Section U



A disintegration of the skin (including what is known in modern medicine as mucosa) that easily suppurates; erosion. Compare putrefaction.

ulceration of the eyelid rim

yân xián chì làn

Synonym:  wind ulceration of the eyelid rim .

Erosion of palpebral margin with itching, soreness, and, in severe cases, loss of eyelashes. Attributable to damp-heat brewing in the spleen and stomach contending with subsequently contracted wind.

Western Medical Concept:  blepharitis marginalis* blepharitis marginalis.

Medication:  Dispel wind, clear heat, and eliminate dampness. Treatment depends on evil prevalence. If dampness is predominant, use Dampness-Eliminating Decoction (chú shï täng). If wind prevails, use Bupleurum Powder (chái  sân). If heat prevails, use Three Yellows Heart-Draining Decoction (sän huáng xiè xïn täng). Egg Yolk Paste ( dàn huáng yóu gäo), which is made by cooking egg yolks in oil and adding a pinch of ground processed Smithsonitum ( gän shí) and Borneolum (bïng piàn), may be applied topically.

Acupuncture:  Moxa , , and GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , or needle with drainage.

umbilical damp


Synonym:  umbilical damp swelling .

A condition of wetness of and possible exudation from the umbilicus, sometimes with redness and swelling of the surrounding area after the umbilical cord has been shed. Umbilical damp is attributed to the invasion of water-damp due to improper care after removal of the cord.

Medication:  Disperse toxin. Dab Mastodi Ossis Fossilia (lóng ) or Ostreae Concha Calcinata (duàn  ), and Smithsonitum ( gän shí) onto the affected area.

umbilical damp swelling

 shï zhông

umbilical damp swelling.

umbilical-level effusion


An effusion, (a large welling-abscess or flat-abscess), at the level of the umbilicus.

umbilical sores


From The Origin and Indicators of Disease (zhü bìng yuán hòu lùn) A condition that usually develops from umbilical damp. In mild cases, there is redness and swelling of the umbilicus; in severe cases, there is ulceration spreading all around the umbilicus exuding pus and water, and attended by heat~effusion, vexation and agitation, red lips and dry mouth.

Medication:  Treat by clearing heat and resolving toxin, assisted by coursing wind and relieving itch. Apply Indigo and Gold Powder (qïng jïn sân). In severe cases, administer Five-Ingredient Toxin-Dispersing Beverage ( wèi xiäo  yîn).

umbilical wind


Synonym:  pursed mouth .

Lockjaw in neonates. Umbilical wind is characterized by clenched jaws, arched-back rigidity, and a peculiar grimace. In severe cases, facial complexion is green-blue, and there is hasty breathing. Attributable to unhygienic treatment or premature shedding of the umbilical cord. This disease has been almost largely eliminated by modern delivery methods.


Synonym:  navel .

The scar left by the umbilical cord.

unconstrained vacuous yang

 yáng  liân

vacuous yang floating upward.

unctuous strangury

gäo lín with urine like rice water (

water that rice has been washed in), snivel (nasal mucus), or animal fat. Distinction is made between vacuity and repletion. Vacuity patterns are usually attributed to spleen-kidney vacuity and are characterized by mild pain and absence of burning sensation, limp aching lumbus and knees, dizziness and tinnitus, shortness of breath, and fatigue.

Medication:  Supplement the spleen and kidney and promote astriction/ Use Center-Supplementing Qi-Boosting Decoction ( zhöng   täng), Six-Ingredient Rehmannia Pill (lìu wèi  huáng wán), or Cuscuta Seed Pill (   wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on the three yin channels of the foot and the alarm and back transport points of BL (CV-3 and BL-28). Main points: BL-28 (páng guäng shü, Bladder Transport) , CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , and KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) . For spleen-kidney vacuity, add BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa. Repletion patterns are attributed to damp-heat brewing in the lower burner and are characterized by pain and burning sensation on urination, heat~effusion, lumbar pain, and headache.

Medication:  Clearing and transform damp-heat and separate the clear and eliminating the turbid. Use formulas such as Fish Poison Yam Clear-Turbid Separation Beverage ( xiè fën qïng yîn) or Lygodium Spore Powder (hâi jïn shä sân).

