Section N


zhî jiâ

The horny plate at the end of each finger and toe. See nails are the surplus of the sinews.

nail press needle insertion

zhâo zhuâ qiè jìn zhën 

See finger-press needle insertion.

nails are the surplus of the sinews

zhâo wéi jïn zhï 

Both the nails and the sinews are associated with the liver. When the sinews are healthy, the nails are hard and supple. When the sinews lack strength, the nails are thin and weak. See also liver, its bloom is in the nails.

nasal congestion


Blockage of the nose impairing the sense of smell. Nasal congestion is attributed to nondiffusion of lung qi due wind-cold or wind-heat. In wind-cold patterns, it is attended by heat~effusion, aversion to cold, headache and generalized pain, white tongue fur, and a floating pulse. In wind-heat patterns, it is accompanied by heat~effusion, thirst, and runny nose with turbid snivel (nasal mucus). Nasal congestion is also a principal sign of nasal polyp.

Medication:  Treat wind-cold patterns by coursing wind and dissipating cold with Apricot Kernel and Perilla Powder (xìng  sân). Treat wind-heat patterns by coursing wind and clearing heat with Mulberry Leaf and Chrysanthemum Beverage (säng  yîn). For external treatment, insufflate powdered Gleditsiae Fructus (zào jiá), Asiasari Herba cum Radice ( xïn), Magnoliae Flos1 (xïn ), Zanthoxyli Pericarpium (huä jiäo), and Aconiti Tuber Laterale ( ).

Acupuncture:  Main points: LI-20 (yíng xiäng, Welcome Fragrance) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , GV-23 (shàng xïng, Upper Star) , and GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) . Selection of points according to pattern: For wind-cold, add TB-5 (wài guän, Outer Pass) and LU-7 (liè quë, Broken Sequence) , needling with drainage and adding moxa. For wind-heat, add GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) and LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) . Needle with drainage and prick LU-11 (shào shäng, Lesser Shang) to bleed.

nasal inoculation


Inoculation against smallpox by introducing fluid or scab matter from pox sores into the nose of healthy individuals. This discovery was made in the Ming Dynasty between the years 998 and 1022. See smallpox.

nasal insufflation

The blowing of powdered medicinals into the nose. For example, chronic paranasal sinusitis deep-source nasal congestion() can be treated with an insufflation of calcined and ground Pseudosciaenae Otolithum ( nâo shí) together with a little Borneolum (bïng piàn) into the nose. Common cold with nasal congestion can be treated by insufflating finely ground Centipedae Herba cum Radice (é  shí câo).

nasal mucus


nasal orifices


The nostrils as a orifices.

nasal passages


The nostrils and nasal cavity.

nasal polyp


Synonym:  nose pile .

A growth inside the nose, causing blockage of the airways, and, in severe cases, deformation of the nose. Nasal polyps arise when wind, dampness and heat stagnate in the lung channel.

Medication:  Magnolia Flower Powder (xïn  sân).

natural moxibustion

tiän jîu

medicinal-induced blister moxibustion.

nature and flavor

xìng wèi

qi and flavor.

nature-preservative burning

shäo cún xìng

nature-preservative calcination.

nature-preservative calcination

See char-frying.


ê xïn

The desire to vomit. Nausea normally portends vomiting; like vomiting, it is a sign of stomach qi ascending counterflow, which can arise in a variety of stomach disorders including stomach vacuity and cold, heat, dampness, phlegm or food stagnation in the stomach.

Medication:  Use the method of harmonizing the stomach and rectifying qi. Combine it with warming the center for stomach cold, with draining fire for stomach heat, with drying dampness and transforming phlegm for phlegm-damp, and with abducting dispersion for food stagnation. See vomiting. Compare upflow nausea.

nausea and vomiting

ê xîn ôu 

Desire to vomit and actual vomiting. See nausea; vomiting.




néng jìn qiè yuân

Ability to see close but not distant objects clearly. Nearsightedness is attributed to superabundance of yin and insufficiency of yang, or to congenital causes.

Medication:  Supplement the liver and kidney using Long Vistas Pill (zhù jîng wán) or Mind-Stabilizing Pill (dìng zhì wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points and local points. Select BL-1 (jïng míng, Bright Eyes) , BL-2 (zân zhú, Bamboo Gathering) , ST-1 (chéng , Tear Container) , GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , and GB-37 (guäng míng, Bright Light) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage. For young people, plum-blossom needle therapy can be effective. Base treatment mainly on back of the neck and around the eyes, selecting points such as BL-1 (jïng míng, Bright Eyes) , ST-1 (chéng , Tear Container) , GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) , and PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) . Tap each point 20-30 times with medium force in alternate-day sessions in two week courses.


jîng xiàng

The part of the body that joins the head to the trunk. Morbid changes in the neck include goiter, scrofula, phlegm node, and mouth-level nape flat-abscess. If these are soft to the touch, the pattern is generally one of binding depression of phlegm and qi. If the nodes are hard to the touch and static, the pattern is one of congealing stagnation of qi and blood. Conspicuous throbbing of the man's prognosis pulse (at the common carotid artery) accompanied by cough, panting, or water swelling, generally indicates heart-lung qi vacuity or heart-kidney yang vacuity.

neck bone


The cervical spine.



Any instrument, usually of metal, used to puncture the skin and flesh in acupuncture. The most commonly used type of needle in modern acupuncture is the filiform needle, which is a modern finer version of the filiform needle that figured among the nine needles of antiquity. Other commonly used needles include the plum-blossom needle and the three-edged needle.



To puncture with a needle as in acupuncture. To perform acupuncture.

needle breakage

zhé zhën

Breaking of an acupuncture needle below the skin; usually occurs with eroded, chipped or otherwise damaged needles in patients who move unduly after needle insertion. Ensure that the patient maintains the same posture and remove the broken needle with pincers if possible. If this is to no avail, surgical intervention may be necessary.

needle-driving method


See qi-moving technique.

needle embedding

mái zhën

needle implantation.

needle extraction

chü zhën

Removing acupuncture needles from the flesh. Needle extraction is performed according to the following guidelines: Rotate the needle slightly as it is withdrawn to prevent its adhesion to body tissues. Withdraw the needle to just below the skin and then retain it at this depth for a few seconds before it is fully withdrawn. This procedure will generally prevent bleeding and reduce post-needling pain. After withdrawing the needle, wipe the point with an alcohol-soaked cotton swab. Withdraw needles inserted in the eye region slowly and carefully.

needle flicking

tán zhën

A needle manipulation involving the flicking of the handle of an acupuncture needle as a method of obtaining qi.

needle implantation

mái zhën

Synonym:  needle embedding .

