Section M






A patch on the skin. See maculopapular eruption.

maculopapular eruption

bän zhên

Eruption of macules or papules. Macules are colored (usually red) patches that are unraised above the surface of the skin and vary in size. Papules are like grains of millet in shape and size (or may be larger), raised above the surface of the skin. The appearance of maculopapular eruptions in externally contracted heat (febrile) diseases indicates heat penetrating blood-construction. In internal damage miscellaneous diseases, they usually indicate blood heat.

Externally contracted disease:  (wài gân  bìng) The appearance of maculopapular eruptions in externally contracted heat (febrile) diseases indicates heat penetrating blood-construction. Provided that they are not too dense or widespread, maculopapular eruptions indicate that right qi is capable of expelling evil qi from the body. Thus it is said, ``The appearance of macules and papules is a favorable sign, provided they are not in excess.'' The absence of such maculopapular eruptions may indicate an evil blockage. In excess, they indicate that the evil is strong. Macules reflect more severe conditions than papules; for example, intense toxic heat in the blood aspect. Therefore, careful attention should be paid to them. Maculopapular eruptions are a favorable sign when red in color, and an unfavorable sign when dark and stagnant-looking. Deep red indicates intense heat, whereas purplish black indicates intense toxic heat in the blood aspect, a sign that the condition is extremely serious. A dark blackish color indicates that right qi is seriously debilitated, and the condition is critical. However, the significance of maculopapular eruptions can only be judged in correlation with other signs. On Warm Heat (wën  lùn) states, ``They macules and papules must be viewed together with other external signs before a diagnosis can be made.'' Papules in febrile disease are sometimes referred to as sand .

Internal damage:  (nèi shäng) Maculopapular eruptions occurring in internal damage miscellaneous diseases usually indicates blood heat. If they continually appear and disappear, are purplish red in color, and if signs of blood heat are absent, maculopapular eruptions indicate the failure of the qi to contain the blood or qi vacuity with blood stasis. If the eruptions are deep-seated and well-defined, the condition is serious. Deep-seated eruptions do not blanch when pressure is applied. Well-defined eruptions have clear edges or are characterized by localized tissue necrosis. If the edges are not well-defined, and the color fades under pressure, the condition is mild.

Ma Dan-Yang's twelve heavenly star points

 dän yáng tiän xïng shí èr xué

Twelve points that Ma Dan-Yang, a Song Dynasty physician, considered the most useful in the treatment of disease. The points were passed on to his students and appeared later written in song form. Ma Dan-Yang's twelve heavenly star points are presented below.

Ma Dan-Yang's Twelve Heavenly[0.2ex] Star Points
  • ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) : distention in the heart and abdomen, cold in the stomach, rumbling intestines, swollen legs, aching legs, cold damage emaciation and detriment, and qi gu
  • ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) : reversal (cold) of the four limbs, liking for quiet and aversion to noise, dormant papules, sore throat, yawning, toothache, malaria, and inability to eat
  • LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) : pain in the elbow, hemilateral wind preventing the arm from being stretched, slack sinews with inability to brush the hair, blockage of the throat, persistent heat~effusion, and hemilateral wind lichen and lai
  • LI-4 ( , Union Valley) : headache, malaria, tooth decay, nosebleed, clenched jaw with inability to speak
  • BL-40 (wêi zhöng, Bend Center) : lumbar pain, wind impediment , inability to stretch the knee
  • BL-57 (chéng shän, Mountain Support) : lumbar pain, hemorrhoids, difficult defecation, leg qi with swollen knees, cholera with cramps
  • LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) : fright epilepsy wind, distention in the throat and region of the heart,
  • BL-60 (kün lún, Kunlun Mountains) : cramps and lumbar pain, fulminant panting and fullness surging into the heart, inability to lift the legs
  • GB-30 (huán tiào, Jumping Round) : lumbar pain, wind-cold-damp impediment with pain in the legs stretching into the calves
  • GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) : swelling and numbness of the knees, cold wind and hemilateral wind, inability to lift the legs
  • HT-5 (töng , Connecting Li) : inability to speak, anguish and fearful throbbing; in repletion, swelling of the limbs, and red head and cheeks; in vacuity, inability to eat and sudden loss of voice
  • LU-7 (liè quë, Broken Sequence) : hemilateral headache, hemilateral wind numbness, phlegm-drool frequently welling upward, clenched jaw