Acupuncture:  To the main points given above add LR-5 ( göu, Woodworm Canal) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , KI-7 ( lïu, Recover Flow) , and LR-8 ( quán, Spring at the Bend) ; needle with drainage. See strangury patterns.

unfavorable measles pattern

 zhên  zhèng

Any manifestation of unfavorable turns in the development of measles that result from right vacuity and evil repletion in measles, e.g., signs such as inhibited eruption of papules, immediate disappearance of papules after eruption, or a dull purple coloration of the macules, signs such as vigorous heat~effusion, acute cough, rapid breathing with phlegm rale, flared nostrils and raised chest, green-blue or purple lips, and surging racing pulse. Such signs as a whole indicate heat toxin attacking the lung. Blackish purplish macules forming patches, and a dry crimson tongue with prickles indicate toxin penetrating construction-blood. Clouded spirit and tetanic reversal with convulsions indicate evil toxin falling inward to the pericardium. A somber white complexion with dull pale macules lacking a red flush with clouding spleen, limb reversal, white glossy tongue fur, and a faint sunken pulse indicate vacuity of original qi preventing the outthrust of evil. Also falling within the scope of unfavorable measles patterns are: a)~the early disappearance of macules; b)~the sudden disappearance of macules as they are erupting; c)~failure of macules to disappear within the usual period with continuing vigorous heat~effusion; d)~the appearance of vigorous heat~effusion, cough, and diarrhea after the papules have disappeared.

Medication:  A general formula is Ephedra, Apricot Kernel, Licorice, and Gypsum Decoction ( xìng gän shí täng) plus Fritillariae Bulbus (bèi ), Trichosanthis Semen (guä lóu ), Bambusae Succus Exsiccatus (zhú ), Scutellariae Radix (huáng qín), and Lycii Radicis Cortex (  ). For evil penetrating construction blood, use Rhinoceros Horn and Rehmannia Decoction ( jiâo  huáng täng) plus Lithospermi, Macrotomiae, seu Onosmatis Radix ( câo) and Isatidis Folium ( qïng ). For evil entering the pericardium, use Peaceful Palace Bovine Bezoar Pill (än göng níu huáng wán) or Purple Snow ( xuê). For original qi vacuity, use Center-Supplementing Qi-Boosting Decoction ( zhöng   täng).

unfavorable pattern sign


Compare favorable pattern sign.

ungratifying defecation

biàn chü  shuâng

Defecation that leaves the patient with a feeling that the bowels have not been satisfactorily emptied; occurs in dysentery and other damp-heat patterns and in food stagnation and gastrointestinal accumulation.

ungratifying expectoration

luò tán  shuâng

Expectoration that fails to relieve discomfort in the chest; occurs in autumn dryness patterns and phlegm panting.

ungratifying menstruation

jïng xíng  shuâng

Absence of full menstrual flow. See scant menstruation.

ungratifying thought

shén   shuâng

A state of mind in which thinking is not creative or productive and is associated with dysphoria or unpleasant feelings; observed, for example, in gallbladder heat.

ungratifying urination

xiâo biàn  shuâng

A feeling of incomplete urination; sometimes observed, for example, in binding depression of liver qi (see dribbling urinary block.)

unidirectional twirling

cuö zhën

See needle twisting.

uninhibited stool


Natural discharge of stool. The opposite of difficult defecation.

uninhibited urination

xiâo biàn  

Normal voidings of urine.

united brightness of two yang

liâng yáng  míng

The yang brightness channel. Yang brightness is the final stage in the development of yang qi, and is a continuation of greater yang and lesser yang and thus represents their combined radiance. See opening, closing, and pivot.

uniting point


See transport point.

Uniting Points
  • LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh)
  • LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend)
  • ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li)
  • SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring)
  • HT-3 (shào hâi, Lesser Sea)
  • SI-8 (xiâo hâi, Small Sea)
  • BL-40 (wêi zhöng, Bend Center)
  • KI-10 (yïn , Yin Valley)
  • PC-3 ( , Marsh at the Bend)
  • TB-10 (tiän jîng, Celestial Well)
  • GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring)
  • LR-8 ( quán, Spring at the Bend)

unlike treatment of like disease

tóng bìng  zhì

Using different methods to treat the same disease manifesting in different patterns in different people, in different places, or at different times. See determining treatment by patterns identified; act(ion) according to time, place, and person; principle of treatment.