The embedding or implantation of intradermal needles such as wheat-grain or thumb-tack needles in the skin for extended periods. The needles are retained from 1 to 3 days---shorter periods in warm weather, and longer periods in cold weather. The patient should be encouraged to keep the area of insertion clean to avoid infection. These needles are generally inserted in the back or limbs and treat various types of chronic, stubborn, or painful diseases such as headache, hemilateral headache, back pain, stomach pain, ribs-side pain, sprained ankles, hypertension, wheezing and panting, menstrual irregularities, deviated eyes and mouth, enuresis, frequent urination, and impediment .

needle insertion

jìn zhën

The introduction of an acupuncture needle into the body. There are various different insertion techniques, most of which involve the use of both hands. techniques include finger-press needle insertion, skin-pinching needle insertion, skin-spreading needle insertion, and tube insertion. There is also a single-handed needle insertion. Needles may inserted at different angles. See oblique insertion; perpendicular insertion; transverse insertion.

Needle Insertion

needle manipulation technique

zhën  shôu  manipulation.

Any manual movement of an acupuncture needle. See entries listed below.

Needle Manipulation Techniques

needle-picking therapy

tiäo zhën liáo 

picking therapy.

needle pounding

dâo zhën

Synonym:  pounding .

A needle manipulation technique whereby the needle, after insertion, is repeatedly raised and thrust between two levels of the flesh. Needle pounding differs from lifting and thrusting by absence of variation in speed between retraction and thrusting and by a shorter span of movement. It produces even supplementation and drainage, whereas lifting and thrusting is normally used to supplement or drain.

needle removal

chü zhën

The removal of an acupuncture needle from the body. One hand is placed close to the needle to hold the site firm, while the other lifts the needle, usually twirling it to facilitate movement.

needle retention

líu zhën

Leaving acupuncture needles in place for a certain time after insertion. In modern practice needles are often left in place for a period ranging from several minutes to two hours depending on the particular condition. This allows for application of other stimulation methods such as warming the needle, electrical stimulation, or intermittent manipulation. Often needles are retained with little or no additional manipulation. Needle retention in general can increase the ability of a point to relieve pain and quiet the spirit. Some specific treatments require needle retention to achieve satisfactory results. For example, treatment of intestinal welling-abscess (appendicitis) or panting generally involves the retention of needles for at least half an hour. The patient must be instructed not to move while the needles are in place. Pain resulting from a change in posture can be relieved by withdrawing the needle to a level just beneath the skin, and then reinserting it to its proper depth.

needle retraction

tuì zhën

The lifting of an inserted needle so that the point of the needle approaches but does not leave the skin.

needle rotation

zhuân zhën

Synonym:  needle twirling .

A needle manipulation technique whereby, after insertion, the needle is turned in alternating directions by rubbing it between the thumb and index finger. Needle rotation is used during needle insertion and withdrawal to facilitate the vertical movement of the needle, and otherwise to provide supplementation or drainage. See rotating supplementation and drainage.

needle scratching


Scratching the handle of the needle upward or downward with the finger nail after insertion to encourage the obtaining of qi and intensify the needle sensation.

needle sensation

zhën gân

The physical sensation felt in response to needling.

needle sickness

yün zhën

Sickness induced by acupuncture treatment and characterized by dizziness, vomiting, oppression in the chest, somber white complexion, fixed eyes and torpid spirit, and, in severe cases, cold sweating and reversal cold in the limbs. Needle sickness is usually the result of of excessively strong needle manipulation in persons who are unused to acupuncture treatment, are nervous, tired, hungry, or in a weak state of health. Remove all the needles and allow the patient to lie flat. When the patient is fully conscious, he or she can be given a warm drink with cookies. In more severe cases, it may be necessary to needle GV-26 (rén zhöng, Human Center) with PC-9 (zhöng chöng, Central Hub) or ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) .

needle twirling

niân zhën

needle rotation.

needle twisting

cuö zhën

Synonym:  unidirectional twirling .

A needle manipulation technique whereby the needle, after being inserted, is twisted in one direction as cotton is twisted to make a thread. This method produces a strong needle sensation. It should be applied gently without excessive force to prevent the needle tip catching on the flesh, which can cause pain.

needle waggling

yáo zhën

A needle manipulation technique whereby, after insertion of the needle, the acupuncture point is held firmly with one hand, while the body of the needle is moved to and fro with the other hand.

nest of essence



The place where essential qi is stored.

Definition:  The eye socket.



Synonym:  connect .

To link; of channels, to link up with the exterior organ corresponding to the governing viscus, e.g., the hand greater yin lung channel ``nets'' the large intestine.

netting and homing

luò shû

The connection between channels and their associated organs. For example, the foot yang brightness stomach channel ``homes'' to the stomach and ``nets'' the large intestine, the organ that stands in exterior-interior relationship with the stomach. See net.

network point

luò xué

The point at which a network vessel separates from its main channel is the network point of that channel. For example, the network vessel of the hand reverting yin pericardium channel splits from the main channel at PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , thus PC-6 is the network point of the pericardium channel. Each channel that possesses its own points has a network point; thus each of the twelve regular channels and the governing and controlling vessels have network points. Two network vessels are associated with the spleen: the spleen network vessel, and the great network vessel of the spleen. Each of these has a network point. Hence there are in total fifteen network points. In addition, Elementary Questions ( wèn) also mentions the great network vessel of the stomach, Vacuous Li as a network point; hence there is also a doctrine of sixteen network vessels and sixteen network points. See the list below.

Application:  Treatment of internally-externally coupled organs: When a viscus and its related bowel are both affected by disease, it is usual to needle the network point of the channel of the more seriously or chronically affected organ. For example, a patient who presents with signs of lung and large intestine disease can be treated by the network point of either the lung or the large intestine, depending on which organ is more seriously involved. This application includes treatment of diseases that display signs along the course of the channels of two organs that stand in interior-exterior relationship. Treatment of network vessel signs specifically associated with the network vessels. Note that each network vessel may present with signs of either repletion or vacuity. The therapeutic principle is to drain repletion and supplement vacuity by employing the appropriate needle technique at the network point.