magic medicine

líng yào

Either Sublimatum Triplex (shëng dän) or Praeparatio Sublimata Alba (bái jiàng dän), which are produced by sublimation. Upborne elixir is, according to one method, made by heating Hydrargyrum (shuî yín), Nitrum (xiäo shí), and Alumen (bái fán) in a container with a lid sealed on to make yellow and red crystals settle on the lid on cooling (hence ``upborne'' elixir). Downborne elixir is made by heating Cinnabaris (zhü shä), Realgar (xióng huáng), Hydrargyrum (shuî yín), Borax (péng shä), Nitrum (xiäo shí), Sal (yán), Alumen (bái fán), and Melanteritum (lüè fán) in a sealed container to produce crystals in the container rather than the lid (hence ``downborne'' elixir).

magic root

líng gën


main channel


Any large channel.

major chest bind

 jié xiöng

Synonym:  phlegm-

heat chest bind .

A disease pattern arising when inappropriate application of precipitation of an unresolved exterior pattern in greater yang disease causes the heat evil to fall inward and combine with phlegm and water. Major chest bind is characterized by fullness, hardness and pain in the chest, stomach duct, and umbilical region that is too tender to be touched. Other signs include thirst, dry tongue, late afternoon tidal heat~effusion, and tight sunken pulse. Chest bind was first described in On Cold Damage (shäng hán lùn)

Medication:  Expel water and discharge heat. Use Major Chest Bind Decoction ( xiàn xiöng täng) or Pill.

Acupuncture:  Select GV-12 (shën zhù, Body Pillar) , PC-5 (jiän shî, Intermediary Courier) , PC-7 ( líng, Great Mound) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with drainage. See chest bind.

major divide


See flesh divide.

major reversal


From Elementary Questions ( wèn) Severe sudden clouding reversal as though the patient had suddenly died. See reversal patterns; wind stroke.

major vacuity of original qi


Severe qi vacuity.

malar flush

miàn jiá cháo hóng

tidal reddening of the cheeks.



A recurrent disease characterized by shivering, vigorous heat~effusion, and sweating and classically attributed to contraction of summerheat during the hot season, contact with mountain forest miasma, or contraction of cold-damp. Malaria is explained as evil qi latent at midstage (half exterior and half interior). Different forms are distinguished according to signs and causes.


Medication:  The principle of treatment for malaria is as follows: Initial stage: harmonization. Middle stage: interrupting malaria (using medicinals or acupuncture to prevent imminent episodes). Advanced stage: supplementing vacuity.

Acupuncture:  General malaria-terminating treatment is based mainly on GV, PC, and SI. Select GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) , GV-13 (táo dào, Kiln Path) , PC-5 (jiän shî, Intermediary Courier) , and SI-3 (hòu , Back Ravine) ; needle with drainage 2--3 hours before an expected episode. If episodes are not regular, needle 2--3 times a day. Selection of points according to signs: For pronounced heat, add LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) and TB-1 (guän chöng, Passage Hub) . For high fever and clouded spirit, also prick to bleed. For alternating heat~effusion and aversion to cold, add GV-13 (táo dào, Kiln Path) and . For enduring malaria, add moxa at BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) and GV-9 (zhì yáng, Extremity of Yang) . For mother of malaria (palpable lump), add LR-13 (zhäng mén, Camphorwood Gate) , , BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , and BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) .

male malaria


From Essential Prescriptions of the Golden Coffer (jïn guì yào lüè) The character (male) is held to be a mistranscription of (female). See female malaria.



Noxious, severe, difficult to cure. Not to be confused with the term ``malignant'' as used in Western medicine.

malign blood

è xuè

Blood that has spilled out of the vessels and accumulates outside blood vessels and that manifests is the form of stasis macules, stasis speckles, or blood swelling.

malign complexion


Synonym:  perished complexion .