shëng (

Of medicinals) not having been subject to processing of any kind, especially any that involves heating; uncooked.

unquiet sleep


Inability to achieve a deep unbroken sleep. Unquiet sleep is observed in construction-aspect and other advanced-stage heat (febrile) disease patterns, gan of the spleen, heart vacuity, blood vacuity, depleted water and flaming fire, and ascendant hyperactivity of liver yang. See also vexation and agitation.

unquiet sleep due to stomach disharmony

wèi     än

From The Inner Canon (nèi jïng) Inability to sleep well due to stomach counterflow panting. Unquiet sleep due to stomach disharmony arises when a strong stomach with large intake of food and a weak spleen result in stagnation in the ``stomach domain'' (stomach and intestines) and cause rheum and phlegm to form.

Medication:  Harmonize the stomach and dispel phlegm. Use Two Matured Ingredients Stomach-Calming Powder (èr chén píng wèi sân) plus Acori Rhizoma (shí chäng ) and Pumex (hâi  shí), or Gardeniae Fructus (shän zhï ) and Coptidis Rhizoma (huáng lián). For hard bound stool, use Phlegm-Abducting Decoction (dâo tán täng). For stomach duct pain, use Phlegm-Rolling Pill (gûn tán wán) or even Minor Stomach Elixir (xiâo wèi dän).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on HT, CV, back transport points, and ST. Select , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) ; needle with drainage.



See free.

unsurfaced heat

shën   wài yáng

Generalized heat~effusion in which heat is felt only by prolonged palpation; mostly due to binding of dampness and heat, where the dampness is blocked on the outside. Since the heat lies deep within the dampness it cannot easily be felt on the surface of the body.

untwining rope pulse

jiê suô mài

See seven strange pulses.

ununited fontanels

xìn jiê

ununited skull.

ununited skull


Synonym:  ununited fontanels ;

Synonym:  retarded closure of the fontanels .

The failure of the bones of the head to join together in infants. The bones of the skull harden at around the age of sixth months, and the anterior fontanel closes between the age of 12--18 months, whereas the posterior fontanel closes between the age of 1-3 months. Ununited skull is attributable to congenital insufficiency and depletion of kidney qi due to insufficiency of essence-blood in the parents. The signs are a taut shiny scalp with green-blue veins, bright white facial complexion, downward turned eyes, and poor mental development.

Medication:  Origin-Supporting Powder ( yuán sân). Fontanel-Sealing Powder (fëng xìn sân), which comprises Biotae Semen (bâi  rén), Arisaematis Rhizoma (tiän nán xïng), and Ledebouriellae Radix (fáng fëng) in equal proportions, can be mixed with pig's bile and applied on gauze.

Acupuncture:  Select BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , BL-11 ( zhù, Great Shuttle) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , KI-7 ( lïu, Recover Flow) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) .

unyielding viscus

gäng zàng

The liver. See liver is the unyielding viscus.


shëng rise;

raise or cause to rise.

upbearing and stirring

shëng dòng

The movement of liver yang. When liver yin-blood (or liver-kidney yin humor) is depleted, upstirring of liver yang is unchecked. The resulting pattern is called ascendant hyperactivity of liver yang.

upbearing medicinals can eliminate downbearing

shëng   jiàng <

upbearing [medicinals]> Upbearing medicinals (i.e., ones that ascend to the upper body and upbear yang) like Cimicifugae Rhizoma (shëng ) and Bupleuri Radix (chái ) treat qi vacuity fall patterns such as prolapse of the rectum or the vagina. See upbearing formula.

upbearing fire flush

miàn hóng shëng huô

A flushed complexion due to fire in the organs, e.g., heart fire flaming upward.

upbearing formula


One of the twelve kinds of formula. An example of an upbearing formula is Center-Supplementing Qi-Boosting Decoction ( zhöng   täng), which contains, among others, the upbearing medicinals Cimicifugae Rhizoma (shëng ) and Bupleuri Radix (chái ) and treats prolapse of the rectum or vagina due to center qi fall.

upcast yang

dài yáng

From On Cold Damage (shäng hán lùn) A critical disease pattern of true lower body cold and false upper body heat that arises when in debilitation of the lower origin, true yang floats astray and that is characterized by tidal reddening of the cheeks and attributable to vacuous yang floating upward. The tidal reddening is characterized by pale red patches, giving the cheeks the appearance of having been dabbed with rouge. Since the patches often constantly change location, this complexion is often described as a ``floating red'' facial complexion. It is a sign of false heat accompanied by other signs such as nosebleed and bleeding gums, sore swollen throat, and dry mouth. The true cold is reflected in counterflow cold of the lower limbs and long voidings of clear urine, and a moist black tongue fur. The pulse is large and floating, but vacuous and forceless. In severe cases, it is faint and fine, verging on expiration.