Network Points
  • LU-7 (liè quë, Broken Sequence)
  • HT-5 (töng , Connecting Li)
  • PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass)
  • LI-6 (piän , Veering Passageway)
  • SI-7 (zhï zhèng, Branch to the Correct)
  • TB-5 (wài guän, Outer Pass)
  • ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge)
  • BL-58 (fëi yáng, Taking Flight)
  • GB-37 (guäng míng, Bright Light)
  • SP-4 (göng sün, Yellow Emperor)
  • KI-4 ( zhöng, Large Goblet)
  • LV-5 ( göu, Woodworm Canal)
  • CV-15 (jïu wêi, Turtledove Tail)
  • GV-1 (cháng qiáng, Long Strong)
  • SP-21 ( bäo, Great Embracement)
  • Vacuous Li ( (xu1 li3)

network stroke

zhòng luò in which the evil is in the network vessels.

Network stroke is marked by deviated eyes and mouth, and insensitivity of the skin, but not by difficulty of speech or hemiplegia that characterize channel stroke.

network vessel

luò mài

Branches of the channels that enmesh the body. In a broader sense, ``network vessel'' denotes any of the fifteen network vessels, the network vessels (in the narrower sense), and grandchild network vessels. Fourteen vessels connect the twelve regular channels, and the governing and controlling vessels. These together with the great network vessel of the spleen constitute the fifteen network vessels (also called diverging network vessels). In the narrow sense, ``network vessel'' denotes the branches of the fifteen network vessels, which enmesh the whole body, the smaller branches of which are known as the grandchild network vessels. ``Network vessel'' also denotes any of the small branches of the network vessels in the surface of the body that are more precisely as superficial network vessels. Thus network vessel pricking means pricking of the superficial network vessels, which in this context are often referred to as blood network vessels. Note that while the superficial network vessels are actual blood vessels, other parts of the channel and network vessel system have no clear correspondence to the circulation system described by modern anatomy since the pathways of qi and blood were never clearly distinguished.

network vessel pricking


From The Magic Pivot (líng shü) One of the nine needling methods. Bloodletting by pricking the small vessels with a three-edged needle. See bloodletting.

neutral cause of disease

 nèi wài yïn

One of the three causes of disease; includes dietary irregularities, taxation fatigue, falls, and animal and insect bites. See three causes.

neutral supplementation and drainage

píng  píng xiè

even supplementation and drainage.

new contraction

xïn gân

Contraction of a new evil that stirs a deep-lying evil in the body. New contractions of warm disease immediately give rise to an exterior pattern of aversion to cold and stir the deep-lying evil to produce signs of internal heat.

new contraction stirring latent evil

xïn gân yîn dòng  xié

See new contraction.

new contraction warm disease

xïn gân wën bìng

A warm disease that emerges as soon as the evil is contracted, as distinct from latent qi warm disease, which remains latent for some time before emerging. A new contraction may, under circumstances, stir evil present in the body. This is called new contraction stirring latent evil.

night blindness


sparrow vision.

night cough


Cough occurring only at night and not in the day. Night cough is attributable to depletion of kidney yin and yin vacuity fire flaming upward. The cough comes in continual bouts that do not abate until dawn. In some cases there may be bitter mouth and rib-side pain, and poor appetite.

Medication:  Nourish yin and downbear fire with Yin-Enriching Clearing Transforming Pill ( yïn qïng huà wán) or Six-Ingredient Rehmannia Pill (lìu wèi  huáng wán) plus Asparagi Tuber (tiän mén döng) and Ophiopogonis Tuber (mài mén döng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, LU, and KI. Select BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , BL-43 (gäo huäng shü, Gao-Huang Transport) , LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , and KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) ; needle with supplementation or with even supplementation and drainage.

night crying in infants

xiâo ér  

Persistent abnormal crying of infants in the night. Night crying is usually attributable either to spleen cold or heart heat. Spleen cold patterns are characterized by green-blue or white complexion, cold limbs, no desire for milk or food, abdominal pain, and bending of the waist when crying. Heart heat patterns are characterized by a red facial complexion, warm hands and abdomen, warm breath, vexation and agitation, aversion to lights and fire, and crying in supine posture.

Acupuncture:  Needle with even supplementation and drainage at , , and SI-3 (hòu , Back Ravine) , and apply three cones of moxa at GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) .

night sweating

dào hàn

Synonym:  thief sweating .

Sweating during the night that ceases on awakening and that generally occurs in patients suffering from yin vacuity. Night sweating is attributable to insufficiency of heart blood, yin vacuity internal heat, and spleen vacuity damp encumbrance.

Insufficiency of heart blood  (xïn xuè  ) causes night sweating with heart palpitations and reduced sleep, lusterless complexion, shortness of breath and fatigued spirit, pale tongue with thin fur, and a vacuous pulse.

Medication:  Supplement the blood, nourish the heart, and constrain sweating. Use Spleen-Returning Decoction (guï  täng) plus Mastodi Ossis Fossilia (lóng ), Ostreae Concha ( ), and Schisandrae Fructus ( wèi ).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LI, SI, and HT. The main points for all patterns are as follows: LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , SI-3 (hòu , Back Ravine) , and HT-6 (yïn , Yin Cleft) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage. For insufficiency of heart blood, add BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , CV-14 ( què, Great Tower Gate) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , and HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) ; needle with supplementation and moxa.

Yin vacuity internal heat  (yïn  nèi ) causes frequent night sweating with postmeridian tidal heat~effusion, reddening of the cheeks, vexing heat in the five hearts, emaciation, menstrual irregularities in women and dream emission and seminal efflux in men, a red tongue with scant fur, and a rapid fine pulse.

Medication:  Enrich yin, downbear fire, and constrain sweating. Use Tangkuei Six Yellows Decoction (däng guï lìu huáng täng) plus Oryzae Glutinosae Rhizoma et Radix (nuò dào gën ), and Tritici Semen Leve ( xiâo mài).

Acupuncture:  To the main points given above add BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , and KI-2 (rán , Blazing Valley) ; needle with supplementation or with even supplementation and drainage.

Spleen vacuity damp encumbrance  () causes frequent night sweating with headache with swathed sensation, fatigued cumbersome limbs, torpid intake, sliminess in the mouth, thin slimy white tongue fur, pale tongue, and soggy moderate pulse.

Medication:  Transform dampness and harmonize the center; free qi dynamic. Use Agastache/Patchouli, Magnolia Bark, Pinellia, and Poria (Hoelen) Decoction (huò  xià líng täng) minus Armeniacae Semen (xìng rén), Polyporus (zhü líng), Litseae Rhizoma et Radix (dòu chî jiäng), Glycines Semen Fermentatum Insulsum (dàn dòu chî), and Alismatis Rhizoma ( xiè), plus Oryzae Glutinosae Rhizoma et Radix (nuò dào gën ), Atractylodis Rhizoma (cäng zhú), and Citri Exocarpium (chén ).