A dry complexion, showing no sign of ``vital qi'' (vitality), a critical sign indicating that stomach qi is exhausted and visceral qi is wasted. The complexions described in Elementary Questions ( wèn) as ``green-blue as new shoots of grass; yellow like unripe bitter orange; black as cinders; red as coagulated blood; white as dry bones'' are all malign complexions.

malign disease of great wind

 fëng è 

pestilential wind.

malign flesh

è ròu

A disease described in Emergency Standby Remedies (zhôu hòu bèi  fäng) n the following terms: ``A fleshy growth red as a rice bean, protruding from the body, becoming longer like cow's or mare's teats or like a cock's crest. It should be treated by taking a decoction of Rhapontici seu Echinopis Radix (lòu ) orally, and by cauterizing the malign flesh with a red-hot needle three times a day and applying Cimicifuga Paste (shëng  gäo).''

Western Medical Concept:  wart* verruca* keloma* verruca; wart; keloma.

malignity stroke

zhòng è

A disease attributed in ancient times to the malign work of demons, and described in The Level-Line of Pattern Identification and Treatment (zhèng zhì zhûn shéng) in the following way: ``Malignity stroke patterns are due to catching some unright qi and are characterized by sudden counterflow cold of the limbs, goose pimples, blackish green-blue head and face, essence-spirit failing to confine itself, deranged raving, clenched jaw, spinning head and collapse, and clouding unconsciousness. They are observed in sudden reversal, visiting hostility or after attending funerals or going into temples or graveyards.'' (see sudden reversal; visiting hostility).

Medication:  Liquid Storax Pill (  xiäng wán) can be used to revive the patient, and then treat with Stomach-Calming Powder (píng wèi sân) plus Saussureae (seu Vladimiriae) Radix ( xiäng), Cyperi Rhizoma (xiäng  ), Ginseng Radix (rén shën), and Agastaches seu Pogostemi Herba (huò xiäng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GV, LI, and hand and foot reverting yin PC/LR. Select GV-26 (shuî göu, Water Trough) , PC-9 (zhöng chöng, Central Hub) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , and KI-1 (yông quán, Gushing Spring) ; needle with drainage.

malign obstruction


Synonym:  pregnancy vomiting ;

Synonym:  aversion to food .

A condition of aversion to food, nausea and vomiting during pregnancy, not considered untoward unless it severely affects food intake. Malign obstruction is the manifestation of impaired harmonious downbearing of stomach qi.

Western Medical Concept:  emesis gravidarum* morning sickness* emesis gravidarum (morning sickness). See liver heat malign obstruction; phlegm stagnation malign obstruction; stomach cold malign obstruction; stomach heat malign obstruction; weak stomach malign obstruction.

malign sore

è chuäng

Any sore that is burning hot, swollen, and itchy and that continues to spread after bursting, and fails to heal.



Any unpleasant or offensive odor. See animal odor; fishy smell; putrid smell; foul smell.



Giving off a malodor or bad smell.

malposition of fetus

täi  zhèng

Incorrect position of the fetus in the uterus; attributed to qi stagnation or fright or fear before delivery.

Medication:  Soothe qi and abduct stagnation using formulas such as Fetus-Turning Formula (zhuân täi fäng). In modern practice, Carefree Pregnancy Formula (bâo chân  yöu fäng), originally devised to calm the fetus, has been used successfully to right the position of the fetus.

Acupuncture:  Either of the following two methods may be used: Moxibustion: Select bilateral BL-67 (zhì yïn, Reaching Yin) points, and pole for 15--20 minutes (7--15 cones), twice each day. Acupuncture and moxibustion: Select bilateral BL-67 (zhì yïn, Reaching Yin) points, and needle for 1--2 fen, needling with even supplementation and drainage, and then moxa for 10--15 minutes each day before bed.

mammary aggregation

A disease of the breast characterized by a swollen lump like a plum or mume or like an egg that is hard and painful, and that moves when pushed. Mammary aggregation is unassociated with cold or heat or skin color. It is arises most commonly when thought damages the spleen and depressed anger damages the liver, causing qi stagnation and congealing phlegm. It may also be due to liver-kidney yin vacuity.

Western Medical Concept:  hyperplasia of the mammary glands* benign tumor the mammary glands* hyperplasia of the mammary glands, benign tumor the mammary glands.

Binding depression of liver qi  (gän   jié) patterns are characterized by dizziness, rib-side distention, oppression in the chest, belching, distending pain in the lesser abdomen, inhibited menstruation, thin tongue fur, and stringlike pulse.