Comparison:  Upcast yang is similar to exuberant yin repelling yang. Both are true cold and false heat. Upcast yang is lower body vacuity cold with false upper body heat, whereas exuberant yin repelling yang is true internal cold with false external heat. The two patterns cannot be categorically separated.

upcast eyes

dài yân

A condition in which both eyes are fixed in an upturned direction; observed in greater yang expiration patterns. Elementary Questions ( wèn) states, ``The greater yang vessel reaches its end with upcast eyes, arching of the back, and tugging and slackening.'' It is also seen in child fright reversal and reverting yin wind-phlegm obstruction patterns.


shàng yán

flame upward.

upflaming heart fire

xïn huô shàng yán

heart fire flaming upward.

upflaming liver fire

gän huô shàng yán

liver fire flaming upward.

upflaming vacuity fire

 huô shàng yán

vacuity fire flaming upward.


shëng  yào

Any medicinal that bears upward or floats, i.e., that acts on the upper body the surface of the body. See bearing.

upflow nausea

fàn ê

Desire to vomit either without vomiting or with upflow of clear drool into the mouth. See nausea and vomiting.



Synonym:  upraise .

Promote normal upbearing (of spleen qi and lifting prolapsed organs). ``Upbearing eliminates downbearing,'' e.g., center qi fall can be treated with Center-Supplementing Qi-Boosting Decoction ( zhöng   täng), and downward fall of thoracic qi can be treated with Fall-Upbearing Decoction (shëng xiàn täng).

uplifting center qi

shëng  zhöng 

To treat center qi fall. Center qi, i.e., spleen qi, bears the essence of grain and water (nutrients) upward to the lung, which ensures their distribution to the organs and all parts of the body. When center qi falls, there is enduring diarrhea, prolapse of the rectum and uterus, or inhibited urination. The classic center-qi--uplifting formula is Center-Supplementing Qi-Boosting Decoction ( zhöng   täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, CV, GV, SP, and ST. Select GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , BL-43 (gäo huäng shü, Gao-Huang Transport) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) , SP-3 (tài bái, Supreme White) , and LU-9 (tài yuän, Great Abyss) ; needle with supplementation and moxa.

upper body


The upper part of the body (yang) as opposed to the lower body (yin); sometimes specifically denotes the upper burner.

upper body cold and lower body heat

shàng hán xià 


A cold-heat complex in which cold evil is located in the upper body, characterized by aversion to cold, nausea, vomiting, and a white tongue fur, and heat evil in the lower body, characterized by abdominal distention, constipation, and reddish urine.

Definition:  Conditions in which there is a cold-natured disease in the upper body and an unrelated hot-natured disease in the lower, e.g., phlegm-rheum cough and panting in the upper body and heat strangury in the lower body.

upper body heat and lower body cold

shàng  xià hán


A cold-heat complex characterized by the simultaneous presence of a heat pattern in the upper body and a cold pattern in the lower body. Such a complex may arise, for example, as a result of inappropriate precipitation creating a lower body cold pattern of persistent diarrhea with cold limbs, and a slow sunken pulse, and causing damage to liquids that encourages heat evil to rise upward to cause a sore throat and expectoration of yellow phlegm, possibly streaked with blood.

Definition:  Extreme vacuity of kidney yang creating exuberant yin cold in the lower body and causing vacuous yang to float upward to the upper body. See vacuous yang floating upward.

upper burner

shàng jiäo

The upper part of the triple burner, comprising the heart and lung.

upper burner governs intake

shàng jiäo zhû 

The upper burner is responsible for the intake of air and food.

upper burner is like a mist

shàng jiäo  

The heart and lung, the two organs of the upper burner, distribute the nutrients around the body, as a nourishing dew settles from a mist.

upper dispersion

shàng xiäo

Synonym:  lung dispersion ;

A dispersion-thirst pattern characterized principally by thirst with taking of fluids, attributable to exuberant heart-stomach fire and upper burner dryness-heat.