Acupuncture:  To the main points add BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , LR-13 (zhäng mén, Camphorwood Gate) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , and PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage. Moxa may also be used.

nighttime anal itch

 wân gäng yâng

The main sign of pinworm disease.

nine and six supplementation and drainage

jîu lìu  xiè

A method of supplementing and draining in acupuncture that involves lifting, thrusting, and rotation actions perform in sequences of six or nine, and that is based on the yin-yang significance of odd and even numbers. The ancient Chinese believed that yang numbers were odd and belonged to heaven, while yin number were even and belonged to earth, and hence that supplementation could be achieved by sequences of nine, and drainage through sequences of six. For example, to supplement, a sharp thrust and gentle lift or an anticlockwise rotation is performed nine times. Once qi is obtained, another sequence of nine can be performed after a brief interval. One more sequence is then performed to make three sequences and a total of 27 movements of the needle. To drain, a gentle thrust and sharp life or a clockwise rotation is performed six times. If the evil is still exuberant, the sequence is performed again after a short interval. A third sequence then makes 18 movements of the needle. Numerical determination of supplementation and drainage is now no longer considered to be of practical benefit, and the method is now rarely used.

nine needles

jîu zhën

Nine ancient kinds of needle. See entries listed below.

The Nine Needles

nine needles for returning yang

huí yáng jîu zhën

Nine points used in the treatment of yang collapse. See the list below.

Nine Needles for Returning Yang
  • GV-15 ( mén, Mute's Gate)
  • PC-7 ( líng, Great Mound)
  • SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection)
  • KI-1 (yông quán, Gushing Spring)
  • KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine)
  • CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct)
  • GB-30 (huán tiào, Jumping Round)
  • ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li)
  • LI-4 ( , Union Valley)
Three of the points, KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , and PC-7 ( líng, Great Mound) are also source points.

nine needling methods


From The Magic Pivot (líng shü) Nine ancient methods of needling. See the entries listed below.

The Nine Needling Methods

nine orifices

jîu qiào


The two ears, two eyes, two nostrils, mouth, anterior yin (urethra) and posterior yin (anus).

Definition:  Two ears, two eyes, two nostrils, mouth, tongue, and throat (according to The Classic of Difficult Issues (nàn jïng)

nineteen fears

shí jîu wèi

Nineteen medicinals standing in a relationship of awe, i.e., a relationship in which one medicinal's toxicity or action is counteracted or reduced by another or others. See the list below. See also seven relations.

The Nineteen Fears
  • Sulphur (shí líu huáng), fears Mirabilitum Non-Purum ( xiäo)
  • Hydrargyrum (shuî yín) fears Arsenicum Sublimatum ( shuäng)
  • Stellerae seu Euphorbiae Radix (láng ) fears Lithargyrum ( tuó sëng)
  • Crotonis Semen ( dòu) fears Pharbitidis Semen (qiän níu )
  • Caryophylli Flos (dïng xiäng) fears Curcumae Tuber ( jïn)
  • Nitrum Dentatum ( xiäo), fears Sparganii Rhizoma (sän léng)
  • Aconiti Tuber (chuän  tóu) fears Aconiti Tsao-Wu-Tou Tuber (câo  tóu) and Rhinocerotis Cornu ( jiâo)
  • Ginseng Radix (rén shën) fears Trogopteri seu Pteromydis Excrementum ( líng zhï)
  • Cinnamomi Cortex (ròu guì) fears Halloysitum Rubrum (chì shí zhï)

nineteen pathomechanisms

bìng  shí jîu tiáo

From Elementary Questions ( wèn) Nineteen laws associating signs or patterns to certain evils or organs etc.

The Nineteen Pathomechanisms
  • zhu1 feng1 diao4 xuan4, jie1 shu3 yu2 gan1
  • all cold with contracture and tautness is ascribed to the kidney zhu1 han2 shou1 yin3, jie1 shu3 yu2 shen4
  • all qi rushing and depression is ascribed to the lung zhu1 qi4 fen4 yu4, jie1 shu3 yu2 fei4
  • all dampness with swelling and fullness is ascribed to the spleen zhu1 shi1 zhong3 man3, jie1 shu3 yu2 pi2
  • all heat with visual distortion and tugging is ascribed to fire zhu1 re4 mao4 chi4, jie1 shu3 yu2 huo3
  • all painful and itching sores are ascribed to the liver zhu1 tong4 yang3 chuang1, jie1 shu3 yu2 xin1
  • all reversal with constipation or diarrhea is ascribed to the lower body zhu1 jue2 gu4 xie4, jie1 shu3 yu2 xia4
  • zhu1 wei3 chuan3 ou3, jie1 shu3 yu2 shang4
  • all clenching, shuddering, and chattering the jaws with the zhu1 jin4 gu3 li4, ru2 sang1 shen2 shou3, jie1 shu3 yu2 huo3
  • all tetany and rigidity of the neck is ascribed to dampness zhu1 jing4 xiang4 qiang2, jie1 shu3 yu2 shi1
  • all counterflow upsurging is ascribed to fire zhu1 ni4 chong1 shang4, jie1 shu3 yu2 huo3
  • all major abdominal distention is ascribed to heat zhu1 fu4 zhang4 da4, jie1 shu3 yu2 re4
  • all excessive agitation and mania is ascribed to fire zhu1 zao4 kuang2 yue4, jie1 shu3 yu2 huo3
  • all fulminant rigidity is ascribed to wind zhu1 bao4 qiang2 zhi2, jie1 shu3 yu2 feng1
  • all diseases with sounds, where tapping makes a drum-like zhu1 bing4 you3 sheng1, gu3 zhi1 ru2 gu3, jie1 shu3 yu2 re4
  • all diseases with aching pain and swelling of the instep, fright and fear are ascribed to fire zhu1 bing4 fu4 zhong3, teng2 suan1 jing1 hai4, jie1 shu3 yu2 huo3
  • all cramp, arched-back rigidity, and turbid watery humors are ascribed to heat zhu1 zhuan3 fan3 li4, shui3 ye4 hun2 zhuo2, jie1 shu3 yu2 re4
  • all disease with watery humors zhu1 bing4 shui3 ye4 sheng2 che4 qing1 leng3, jie1 shu3 yu2 han2
  • all sour retching and vomiting, and fulminant downpour with lower body distress are ascribed to heat zhu1 ou3 tu4 suan1, bao4 zhu4 xia4 po4, jie1 shu3 yu2 re4

nine worm diseases

jîu chóng bìng

From The Origin and Indicators of Disease (zhü bìng yuán hòu lùn) Latent worm disease; roundworm disease; whiteworm disease; flesh worm disease; lung worm disease; stomach worm disease; weak worm disease; redworm disease; pinworm disease. By and large, worm patterns are attributable to spleen-stomach vacuity, indiscriminate consumption of cold raw or rich sweet fatty foods, and improper cooking. The most important of the worm patterns are roundworm, inch whiteworm, redworm disease, and pinworm. See also worm accumulation.