Medication:  Course the liver and resolve stasis; transform phlegm and dissipate binds. Use Free Wanderer Powder (xiäo yáo sân) plus Curcumae Tuber ( jïn), Citri Semen ( ), Prunellae Spica (xià  câo), and Galli Gigerii Endothelium ( nèi jïn).

Liver-kidney yin vacuity  (gän shèn yïn ) patterns are marked by postmeridian tidal heat~effusion, dull dark complexion, reddening of the cheeks, dizzy head, tinnitus, lumbar and back pain, scant menstrual flow, red tongue, and a fine rapid pulse.

Medication:  Supplement the liver and kidney with Menses-Stabilizing Decoction (dìng jïng täng) plus Fritillariae Verticillatae Bulbus (zhè bèi ), Curcumae Tuber ( jïn), Citri Semen ( ), Zedoariae Rhizoma (é zhú), and Asparagi Tuber (tiän mén döng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on yang brightness , reverting yin , and greater yin . Main points: ST-15 ( , Roof) , CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage. Selection of points according to pattern: For binding depression of liver qi, add PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , GB-21 (jiän jîng, Shoulder Well) , and LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) . For liver-kidney depletion, add BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) and BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) .

mammary chestnut


See mammary node; mammary rock.

mammary consumption


A disease of the breast that develops from a mammary node as a result of qi-blood vacuity or unsuccessful treatment. The mammary node gradually becomes as large as a bowl, is hard and painful, and spreads to the rib-side below the armpit. It becomes purple or black in color and can burst to exude in mild cases white fluid that may be malodorous. If the condition persists, postmeridian tidal heat~effusion, cough, red cheeks, marked emaciation and other signs of internal vacuity heat may be observed.

mammary fistula


A fistula on the breast or areola characterized by a tunnel that penetrates deep into the flesh and exudes pus and in some cases milk; usually attributed to an effusion of the breast, mammary welling-abscess, or mammary consumption that owing to improper treatment fails to heal.

Medication:  Treat topically with formulas such as Red Upborne Elixir (hóng shëng dän) applied to a medicated thread that is inserted to draw out the pus. When the putridity has gone, Flesh-Engendering Powder (shëng  sân) can be used to engender flesh and close the opening. The method of threaded ligation can be used for areolar fistulas.

mammary flat-abscess


A yin-pattern suppurative lesion of the breast. A mammary flat-abscess is characterized by a hard, slightly painful lump in the breast, without any change in skin color. The lump gradually grows larger. Suppuration is slow to develop and is accompanied by aversion cold and heat~effusion. Rupture gives rise to a discharge of yellow pus and leaves a deep hole in the breast.

mammary gan


Breast sores or lumps that have persisted for may years without healing or that have half healed, look like broken lotus receptacles, and are excruciatingly painful.

Western Medical Concept:  adenocarcinoma of the breast* tuberculosis of the breast* adenocarcinoma of the breast, tuberculosis of the breast. Treated in the same way as mammary rock.

mammary node


Synonym:  node in the breast ;

Synonym:  breast node ;

Synonym:  mammary chestnut ;

Synonym:  mammary phlegm node .

A hard bound lump in the breast, observed in mammary rock and mammary consumption.

mammary phlegm node


mammary node.

mammary rock


Synonym:  mammary chestnut .

A disease of the breast that starts as a hard, painless mammary node the size of a jujube or chestnut with an uneven surface, and that subsequently grows larger and becomes painful. Before bursting, the nipples become sunken and the lump feels like a heap of chestnuts or an upturned bowl and is connected with the skin so that it does not move when pushed. If the head shows through as purple, it will gradually rupture to leave an opening like a rock cave that exudes foul water or blood.

Western Medical Concept:  adenocarcinoma of the breast* adenocarcinoma of the breast. It is attributable to anxiety and thought causing counterflow of liver spleen-qi. Treat by coursing the liver and rectifying qi with formulas such as Free Wanderer Powder (xiäo yáo sân).

mammary toxin sore



A boil of the breast unassociated with pregnancy or breast-feeding.

