaliztion of pleen yang, and manifesting a vomiting and diarrhea. The aominal istention is explained by pleen vaity qi stagnation, wherea the aominal pain reslts from vaity cold. Although it rarely ocrs naturally in the progresion of externally contrated heat (febrile) diseaes it may arise when incorrect treatment of yang diseaes sh a inappropriate precipitation in greater yang ai4 yang2} nd leser yang ao4 yang2} iseae, or excesive ue of cold and ool freeing precipitants in yang brightnes ang2 ming2} diseae, mages spleen yang. It may also ocr when, owing to a regular spleen qi vaity, cold evil enters the greater yin directly. This is known a a direct strike on greater yin. ike the yang brightnes bowel pattern, greater yin diseae is a digestive trat diseae, bt presents a vaity rather than a repletion. It is haraterized by vomiting, iarrhea ence of thirst, vaity fllnes and pain, and weak, moderate pulse, wherea yang brightnes bowel patterns are identified by the presence of onstipation, thirst, great repletion and llnes and a snken replete pulse. It is sid `Greater yin diseae is ociated with vaity, and yang brightnes diseae is aociated with repletion.'' EDICATION Since greater yin ai4 yin1} iseae is attribtale to dmage to pleen yang by cold it is treated by warming the center and disipating cold nd by restoring the correct and fortifying the spleen. The principal formula is . Where interior cold is pronounced is ued which is the sme formula with the aition of 附子}}. ] ] ] COMMENT ater yin heahe} E aprf ttribted to phlegm-dmp encmbering the spleen and preventing the normal upbearing of clear yang. Greater yin heahe is charateristiclly attended by heavy-heaednes opiou phlegm, generalized heavines and in some es ominal pain and fllnes nd is aociated with a moderate snken pulse. EDICATION Dry dmpnes and transorm phlegm ing . CUPUNCTUR Bae treatment mainly on CV and ST. Select 頭維}}, 太開}, 尤E}}, 足T里}}, 合谷}}, nd 豐開}; needle with drainage. or aominal pain and fllnes 天樞}}, 氣海}}, nd 內關}}. See ahe}. ] COMMENT PY at heat~b} E High fever in either exterior or interior patterns. or example, book tates If there is sweating and panting nd aence of great heat~b one cn give . ] ] PY at heat in the qi apect} E The equivalent in octrine of warm diseaes of the yang brightnes ang2 ming2} channel pattern in the doctrine of cold dmage. See apect pattern}; ang brightnes channel pattern}. ] at needling} E N ande piq One of the needling method}; n apuncture method involving the deep needling of channel points on the side of the body opposite to the side aected. It is normally ued to treat diseae of the channels. Compare needling}, which involves the shallow needling of network vesels on the opposite ide of the body. See also of contralateral points}. 84] at network vesel of the spleen} E A large network vesel that branches of directly from the spleen, ises at 丰]}}, nd disperses over the chest and rib-side. 8] 5] 561] at network vesel of the stomah} E A large network vesel that branches direct from the stomah, paes up the tomah, traverses the diaphragm, and ater connecting with the lung, turns outward to exit below the left breat, at the picl pulse li3}, roughly corresponding to 乳根}}. ] at numbing wind} E al wind}. at qi} E The qi of the environment, air. ] at respiration} E EINITION eriodic extended exhalation to relieve oppresion in the chest. In normal people one inhalation and one exhalation forms one respiration'' equl to four beats of the pulse. When every fourth respiration is a deep inhalation equl to five beats of the pulse, this is clled `intermittent great respiration.'' EINITION ] 54] 8] at seminal disharge} E Continuou seminal eflux; the most severe form of minal los.} NOR at sweating} E The flow of sweat in large amounts. Great sweating in yang collapse is clled sweating}; great sweating de to inappropriate weating (diaphoresis) is clled aking sweat}. See both these entries and weating}. ] at sweating} E One of the greatneses} ociated with yang brightnes ang2 ming2} hannel patterns. See weating}. ] PY at vexing thirst} E One of the greatneses} ociated with yang brightnes ang2 ming2} channel patterns. ] at wind} E al wind}. blue} E Green, blue, or greenish blue. This color is claiclly desribed the color of new shoots of gra'' t in context of the complexion, for example, it is more often than not a color that would be more naturally desribed in English a blue. NGL blue fe} E blue fial complexion}. blue fial complexion} E N blue fe}. A sign of wind-cold blood stais pain, and qi-block patterns. Child fright wind and epilepsy re charaterized by a somber green-blue complexion. A grayish green-blue complexion with green-blue or purple lips is ociated with internal blood stais and impaired flow of qi and blood nd ocrs in iseaes claified in Western medicine a cirrhosis of the liver and crdia ilure. In severe wind-cold heahes and aominal pain de to interior old impeded flow of yang qi may be reflected in a bluish somber white omplexion. In ces of blocked lung qi, a drk green-blue or purple omplexion may reslt from obtruted flow of blood and qi. This correspond to conditions sh a pulmogenic heart diseaes and aphyxia in Western medicine. ] No.~72] blue vaginal disharge} E See channel dmp-heat vaginal disharge}; amp toxin vaginal disharge}. 5] ] blue wind} E blue wind internal obtrution}. 53] 506] ] blue wind internal obtrution} E N blue wind}. A diseae of the eye in which the pupil takes on green-blue color and is sometimes dilated aompanied by a fint red areola rrounding the drk of the eye (ciliary congestion). Green-blue wind internal obtrution is aompanied by mild distention in the hea mild aversion to light and tearing, nd gral ecreae in visl aity. If appropriate treatment is not given, it cn turn into wind internal obtrution}. It is ced by liver-kidney yin vaity with wind-fire haraing the upper body. EDICATION Nourish yin and clear heat; lm the liver and extinguish wind. Use formula like . 