Medication:  Worm patterns are treated by expelling worms, by fortifying the spleen and boosting the stomach, and by dispersing food and abducting stagnation.



The dark-colored protruding head of the breast in the female, and in males in the corresponding position. The nipples belong to the liver and diseases of them are often treated through the liver channel.

nipple moth


baby moth.

nipple wind

 tóu féng

Synonym:  cracked nipple .

A disease of the nipple or areola characterized by painful fissuring, bleeding, and exudation of sticky fluid and sometimes with scabbing.

Western Medical Concept:  cracked nipple* fissure of nipple* rhagadia mammae* cracked nipple (fissure of nipple, rhagadia mammae). Nipple wind is attributed to liver fire failing to discharge and liver-stomach damp-heat. It can easily develop into an external blowing mammary welling-abscess.

Medication:  Treat by clearing the liver and draining fire with formulas such as Gentian Liver-Draining Decoction (lóng dân xiè gän täng) taken orally and Flesh-Engendering Jade and Red Paste (shëng   hóng gäo) applied topically. For damp ulceration, apply an ointment composed of 20 Alumen Calcinatum ( fán), 10 Calomelas (qïng fên), 10 Gypsum (shí gäo), and 60 petroleum jelly (Vaseline).


 jiän duö niào

profuse urination at night.


Any small abnormal lump under the skin that feels like the stone of a fruit. Scrofula, for example, takes the form of numerous subcutaneous nodes. See scrofula; phlegm node.

node in the breast

 zhöng jié 

mammary node.

no desire for food and drink

  yîn shí

See poor appetite.

no desire to eat despite hunger


Poor appetite with hunger. No desire to eat despite hunger occurs in the following situations: With clamoring stomach characterized by scorching heat sensation, red tongue with scant fur, it indicates insufficiency of stomach yin and vacuity fire. In such cases, the lack of desire to eat is explained by the insufficiency, whereas the presence of hunger is explained as result of the vacuity fire. With dizziness, tinnitus, insomnia, forgetfulness, and dry throat and tongue, it is attributed to insufficiency of kidney yin and frenetic movement of the ministerial fire. In advanced stages of febrile disease with lassitude of spirit, lack of strength, and dry tongue with little liquid, it is a sign of insufficiency of stomach yin resulting from qi, blood, and liquid depletion when the evil has abated. See poor appetite.

noisy nose


From On Cold Damage (shäng hán lùn) Wheezing or hissing sound in the nose due to nasal congestion.

nonchannel point

jïng wài  xué

Any point not belonging to channel.

nonclosure of the birth gate

chân mén  

Synonym:  nonclosure of the jade gate .

Failure of the birth gate to resume normal form after giving birth. Nonclosure of the birth gate is attributed to major postpartum qi-blood vacuity preventing normal contraction or physical damage to the birth gate during delivery. Vacuity patterns are characterized by shortage of qi and laziness to speak, somber white complexion, and spontaneous sweating. They are treated by major supplementation of qi and blood using formulas such as Perfect Major Supplementation Decoction (shí quán   täng). Where swelling, pain, and heat because of injury to the birth gate during delivery are the main features, treatment centers on clearing heat and resolving toxin with formulas such as Free Wanderer Powder (xiäo yáo sân) plus Moutan Radicis Cortex ( dän ), Schizonepetae Herba et Flos (jïng jiè), Lonicerae Flos (jïn yín huä), and Forsythiae Fructus (lián qiào). If the swelling has dispersed but the birth gate still fails to close, Center-Supplementing Qi-Boosting Decoction ( zhöng   täng) should be used. In any case, a concentrated decoction of licorice can be used as an external wash. See ununited skull.

nonclosure of the fontanels

ununited skull.

nonclosure of the jade gate


nonclosure of the birth gate.

noncontraction of heart qi

xïn   shöu

See insecurity of heart qi.

nondiffusion of lung qi

fèi   xuän

nondistribution of pulmonary liquid

fèi jïn  

Breakdown of the lung's function of distributing liquid, giving rise to panting and cough. The lung receives essential qi sent from the spleen, and works with the heart to distribute essential qi around the body. When the lung is scorched by heat, lung yin is damaged, normal fluid distribution is upset, and the skin and hair are deprived of moisturization. When the lung is fettered by cold, it fails to move liquid, so that water collects to form rheum. The result in either case is the formation of phlegm, which causes panting and cough.

nondownbearing of stomach qi

wèi   jiàng

Synonym:  impaired harmonious downbearing of the stomach .

Disturbance of the normal downbearing of stomach qi. Stomach qi normally bears downward carrying food downward to the intestines. Impaired downbearing is characterized by no thought of food and drink, fullness and distention or pain in the stomach. When stomach qi does not bear downward, it ascends counterflow, manifesting as vomiting, belching, and hiccough. See stomach qi ascending counterflow.

noninteraction of the heart and kidney

xïn shèn  jiäo

Synonym:  breakdown of heart-

kidney interaction .

A disorder of the normal relationship between heart yang and kidney yin. Insufficiency of kidney yin or stirring of heart fire may be the cause of the disorder. Signs include heart vexation, insomnia, profuse dreaming, heart palpitations or fearful throbbing, and seminal emission.

Western Medical Concept:  This pattern is observed in neurotic and weak patients.