Definition:  A postpartum mammary welling-abscess.

mammary welling-abscess


A welling-abscess on the female breast. It is most common after childbirth, but may occur in the later stages of pregnancy. It is characterized by a redness and swelling in the breast, which if left untreated can suppurate and burst. Severe cases are called effusion of the breast. At least since the Song, the breath of the infant has been understood as cause of mammary welling-abscesses, and in The Golden Mirror of Medicine ( zöng jïn jiàn) the distinction is made between external blowing (mammary welling-abscess developing after childbirth) and internal blowing (developing before childbirth).

Western Medical Concept:  mastitis*!acute acute mastitis. A number of causes exist: Anxiety or anger affecting the normal free coursing of liver qi, or accumulated stomach heat from excessive consumption of rich foods, causing stagnation in the yang brightness channel and disharmony of construction qi; accumulation and stagnation of milk in the breast; contraction of heat toxin through a damaged nipple; contraction of wind evil in postpartum blood vacuity.

Medication:  In the initial stage, treat by soothing the liver and clearing the stomach and by promoting lactation and dissipating binds; use formulas such as Trichosanthes and Arctium Decoction (guä lóu níu bàng täng) plus Taraxaci Herba cum Radice ( göng yïng), Angelicae Sinensis Radix (däng guï), Rhapontici seu Echinopis Radix (lòu ), and Paeoniae Radix Rubra (chì sháo yào). For pronounced liver depression, use the same formula minus Scutellariae Radix (huáng qín), Gardeniae Fructus (shän zhï ), and Lonicerae Flos (jïn yín huä), plus Perillae Caulis (  gêng), and Liquidambaris Fructus (  töng), to course the liver and resolve depression. For pronounced heat toxin, use Immortal Formula Life-Giving Beverage (xiän fäng huó mìng yîn) plus Taraxaci Herba cum Radice ( göng yïng) to clear heat and resolve toxin. Apply Golden Yellow Powder (jïn huáng sân) or crushed Taraxaci Herba cum Radice ( göng yïng) topically.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on yang brightness and reverting yin . Select ST-16 (yïng chuäng, Breast Window) , GB-21 (jiän jîng, Shoulder Well) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , LI-7 (wën lïu, Warm Dwelling) , and LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) ; needle with drainage. Mammary welling-abscess responds to acupuncture best before suppuration. The above formula is therefore mostly used for presuppurative conditions. In addition, the swelling and surrounding area can be tapped with a cutaneous needle to reduce momentum. Medicinal therapy is more effective for the suppurative stage. Selection of points according to signs: For pronounced liver depression, LR-14 ( mén, Cycle Gate) and GB-41 ( lín , Foot Overlooking Tears) . For pronounced heat toxin, add ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) ST-18 ( gën, Breast Root) , and ST-34 (liáng qïu, Beam Hill) . For inhibited milk flow, add CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) , and SI-1 (shào , Lesser Marsh) . For aversion to cold and heat~effusion, add LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , and GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) . See welling-abscess.



Any pattern characterized by wild behavior, self-aggrandizement, scolding and shouting, smashing objects and beating people, climbing over walls or onto roofs, failure to modify behavior for either family and friends or outsiders, extraordinary strength, tendency not to rest or to eat, red tongue with yellow fur, and a large stringlike slippery rapid pulse; attributed to five-mind fire transformation or phlegm clouding the orifices of the heart.

Medication:  Flush phlegm and open the orifices; drain fire and attack accumulations. Use formulas such as Iron Flakes Beverage (shëng tiê luò yîn), Chlorite/Mica Phlegm-Rolling Pill (méng shí gûn tán wán), or Major Qi-Coordinating Decoction ( chéng  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on PC, LR, HT, and ST. To drain fire and settle the heart, select GV-26 (shuî göu, Water Trough) , PC-8 (láo göng, Palace of Toil) , PC-5 (jiän shî, Intermediary Courier) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , HT-8 (shào , Lesser Mansion) , and LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , and prick LU-11 (shào shäng, Lesser Shang) to bleed. To flush phlegm, quiet the heart, and open the orifices, select BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , PC-7 ( líng, Great Mound) , GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , and SP-1 (yîn bái, Hidden White) . Needle with drainage at all points. See mania and withdrawal.

mania and withdrawal

diän kuáng

Mental derangement. Mania denotes states of excitement characterized by noisy, unruly, and even aggressive behavior, offensive speech, constant singing and laughter, irascibility, springing walls and climbing roofs, and inability to remain tidily dressed. This is a yang pattern of the heart spirit straying outward owing to hyperactivity of yang qi. Withdrawal refers to emotional depression, indifference, deranged speech, taciturnity, and obliviousness of hunger or satiety. It is a yin pattern caused by binding of depressed qi and phlegm or heart-spleen vacuity. See mania; withdrawal.

mania evil

kuáng xié

Evil giving rise to mania.

manic agitation

kuáng zào

Agitation with signs of mania.



needle manipulation.

man's prognosis

rén yíng

Synonym:  man'

s prognosis pulse .