Medication:  Moisten the lung and clear the stomach. Use White Tiger Decoction Plus Ginseng (bái  jiä rén shën täng), Dispersion-Thirst Formula (xiäo  fäng), or Ophiopogon and Asparagus Decoction (èr döng täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LU and back transport points. Select BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LU-10 ( , Fish Border) , CV-23 (lián quán, Ridge Spring) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage. See dispersion-thirst.

upper gate tower

què shàng

The region above the gate tower, i.e., above the glabella.

upper orifices

shàng qiào

Synonym:  clear orifices .

The eyes, ears, nostrils, and mouth.

upper transverse bone

shàng héng 

The superior margin of the sternum.



See uplift.

upsurging yellow humor

huáng  shàng chöng

A condition characterized by the accumulation of yellow fluid in the wind wheel that can lead to protrusion of the eye surface and in some cases cover the pupil. Upsurging yellow humor is attributed to intense fire-heat toxin and is often seen in congealed fat screens or as a result of external injury.

Western Medical Concept:  hypopyon* hypopyon.

Medication:  Clear heat and resolve toxin using variations of Imperial Grace Rhinoceros Horn and Rehmannia Pill ( fäng  jiâo  huáng wán).

upturned knife pulse

yân däo mài

See ten strange pulses.

upward forcing of fetal qi

täi  shàng 

fetal qi forcing upward.

urinary block


dribbling urinary block.

urinary incontinence

xiâo biàn  jìn

Involuntary loss of urine, especially in the daytime. Urinary incontinence is involuntary loss of urine during the daytime as opposed to enuresis, which usually denotes loss of urine during sleep. Urinary incontinence most commonly occurs in vacuity patterns, but is sometimes observed in repletion heat patterns.

Insufficiency of the kidney origin  (shèn yuán  ) with vacuity cold in the lower burner causes urinary incontinence with clear urine.

Medication:  Warm the kidney and secure the bladder with Stream-Reducing Pill (suö quán wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV, back transport points, and KI. Select CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , BL-28 (páng guäng shü, Bladder Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , BL-32 ( liáo, Second Bone-Hole) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with supplementation and moxa.

Insufficiency of the lung and spleen  (fèi   ) with vacuous qi failing to retain urine gives rise to urinary incontinence and frequent urination attended by cough, panting, qi timidity, lassitude of spirit and physical fatigue, reduced food intake, sloppy stool, abdominal distention after eating, pale tongue with white fur, and a rapid stringlike pulse.

Medication:  Supplement qi with formulas such as Center-Supplementing Qi-Boosting Decoction ( zhöng   täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV, back transport points, GV, LU, SP, and ST. Select BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-43 (gäo huäng shü, Gao-Huang Transport) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , LU-9 (tài yuän, Great Abyss) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) ; needle with supplementation and moxa.

Frenetic stirring of bladder fire evil  (páng guäng huô xié wàng dòng) can cause frequent urination and difficulty in retaining urine between voidings.

Medication:  Clear and disinhibit with Poria (Hoelen) Four Powder ( líng sân) combined with Three Yellows Decoction (sän huáng täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly transport and alarm points of BL, and on SP. Select CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-28 (páng guäng shü, Bladder Transport) , and LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) ; needle with drainage.

Liver depression and binding heat  (gän   jié) can cause urinary urgency and occasional scant involuntary losses of urine.

Medication:  Course the liver with variations of Supplemented Free Wanderer Powder (jiä wèi xiäo yáo sân) made into honey or water pills.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on PC, LR, SP, and CV. Select BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , KI-1 (yông quán, Gushing Spring) , CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , and SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) ; needle with drainage. Wind stroke, externally contracted heat (febrile) disease, or epilepsy can cause urinary incontinence with clouded spirit, delirious speech, and rolled-back or forward-staring eyes. Such conditions are treated by emergency measures chosen according to presenting signs. See enuresis; urine.

urinary stoppage

xiâo biàn  töng

dribbling urinary block.

urinary stoppage in pregnancy

rèn shën xiâo biàn  töng

From The Origin and Indicators of Disease (zhü bìng yuán hòu lùn) Urinary stoppage due to pressure on the bladder in the latter stages of pregnancy; attributed to timidity of center qi or kidney qi vacuity with impairment of qi transformation and movement of water and inhibition of bladder action.