Medication:  Use Coptis, Ass Hide Glue, and Egg Yolk Decoction (huáng lián ë jiäo   huáng täng) or Peaceful Interaction Pill (jiäo tài wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, HT, and KI. Select BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , KI-1 (yông quán, Gushing Spring) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , PC-8 (láo göng, Palace of Toil) , PC-7 ( líng, Great Mound) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage, or supplement the kidney and drain the heart. Selection of points according to signs: For insomnia, add . For profuse dreaming, add GB-44 ( qiào yïn, Foot Orifice Yin) and ST-45 ( duì, Severe Mouth) . For heart palpitations, add PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) . For seminal emission, add PC-7 ( líng, Great Mound) . See promoting heart-kidney interaction.

nonscarring moxibustion

 bän hén jîu

A method of direct moxibustion whereby the moxa cone is removed before it burns the skin. Cones are burned until the skin at the point turns red. Take care to avoid accidental scarring when using this technique. Nonscarring moxibustion is less drastic than scarring moxibustion and is used for mild vacuity cold patterns. Some sources state that extinguishing the cone by pressing it to the skin supplements, and that removing it before extinguishing it drains.

nonseparation of grain and water

shuî   bié

Scant urine and thin sloppy stool arising when water-damp collects and fails to pass out in the urine.

nontransformation of food

wán   huà

Partially digested food in the stool due to impaired digestion. Nontransformation of food most commonly occurs in spleen vacuity, spleen-kidney yang vacuity, large intestinal vacuity, or cold accumulation patterns, but may also be observed in heat diarrhea. See also swill diarrhea; throughflux diarrhea.

nontransformation of grain and water

shuî   huà

nontransformation of food.

nonupbearing of clear yang or qi

qïng yáng   shëng

clear yang failing to bear upward.

nonupbearing of spleen qi


Debilitation of spleen qi affecting its normal upbearing; characterized by lusterless facial complexion, dizziness, tendency to sweat, shortness of breath, reduced food intake, fatigue, abdominal distention, sloppy stool, pale tongue with white fur, and moderate vacuous pulse. In some cases, there is flowery or blurred vision, tinnitus, and eating without being able to distinguish flavors. If due to damp turbidity and food stagnation, there may be signs such as clouded heavy head, fatigue, no desire for food, abdominal distention or pain and distention, a thick slimy tongue fur, and a sunken moderate pulse.

noodle-type food damage

shäng miàn shí

See food damage.

no pleasure in eating


See poor appetite.

normalizing qi


downbearing counterflow and precipitating qi.

normalizing qi and transforming phlegm

shùn  huà tán

A method of treatment used to address phlegm bind and fullness in the chest, cough and counterflow qi, with copious phlegm and food stagnation, using formulas such as Three-Seed Filial Devotion Decoction (sän  yâng qïn täng) and Qi-Normalizing Phlegm-Abducting Decoction (shùn  dâo tán täng).

normal pulse

zhèng cháng mài

With approximately four beats per respiration, the normal pulse is steady and even. The normal pulse has a threefold significance: Its smoothness and strength indicate the presence of spirit. It is neither sunken nor floating, and the beat rises and falls evenly and effortlessly, indicating the presence of stomach qi. Strength at the deep level indicates the presence of root. See stomach, spirit, and root.

normal tongue fur

zhèng cháng shé täi

A thin layer of fur on the tongue observed in healthy people and attributed to upward steaming of stomach qi. Any deviation from this may be pathological.

Northern and Southern Dynasties

nán bêi cháo

The name of a dynastic period ( 420--581).

Northern Dynasties

bêi cháo

The name of a dynastic period ( 386--534).

Northern Qi


The name of a dynasty ( 550--577).

Northern Song

bêi sòng

The name of a dynasty ( 960--1127).

Northern Wei

bêi wèi

The name of a dynasty ( 386--534).

Northern Zhou

bêi zhöu

The name of a dynasty ( 557--581).


Synonym:  bright hall .

An organ located in the center of the face, through which great qi (air) enters the lung; the external orifice of the lung.

Diagnosis:  The nose and snivel``'' (nasal mucus) are of diagnostic value. Flaring nostrils are associated with rapid breathing due to lung heat. Dry nostrils indicate lung heat or contraction of dryness evil. A dry parched black nose indicates intense heat toxin. Prominent blood vessels at the root of the nose in infants are a sign of a weak constitution or weakness of the organs. When this occurs during the course of an illness it indicates fright-wind. In patients suffering from measles, extremely scant papules at the sides of the nostrils indicate nondiffusion of lung qi and the incomplete outthrust of evil heat. Snivel is the humor of the lung. Abnormalities of snivel (nasal mucus) indicate either nondiffusion of lung qi due either to the presence of evil or to lung vacuity. with turbid snivel is observed in external contraction of wind-heat, whereas nasal congestion and runny nose with clear snivel indicates wind-cold invading the lung (common cold). In the latter case, it thickens and turns yellow on recovery. Thin clear snivel and pronounced sneezing indicates sniveling nose, which roughly corresponds to allergic rhinitis in Western medicine. Foul-smelling turbid yellow snivel accompanied by recurrent headaches indicates deep-source nasal congestion, which roughly corresponds to paranasal sinusitis. Compare also brain leak and brain-gripping sand. Bleeding from the nose, called nosebleed, is the most common form of spontaneous external bleeding and is observed in lung heat, stomach fire, liver fire, head wind, liquor damage, yin vacuity, repelled yang, and external injury patterns. Growths within the nasal passages, nasal polyp also result in nasal congestion. Diseases of the exterior of the nose include acne and drinker's nose. Leprosy, often referred to as pestilential wind, may give rise to collapse of the nose.

nose beam


Synonym:  nose pillar ;

Synonym:  region below the lower extreme .

The stem of the nose.



Spontaneous bleeding from the nose. Nosebleed is attributable to lung heat congesting in the upper body, stomach heat steaming upward, effulgent liver fire, head wind, liquor damage, lung-stomach yin vacuity, repelled yang, or external injury.

Lung heat  (fèi ) nosebleed is associated with dry nose and cough with scant phlegm.

Medication:  Clear and drain lung heat with Mulberry Leaf and Chrysanthemum Beverage (säng  yîn) minus Menthae Herba ( ) and Platycodonis Radix (jié gêng) and plus Scutellariae Radix (huáng qín), Gardeniae Fructus (shän zhï ), and Imperatae Flos (bái máo huä).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GV and LU. Select GV-23 (shàng xïng, Upper Star) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LU-11 (shào shäng, Lesser Shang) , GV-16 (fëng , Wind Mansion) , and LU-3 (tiän , Celestial Storehouse) ; needle with drainage.

Stomach fire  (wèi huô) nosebleed is associated with dry mouth, bad breath, vexation and thirst with taking of fluids.

Medication:  Clear heat and drain stomach heat with Jade Lady Brew ( nüê jiän).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GV, LI, and ST. Select GV-23 (shàng xïng, Upper Star) , LI-2 (èr jiän, Second Space) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , ST-45 ( duì, Severe Mouth) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , and SP-1 (yîn bái, Hidden White) ; needle with drainage.

Liver fire  (gän huô) nosebleed is associated with headache, dizziness, red eyes, and irascibility.