The pulsating vessel at the sides of the neck. This pulse is mentioned under block and repulsion.

man's prognosis pulse

rén yíng mài

man's prognosis.

marsh rampart


See eight ramparts.

martial flame


A fierce flame. Effusing dissipating medicinals are boiled for a short time over a martial flame. Compare civil flame.



Synonym:  tui-

na .

Rubbing, pressing or other manipulation of the body for the treatment and prevention of disease. Massage helps to free the channels and vessels, and also helps to disinhibit the joints. By stimulating the movement of qi and blood, it can regulate the function of the bowels and viscera, and increase resistance to disease.

massive head scourge

 tóu wën

A disease that results from invasion of the spleen and stomach channels by seasonal wind-warmth toxin and that is characterized by swelling and redness of the head, and sometimes by painful swelling of the throat, and, in severe cases, signs such as deafness, clenched jaw, clouded spirit, and delirious raving.

Medication:  Use Universal Aid Toxin-Dispersing Beverage (  xiäo  yîn).

master points of the eight vessels

 mài jiäo huì xué

confluence points of the eight vessels.

mealy tumor

fên líu

fatty tumor.



A transmissible disease affecting mostly children characterized by eruption of papules the shape of sesame seeds. The disease is located in the spleen and lung channels, and can affect other bowels and viscera. Measles is characterized at onset by heat~effusion, cough, and copious tearing, and white speckles inside the mouth. After three days of heat~effusion, papules appear behind the ears, on the neck, and face, and spread to the limbs. Eruption is complete when the papules reach the legs. During the first millennium, measles was poorly distinguished from other disease characterized by eruptions. In the Song dynasty, both measles and smallpox were popularly called ma2 zi3 (lit. ``semame seeds''), but Pang An-Shi distinguished a mild form from a severe form. The distinction was consolidated in the Ming, when the term ma2 zhen3 came to be used for mild eruptive diseases.

Medication:  In the initial heat~effusion stage, treat by diffusing the lung and outthrusting papules with formulas such as Toxin-Diffusing Exterior-Effusing Decoction (xuän   biâo täng) or Lonicera and Forsythia Powder (yín qiào sân). After eruption, treat by clearing heat and resolving toxin with Lithospermi, Macrotomiae, seu Onosmatis Radix ( câo), Croci Stigma (zàng hóng huä), Forsythiae Fructus (lián qiào), Lonicerae Flos (jïn yín huä), Coptidis Rhizoma (huáng lián), Fritillariae Verticillatae Bulbus (zhè bèi ), Eriobotryae Folium (  ), Isatidis Radix (bân lán gën), Lophatheri Folium (dàn zhú ), Mutong Caulis ( töng), and Glycyrrhizae Radix (gän câo). In the recovery stage, when the papules begin to disappear, it can be treated by the method of engendering liquid and nourishing yin combined with that of clearing residual toxin with variations of Adenophora/Glehnia and Ophiopogon Decoction (shä shën mài döng täng). See favorable measles pattern; unfavorable measles pattern; critical measles pattern; measles block pattern; measles toxin entering construction; measles toxin falling into the lung; loss of voice in measles; white-face sand.

measles block pattern

 zhên  zhèng

Measles failing to erupt with evil toxin blocked in the inner body. A measles block pattern arises when externally contracted wind-cold, intense internal heat, food stagnation, or exuberant phlegm-damp obstruct lung qi and block the interstices, preventing the normal outthrust of measles papules. The signs are the appearance of speckles not followed by full eruption, or the premature disappearance of measles papules.