Qi vacuity  ( ) is attended by shortness of breath, heavy-headedness and dizziness.

Medication:  Supplement the center and raise the fetus with Center-Supplementing Qi-Boosting Decoction ( zhöng   täng).

Kidney vacuity  (shèn ) is attended by fidgetiness, cold limbs and fear of cold, and dizzy head.

Medication:  Warm the kidney and support yang. Use Kidney Qi Pill (shèn  wán). See also shifted bladder.

urinary turbidity

niào zhuó

Murkiness of the urine unassociated with inhibited urination or pain on urination. When the urine is white like rice water ( gan1, water that rice has been rinsed in), the condition is called white turbidity. When the urine is red, it is called red turbidity.

White turbidity  (bái zhuó) is attributed to spleen-stomach damp-heat pouring down into the bladder, and is associated with fullness and oppression in the chest and stomach duct, dry mouth and thirst, yellow slimy tongue fur, and a rapid slippery pulse. If the condition persists, it may develop into insufficiency of the heart and spleen and into qi vacuity fall characterized by lassitude of spirit, lack of strength, white complexion, and a soft weak pulse. If there is insufficiency of kidney yin with vacuity fire, signs include heat vexation, dry pharynx, red tongue, and a fine rapid pulse. If there is insufficiency of kidney yang and lower origin vacuity cold, signs include white complexion, cold limbs, pale tongue, and a fine sunken pulse. White turbidity with pronounced stinging pain on voiding constitutes unctuous strangury.

Medication:  For spleen-stomach damp-heat pouring down into the bladder, clear heat and disinhibit dampness using formulas like Fish Poison Yam Clear-Turbid Separation Beverage ( xiè fën qïng yîn) and variations. For qi vacuity fall, treat by nourishing the heart and fortifying the spleen, upbearing the clear, and promoting astriction using Center-Supplementing Qi-Boosting Decoction ( zhöng   täng) or Origin-Securing Brew ( yuán jiän). For kidney yin vacuity, treat by enriching yin and clearing heat with Anemarrhena and Phellodendron Eight-Ingredient Pill (zhï bâi  wèi wán) or Major Yin Supplementation Pill (  yïn wán). For insufficiency of kidney yang, treat by warming the kidney and promoting astriction with Velvet Deerhorn Supplementing and Astringing Pill ( róng   wán).

Acupuncture:  For spleen-stomach damp-heat pouring down into the bladder, base treatment mainly on SP, LI, ST, CV, and back transport points. Select LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , BL-28 (páng guäng shü, Bladder Transport) , CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and LR-8 ( quán, Spring at the Bend) ; needle with drainage. See also bloody urine; turbidity. For enduring illness with qi vacuity fall, base treatment mainly on back transport points, CV, ST, and SP. Select BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with supplementation. For kidney yin vacuity, base treatment mainly on KI and CV. Needle with supplementation at BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and KI-7 ( lïu, Recover Flow) , and with drainage at KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , KI-2 (rán , Blazing Valley) , and HT-8 (shào , Lesser Mansion) . For kidney yang vacuity, base treatment mainly on KI, GV and CV. Select BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , and KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa.

Red turbidity  (chì zhuó) is usually attributable to damp-heat in the lower burner scorching the blood aspect and damaging the network vessels. In the initial stage, it forms a repletion pattern which can be treated with the above formulas with judicious addition of fire-clearing blood-cooling medicinals. If the condition persists and causes heart channel vacuity heat or kidney qi vacuity, the same formulas may be used with the addition of heart-supplementing and kidney-boosting medicinals.