Medication:  Clear and drain liver fire with Gentian Liver-Draining Decoction (lóng dân xiè gän täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GV, LR, and KI. Select GV-27 (duì duän, Extremity of the Mouth) , LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , LR-8 ( quán, Spring at the Bend) , KI-1 (yông quán, Gushing Spring) , and BL-40 (wêi zhöng, Bend Center) ; needle with drainage.

Head wind  (tóu fëng) nosebleed is a pouring nosebleed.

Medication:  Calm the liver, course wind, and stanch bleeding with Peony and Licorice Decoction (sháo yào gän câo täng) plus Cimicifugae Rhizoma (shëng ) and Imperatae Flos (bái máo huä).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GV, GB, LI, and LU. Select GV-23 (shàng xïng, Upper Star) , GV-16 (fëng , Wind Mansion) , GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LI-19 ( liáo, Grain Bone-Hole) , LU-7 (liè quë, Broken Sequence) , and SI-3 (hòu , Back Ravine) ; needle with drainage.

Liquor damage  (shäng jîu) nosebleed is a persistent nosebleed due to lung-stomach accumulated heat and is associated with yellow tongue fur and rough breathing.

Medication:  Clear lung and stomach heat, resolve liquor, and stanch bleeding with Bamboo Leaf and Gypsum Decoction (zhú  shí gäo täng) plus Puerariae Flos ( huä) and Hoveniae Fructus seu Semen (zhî  ).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GV, LU, LI, and ST. Select GV-23 (shàng xïng, Upper Star) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LI-2 (èr jiän, Second Space) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , ST-45 ( duì, Severe Mouth) , LU-11 (shào shäng, Lesser Shang) , GV-16 (fëng , Wind Mansion) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with drainage.

Yin vacuity  (yïn ) nosebleed, which is due to insufficiency of kidney and lung yin, is accompanied by tidal heat~effusion, night sweating, dizziness, tinnitus, incessant cough, and a fine rapid pulse.

Medication:  Enrich yin and nourish lung and kidney yin with Anemarrhena, Phellodendron, and Rehmannia Pill (zhï bâi  huáng wán) plus Scrophulariae Radix (xuán shën) and Ecliptae Herba ( hàn lián).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GV, LU, and KI. Select GV-23 (shàng xïng, Upper Star) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , BL-43 (gäo huäng shü, Gao-Huang Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) ; needle with supplementation.

Repelled yang  ( yáng) nosebleed arises when there is yin vacuity in the lower body and yang floats upward. It is associated with a forceless large floating pulse at all six positions of the wrist with pronounced weakness at the two cubits.

Medication:  Conduct the fire back to the origin and subdue floating yang. Use Golden Coffer Kidney Qi Pill (jïn guì shèn  wán) plus Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix (níu ) and Testudinis Plastrum Crudum (shëng guï bân)

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GV, LU, and KI. Needle with drainage at GV-23 (shàng xïng, Upper Star) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , KI-1 (yông quán, Gushing Spring) , and HT-8 (shào , Lesser Mansion) , and with supplementation at BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) . For incessant nosebleed, add moxa at GV-22 (xìn huì, Fontanel Meeting) and GV-23 (shàng xïng, Upper Star) .

External injury  (wài shäng) nosebleed is treated by stuffing the nose with a wad of gauze soaked in a suitable preparation. See spontaneous external bleeding.

nose pile


nasal polyp.

nose pillar


Synonym:  nose beam ;

Synonym:  region below the lower extreme .

The stem of the nose.

no thought of food and drink

  yîn shí

See poor appetite.

not knowing hunger or satiety

 zhï  bâo

See poor appetite.

not to change one's clothes


From On Cold Damage (shäng hán lùn) An ancient euphemism for constipation.



See supplementation.

nourishing the blood

yâng xuè

supplementing the blood.

nourishing the blood and emolliating the liver

yâng xuè róu gän <

nourishing the blood> emolliating the liver.

nourishing the blood and moistening dryness

yâng xuè rùn zào <

nourishing the blood> A method of treatment used to address blood vacuity constipation characterized by dry stool that is difficult to evacuate and that is accompanied by somber white complexion, lack of redness and moisture in the lips and nails, periodic dizziness, heart palpitations, soft pale tongue body, and rapid fine pulse.

Medication:  Commonly used blood-nourishing dryness-moistening medicinals include Angelicae Sinensis Radix (däng guï), Rehmanniae Radix Exsiccata seu Recens (shëng  huáng), Cannabis Semen (huô  rén), Persicae Semen (táo rén), and Aurantii Fructus (zhî ).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on alarm, back transport, and lower uniting points of LI, and on other back transport points. Select BL-25 ( cháng shü, Large Intestine Transport) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , ST-37 (shàng  , Upper Great Hollow) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa.

nourishing the blood and resolving the exterior

yâng xuè jiê biâo <

nourishing the blood> A method of treatment used to address yin-blood depletion with common cold characterized by headache, generalized heat~effusion, slight aversion to cold, absence of sweating, soft-red tongue with little fur, and a rapid soggy pulse.

Medication:  A commonly used blood-nourishing exterior-resolving formula is Scallion White Seven-Ingredient Beverage (cöng bái  wèi yîn).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on SP, ST, LR, GB, LU, and LI. Needle with supplementation at BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , with drainage at GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , TB-5 (wài guän, Outer Pass) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , and LU-7 (liè quë, Broken Sequence) . Compare enriching yin and resolving the exterior.

nourishing the fluids

yâng jïn 

See engendering liquid.

nourishing the heart and quieting the spirit

yâng xïn än shén

A method of treatment used to address disquieted heart spirit due to heart blood depletion characterized by heart palpitations, susceptibility to fright, forgetfulness, insomnia, abstraction, profuse dreaming and seminal emission, dry bound stool, mouth and tongue sores, red tongue with scant fur, and a rapid fine pulse.

Medication:  A commonly used heart-nourishing spirit-quieting formula is Biota Seed Heart-Nourishing Pill (bâi  yâng xïn wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , HT-8 (shào , Lesser Mansion) , PC-4 ( mén, Cleft Gate) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and PC-5 (jiän shî, Intermediary Courier) . See quieting the spirit.

nourishing the liver

yâng gän

emolliating the liver.

nourishing the stomach

yâng wèi

enriching and supplementing stomach yin.

nourishing yin

yâng yïn

supplementing yin.

nourishing yin and clearing the lung

yâng yïn qïng fèi

A method of treatment used to address lung heat and yin vacuity. The method of nourishing yin and clearing the lung is used for two distinct conditions. Yin vacuity sore throat or diphtheria.