5] herb} E resh medicinal plant prodts lly picked in the wild. See bl medicinal}. NOR gan of the teeth and gums} E Gan of the teeth and gums aompanied by green-blue swelling of the lower limb. Green-leg gan of the teeth and gums is attribted to cold-dmp qi stagnating in the channels cing inhibited flow of qi and blood and reslting in stais in the lower body. With depresed heat in the stomah and intestines heat toxin srges upward to orch the teeth and gums cing sore swollen gums and gral lceration, putreftion, and bleeding. In severe ces the ulceration cn pierce the cheek and sprea to the lips wherea the green-blue coloring of the legs forms into pronounced clou-like patches the color of eggplants with painfl hard swelling of the sinews and flesh that makes walking dificlt. C wmndx rvy. EDICATION Disipate cold quicken the network vesels and resolve toxin. Use formula sh a . See an of the teeth and gums}. 54] COMMENT water pouring into the eye} E wind internal obtrution}. wind} E wind internal obtrution}. 858] 506] 539] wind internal obtrution} E NS wind}; water pouring into the eye}. A diseae of the eye in which the pupil becomes turbid and light green in color, cing los of visl ity and giving lights the appearance of being srrounded by rainbow-like halo. Other signs inclue distended pain stretching into the eye sockets forehea nose and w, naea and vomiting, and fint red areola srrounding the drk of the eye (ciliary congestion). Green wind internal obtrution is ced by liver-gallblaer wind-fire haraing the upper body, or hyperativity of yang de to yin vaity and disharmony of the qi and blood. C wmndx glaoma. EDICATION Clear heat, clm the liver, and extinguish wind. Use nd variations. Alternatively, it n be treated by enriching water and moistening wood with nd variations. See also w wind internal obtrution}. 885] my} E Dirty, turbid and unclean (in appearance); pplied to tongue fr nd ial complexion. See fr} nd my fe}. NGL my fe} E rom book. A fial complexion that looks irty a if covered with dt and grime that cnnot be wahed away. Grimy fe is ully attribted to contration of smmerheat evil, tomah heat sweltering upward or to internal amulation and stagnation. ] ] 85] COMMENT my tongue fr} E A dirty-looking tongue coating. It indictes on the one hand the presence of turbid evils sh a turbid dmp and turbid phlegm, and on the other, tomah qi vaity. In stomah qi vaity attention mut be paid to egurding stomah qi when dispelling the evil. ] ] b a 磨}} E edtion to powder in pestle and mortar. 色}}innar} nd 珍珠}} re procesed in this way. NOR of the teeth} b b b b of the teeth} E N bruxism}. Involuntary grinding of the teeth, especially in sleep. In children, it is a ign of stomah heat, intestinal paraites or gan amulation. 5] pain} E A pain over a large area that feels a if the aected area is being wrung or gouged. Gripping pain is ttribtale to tangible evils or congealing cold nd is oberved in heart pain de to heart blood stais obtrution, maller aominal or lumbr pain de to stone strangury, or tomah dt pain and aomen in worm reversl}. See ain}. ] pain in the aomen} E Acte wringing or ctting pain over a large area of the aomen. Gripping pain in the aomen oberved in worm reversl} nd heat cholera. See pain}. NOR E The depresion between the lower aomen and the thigh. ] in the air and pulling at invisible strings} E See at bedlothes}. E Severe obesity. NOR E EINITION Toxin of poisonou (insects reptiles etc.) maging the liver and spleen nd ing blockage of the network vesels nd manifesting in the form of rum distention (gu distention). EINITION Sexul taxation in males. EINITION eser-aominal heat pain with white turbid urine. EINITION oison erived from insects ed in ancient times to harm others mentioned in the booknib. ] ] 56] 50] a-sha} E N and sraping}. A method of treating repletion heat and} a} distention patterns whereby the skin on the bk, limb and other parts of the body is luricted and then sraped with ceramic spoon, the edge of a rice bowl, or similar obect (purpose-mae srapers are availale). ETHOD The area to be treated is first luricted with oil sh a sesme oil, or noways often petroleum jelly (Veline). The area is sraped until the red papules ecome flly visible and coalese. Gu-sha is ully applied to the bk. Here, the area either side of the spine is sraped working from shoulders downward. The papules may then be pricked with a three-edged needle to drain lakish purple blood and llow the the nd toxin to espe. or the hea forehea elbows wrists legs and knees etc., lax yarn or hair dipped in sesme oil cn be ued. Soft parts of the aomen may be rued with slt. More at and} a}. 81] ] distention} E EINITION m distention}. EINITION aprf e to gu toxin. EINITION Simple aominal distention. ] m} b m} E The flesh srrounding the teeth. The upper gum belongs to the oot yang brightnes ang2 ming2} stomah channel, wherea the lower gum belongs to the hand yang brightnes large intestine channel. Gum problems inclue: aneou bleeding of the gums}; aping gums}; an of the teeth and gums}; alloping gan of the teeth and gums}; COMMENT bone trough wind}. tterns in which gum problems may ocr inclue berant stomah heat}; yin vaity}; filing to manage the blood}; at yang}; enveloping fire}; at}. intestines} E Severe rumbling intestines. NOR toxin} E Ancient diseae name denoting variou severe conditions that have been equted with sru typhu hronic blood fluke infestation, evere hepatitis irrhosis of the liver, nd evere billary or amebic dysentery of modern medicine. wmndx wmndx wmndx wmndx wmndx wmndx wmndx wmndx ] ] 57] E Abreviation for the governing vesel. al diseaes} E See women's diseaes}. P