Western Medical Concept:  chyluria* urinary tract*!inflammation of tuberculosis* phosphaturia* chyluria, urinary tract inflammation; tuberculosis; tumors; phosphaturia.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on SP, CV, LR, KI, and back transport points. Select SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , BL-28 (páng guäng shü, Bladder Transport) , CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , LR-8 ( quán, Spring at the Bend) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , and KI-2 (rán , Blazing Valley) ; needle with drainage. For enduring illness with heart channel vacuity heat and kidney qi vacuity, add BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , HT-8 (shào , Lesser Mansion) , and KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) .

urinary urgency


Increased frequency or urination; often referred to simply as urgency.


xiâo biàn

Surplus body fluid discharged from the anterior yin. The production of urine involves the spleen's action of moving and transforming water-damp, the triple burner's regulation of the waterways, and the small intestine's separation of the clear and turbid, and in the final stage by kidney qi transformation. It is passed to the bladder by whose opening and closing action it can be stored and discharged at convenient times. The normal, healthy individual voids from four to six times a day, mostly during the daytime. Urine is usually a pale yellow in color. Changes in color are usually associated with changes in volume (discussed below). Yellow urine or reddish urine, referring to urine darker than normal in color, is associated short scant voidings and indicates heat. Colorlessness of urine is associated with long copious voidings. Bloody urine without heat or pronounced pain may be due to spleen and kidney vacuity, vacuity fire, or damp-heat. Other signs must be correlated for accurate diagnosis. Murkiness of the urine is called urinary turbidity, a distinction being made between red turbidity and white turbidity. Urinary voidings marked by a long lasting stream of clear urine are called long voidings of clear urine, and are a vacuity cold sign. Profuse urination (frequent copious voidings) is a sign of dispersion-thirst when accompanied by thirst, high fluid intake, and weight loss. Short scant voidings are normal in hot weather if fluids lost in sweating are not replaced by adequate fluid intake. indicate heat. A gradual reduction of the amount of urine, leading to inhibited urination (scant urine with difficult urination) or dribbling urinary block with generalized puffy swelling is usually yang vacuity water flood arising when kidney yang is debilitated and fails to perform qi transformation and move water. Sudden urinary block (urine retention) together with foul-smelling urine, pain in the bladder, and heat~effusion indicates repletion. with clear urine or even incontinence indicates qi vacuity. , frequent urination at night, indicates vacuous kidney yang failing to secure and contain urine. Frequent short voidings of scant urine occurring in pregnancy indicates shifted bladder and is attributable to qi vacuity. Frequent urination, urgency, and painful urination, often with blood or stones in the urine, constitute strangury, which may be the result of qi vacuity, repletion heat, or damp-heat. See also shifted bladder. (bedwetting) is usually attributable to insecurity of vacuous kidney qi. is a continuing dribble after urination has terminated (patients in such cases being unable to achieve a full stream of urine), and arises most commonly when debilitation of kidney qi leads to failure of the opening and closing action of the bladder. is usually due to vacuity and may be seen, for example, in wind stroke desertion patterns. Western medicine establishes that the adult voids between 700 to 2000 ml per day. A daily volume in excess of 2500 ml is termed polyuria (excessive secretion of urine), and less than 500 ml is termed oliguria (diminished secretion of urine). Anuria (absence of urine) refers to a daily volume of less than 100 ml.


uterine cold infertility

bäo hán  yùn

Inability to bear children due to kidney yang vacuity or wind-cold. Uterine cold infertility is usually associated with smaller-abdominal cold, physical cold and cold limbs, and delayed menstruation.

Insufficiency of kidney yang  (shèn yáng  ) leads to infertility when it allows cold to arise internally and deprive the uterus of warmth.

Medication:  Treat insufficiency of kidney yang by warming the kidney and invigorating yang with Cinnamon Bark and Aconite Eight-Ingredient Pill (guì   wèi wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on back transport points, GV, CV, KI, and ST. Select BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , CV-7 (yïn jiäo, Yin Intersection) , CV-2 ( , Curved Bone) , ST-29 (guï lái, Return) , and KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) ; needle with supplementation and large amounts of moxa.

Wind-cold  (fëng hán) can cause infertility when poor attention to health during menstruation allows wind-cold to settle in the uterus and prevent normal reception of essence (conception).

Medication:  Treat by warming the channels and assisting yang, warming the uterus and dispelling cold with Mugwort and Cyperus Palace-Warming Pill (ài  nuân göng wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on GB, GV, CV, ST, and KI. Needle with drainage and moxa at GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , TB-5 (wài guän, Outer Pass) , and LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , and with supplementation and large amounts of moxa at GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , ST-29 (guï lái, Return) , CV-7 (yïn jiäo, Yin Intersection) , and KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) .

uterine network vessels

bäo luò

uterine vessels.

uterine obstruction


Synonym:  pregnancy abdominal pain .