Medication:  Use Yin-Nourishing Lung-Clearing Decoction (yâng yïn qïng fèi täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on KI and LU. Select KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , and LU-10 ( , Fish Border) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage. Selection of points according to signs: For pronounced swelling and pain, prick LU-11 (shào shäng, Lesser Shang) to bleed. Vacuity taxation cough characterized by dry cough with little phlegm occasionally flecked with blood, postmeridian low fever, night sweating, oppression and dull pain in the chest, dry mouth, tongue with red margins and tip, and rapid fine pulse.

Medication:  Use Four Yin Brew ( yïn jiän), consisting of Rehmanniae Radix Exsiccata seu Recens (shëng  huáng), Ophiopogonis Tuber (mài mén döng), Paeoniae Radix Alba (bái sháo yào), Lilii Bulbus (bâi ), Adenophorae seu Glehniae Radix (shä shën), and Glycyrrhizae Radix (gän câo).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LU and KI. Select BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , BL-43 (gäo huäng shü, Gao-Huang Transport) , LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , and KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) ; needle with supplementation.

nourishing yin and moistening dryness

yâng yïn rùn zào

Synonym:  enriching yin and moistening dryness .

A method of treatment used to address damage to lung-stomach yin by dryness, characterized by dry pharynx and thirst, postmeridian generalized heat~effusion, red tongue, a rapid fine pulse, and sometimes cough with scant phlegm, or constipation.

Medication:  A commonly used yin-nourishing dryness-moistening formula is Adenophora/Glehnia and Ophiopogon Decoction (shä shën mài döng täng). If there is constipation, Humor-Increasing Decoction (zëng  täng) may be used.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, LU, KI, ST, and SP. Select BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , BL-43 (gäo huäng shü, Gao-Huang Transport) , LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with supplementation.

nourishing yin and resolving the exterior

yâng yïn jiê biâo

enriching yin and resolving the exterior.

numbing wind


Leprosy. See pestilential wind.


See numbness and tingling.

numbness and tingling


Loss of normal sensation in the skin and flesh. Numbness is described as absence of itching or pain that is insensitive to pressure. Tingling is classically described as ``bugs crawling in the flesh'' unrelieved by pressure. See numbness and tingling of the skin.

numbness and tingling of the skin


Loss of normal sensation in the skin. Numbness and tingling are attributable to wind-damp pestilential qi, phlegm-damp obstruction, qi-blood vacuity, or blood stasis.

Wind-damp pestilential qi  (fëng shï  ) numbness is attributed to pestilential qi (wind, dampness, worms) or contact with clothing or belongings or affected people. It is characterized by localized insensitivity to heat, cold, or pain sometimes with red or white macules. Signs include loss of hair, scaling, and in some cases withering of the flesh, loss of eyebrows, and collapse of the nose. See pestilential wind.

Medication:  Dispel wind, transform dampness, quicken the blood, and kill worms. Alternate Safeguard Unlimited Efficacy Elixir (bâo än wàn líng dän) and Wondrous Response Wind-Dispersing Powder (shén yìng xiäo fëng sân).

Phlegm-damp obstruction  (tán shï  zhì) numbness is associated with heaviness in local joints and heaviness of the limbs reducing agility, a soggy moderate pulse, and a white slimy tongue fur.

Medication:  Transform phlegm and eliminate dampness; free the channels and quicken the network vessels. An appropriate formula is Two Matured Ingredients Decoction (èr chén täng) minus Mume Fructus ( méi) and Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens (shëng jiäng), and with the addition of Luffae Fasciculus Vascularis ( guä luò), Citri Fructus Fasciculus Vascularis ( luò), Liquidambaris Fructus (  töng), and Aurantii Fructus Immaturus (zhî shí).

Qi-blood vacuity  ( xuè  ruò) numbness is characterized by its episodic nature and its tendency to be exacerbated by exertion and relieved by rest. It is also associated with coolness in the local area, and can be relieved by warmth. There may be periodic sensations of ants crawling through the flesh or even stabbing pain. It usually occurs in menopausal women on the insides of the upper limbs, and may be associated with menstrual irregularities or flooding and spotting. The tongue is pale and the pulse is fine and forceless.

Medication:  Supplement qi and nourish the blood; warm yang and free the network vessels. An appropriate formula is Astragalus and Cinnamon Twig Five Agents Decoction (huáng  guì zhï   täng).

Blood stasis  (xuè ) numbness usually occurs in the lumbus or outside of the thighs and arises through impact.

Medication:  Quicken the blood and transform stasis; free the channels and network vessels. An appropriate formula is House of Blood Stasis-Expelling Decoction (xuè  zhú  täng). See also insensitivity of the skin.

numbness of the tongue


A lack of sensation in the tongue. Numbness of the tongue is attributable to liver wind stirring internally, to blood vacuity, or to phlegm obstruction.

Blood vacuity:  (xuè ) A pale numb tongue is accompanied by a somber white or withered-yellow facial complexion, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, insomnia and profuse dreaming, forgetfulness, and a forceless fine pulse.

Medication:  Nourish the blood. Use Spleen-Returning Decoction (guï  täng) plus Zingiberis Rhizoma Tostum (páo jiäng).

Liver wind:  (shé ) Numbness of the tongue is accompanied by inhibited speech, dizzy head, headache, and rapid fine stringlike pulse. In some cases, there may sudden collapse leaving the patient with hemiplegia (wind stroke).

Medication:  Boost yin, calm the liver, and extinguish wind. Gastrodia and Uncaria Beverage (tiän  göu téng yîn).

Phlegm obstruction:  (tán ) Phlegm obstruction can manifest in different ways. The main forms are wind-phlegm and phlegm-fire. In wind-phlegm, the tongue is numb and stiff. This is accompanied by dizzy head and vision, and numbness of the limbs. In some cases, there may be sudden collapse leaving the patient with deviated eyes and mouth or hemiplegia. The tongue is white and glossy or yellow and slimy. The pulse is floating and slippery or stringlike and moderate. In phlegm-fire, the tongue is numb and red. The tongue fur is yellow and slimy or else thick yellow and dry. In addition there is dizzy head and vision, tinnitus, bitter taste in the mouth, vexation and agitation, irascibility, ungratifying defecation, and a rapid slippery stringlike pulse.

Medication:  For wind-phlegm use Awake-From-Wind Decoction (shêng fëng täng) plus Aquilariae Lignum (chén xiäng). For phlegm-fire, use Gallbladder-Warming Decoction (wën dân täng) plus Arisaematis Rhizoma cum Felle Bovis (dân xïng), Buthus (quán xië), Gastrodiae Rhizoma (tiän ), and Coptidis Rhizoma (huáng lián).