Medication:  The basic method is to diffuse the lung and outthrust papules. This should be variously combined according the particular pattern with one of the following: coursing wind and resolving the exterior; clearing heat and resolving toxin; dispersing food and abducting stagnation; clearing heat and dispelling phlegm. For topical treatment, boil a handful of Coriandri Herba cum Radice ( suï) with water and an appropriate amount of liquor to produce a wash that should be applied warm. For qi vacuity reducing the fight against the toxin characterized by pale white papules that fail to erupt fully, white face and green-blue lips, physical fatigue and lassitude of spirit, lack of warmth in the limbs, diarrhea, pale tongue with white fur, and a faint weak pulse, treat by boosting qi and harmonizing the center and by quickening the blood and outthrusting toxin, using Center-Supplementing Qi-Boosting Decoction ( zhöng   täng) plus Carthami Flos (hóng huä). See maculopapular eruption.

measles toxin entering construction


Measles with heat evil causing intense heat and entering the construction-blood and in some cases the pericardium. Measles toxin entering construction is marked by papules that coalesce and turn dark purple in color, high fever, vexation and thirst, delirious raving, clouded spirit, tetanic reversal, groping in the air, crimson tongue with prickles, and in some cases bleeding from the mouth, nose, and two yin (anus and genital orifices).

Medication:  Clear construction and cool the blood with Construction-Clearing Decoction (qïng yíng täng) or Scourge-Clearing Toxin-Vanquishing Beverage (qïng wën bài  yîn). These formulas can be complemented by Spirit-Like Rhinoceros Horn Elixir (shén  dän).

measles toxin falling into the lung

  xiàn fèi

Measles in which, after disappearance of papules, contraction of wind evil causes the measles toxin to fall into the lung. The signs are high fever, cough, hasty breathing, phlegm rale, flaring nostrils, and green-blue lips.

Medication:  Diffuse the lung and outthrust the evil; clear heat and resolve toxin. Use Ephedra, Apricot Kernel, Licorice, and Gypsum Decoction ( xìng gän shí täng) with additions.

Western Medical Concept:  measles pneumonia* measles pneumonia. If heat is pronounced, add Anemarrhenae Rhizoma (zhï ), Scutellariae Radix (huáng qín), Isatidis Radix (bân lán gën), Houttuyniae Herba cum Radice ( xïng câo), Lonicerae Flos (jïn yín huä), and Forsythiae Fructus (lián qiào). If cough is pronounced and phlegm copious, add Trichosanthis Fructus (guä lóu), Mori Radicis Cortex (säng bái ), Lycii Radicis Cortex (  ), and Platycodonis Radix (jié gêng). Western medical treatment may also be recommended.

meat-type food damage

shäng ròu shí

See food damage.

mechanical ejection


Provoking vomiting by the introduction of an instrument into the throat in the treatment of poisoning or food stagnation. Mechanical ejection is usually performed by stimulating the throat with a cleaned chicken's or duck's feather.

medial headache

zhèng tóu tòng

Synonym:  ambilateral headache .

A pain felt on the right and left side of the head; a regular headache as opposed to a hemilateral headache. See headache.

medicated leaven


A medicinal preparation made by fermenting powdered medicinals mixed with flour and then dried in cakes. Medicated leavens can be decocted with other medicinals. They enter the stomach and spleen and help digestion. The most commonly used is Massa Medicata Fermentata (shén ). Others include Pinelliae Massa Fermentata (bàn xià ) and Aquilariae Ligni Massa (chén xiäng ).

medicated thread drainage

yào xiàn yîn líu

An external medical technique whereby a twisted paper coated with or enveloping medicinal powder is introduced into a fistula to assist the removal of pus and toxin, and promote healing.


yòng yào

The use of medicinals, including the choice of medicinals, their final preparation, and their administration to the patient.



Synonym:  agent .

Any animal, vegetable, or mineral product that traditionally is powdered, decocted or prepared as a wine or distillate for oral consumption, or prepared as a powder, paste, or wine for topical application. Medicinals include the drugs of the orthodox literary tradition, often widely distributed beyond their production area, which are now known as Chinese medicinals , as well as locally used herbal medicinals or folk medicinals scantily described in premodern literature. The term Chinese medicinals and herbs covers both categories. Chinese medicinals and to lesser extent herbal medicinals too, have properties described in terms of nature and flavor, toxicity,