Smaller-abdominal pain during pregnancy; attributed to vacuity cold, blood vacuity, or qi depression causing inhibited movement of qi and blood, or blood vacuity depriving the uterine vessels of nourishment.

Vacuity cold  ( hán) is characterized by smaller-abdominal cold pain that is relieved by warmth.

Medication:  Warm the channels and dissipate cold. Use Mugwort and Cyperus Palace-Warming Pill (ài  nuân göng wán).

Blood vacuity  (xuè ) is associated with headache, dizzy vision, and continuous smaller-abdominal pain that likes pressure.

Medication:  Nourish the blood, relieve pain, and quiet the fetus. Use Clove, Ass Hide Glue, and Mugwort Decoction (dïng xiäng jiäo ài täng).

Qi depression  ( ) is smaller-abdominal pain with stomach duct and abdominal distention and fullness, vexation, agitation, and irascibility.

Medication:  Course the liver and resolve depression. Use Free Wanderer Powder (xiäo yáo sân).

uterine vessels

bäo mài

Synonym:  uterine network vessels .

The vessels that supply the uterus, permit menstruation, and nourish the fetus. They include the uterine parts of the thoroughfare and controlling vessels. Elementary Questions ( wèn) states, ``The uterine vessels home to the heart and net the uterus. When the menses come, the uterine vessel close.'' The Magic Pivot (líng shü) states, ``The thoroughfare and controlling vessels start in the uterus.''



Synonym:  womb .

One of the extraordinary organs whose main function is menstruation and childbearing, which are related to kidney essential qi, the thoroughfare and controlling vessels, and the heart, liver, and spleen. Only when there is abundant essential qi can the female reproductive organs develop to maturity, ensuring proper menstruation and adequate conditions for conception and childbearing. In old age, the kidney essential qi grows weak and menstruation ceases; the reproductive function is then lost. Elementary Questions ( wèn) states, ``At the age of seven, the kidney qi of the female is strong, the teeth are replaced, and the hair is long. At the age of two sevens i.e., fourteen, the ``heavenly tenth'' arrives, controlling vessel flows, and the thoroughfare vessel fills, the menses come according to their times, and she can bear offspring At seven sevens i.e., the age of forty-two, the controlling vessel empties, the thoroughfare vessel weakens, tian2 gui3 is exhausted, the passages of the earth are cut, the body deteriorates, and she can no longer bear children.'' This statement highlights the key role of the essential qi of the kidney (kidney qi) in maintaining normal menstruation and the conditions for childbearing. Both these vessels start from the uterus. The controlling vessel joins with the three yin channels of the foot in the abdomen and regulates all the yin channels of the body. Thus it is sometimes referred to as ``the sea of the yin channels.'' When there is an abundance of blood and qi in the twelve channels, it flows into the thoroughfare and controlling vessels, which control the flow into the uterus, permitting menstruation. Menstruation begins during puberty, when the essential qi of the kidney comes to fullness and the uterus develops. It was traditionally held that before the opening of the controlling vessel and the full development of the thoroughfare vessel, the menses would not start. At the age of about fifty, the thoroughfare and controlling vessels become vacuous as a result of the gradual debilitation of essential qi, causing menstrual irregularity, and finally, menopause. This represents the natural course of development, but disturbance of menstruation may occur at other times, owing to diseases of the thoroughfare and controlling vessels. The blood is governed by the heart, stored by the liver, and commanded by the spleen. The role of these organs with regard to the blood explains their connection with menstruation. If the liver fails to store blood or the spleen fails to command the blood, conditions such as profuse menstrual flow (menorrhagia), shortening of the menstrual cycle, prolonged menstrual periods, or flooding and spotting may occur. Such conditions are known as the liver and spleen failing to store and command the blood. Underproduction of blood resulting from diminished assimilation of the essence of grain and water in spleen vacuity conditions, or heart blood vacuity caused by mental and emotional disturbances, may lead to reduced menstrual flow, prolongation of the menstrual cycle, or even menstrual block, all of which fall under the general term of dual vacuity of heart and spleen. Mental depression may affect the liver's governing of free coursing, causing liver qi depression, which may also disrupt menstruation.


xuán yöng chuí

The fleshy protuberance hanging down at the back of the palate. A disease of the uvula is flying flag wind.