Section E




Organ of hearing; orifice of the kidney. The ear's hearing ability depends on the state of essence, marrow, qi, and blood.

Diagnosis:  Ear diseases are largely related to the kidney, but may also be related to the heart, liver, and spleen. The hand greater yang small intestine channel, foot greater yang bladder channel, and hand lesser yang triple burner channel all pass through the region of the ear. The withering of the auricles and shrinking of the lobes in the course of enduring or severe illness is a sign of qi and blood depletion and impending expiration of kidney qi. In recent years, extensive research into ear acupuncture has shown that some diseases of the bowels and viscera are reflected by changes in ear point reactivity. See diseases of the ear.

ear acupuncture

êr zhën

A method of treatment that involves the needling of specific points of the ear. In a wider sense, it also includes massage, medicinal injections, and application of pressure to seeds or metal balls at specific points. When needling ear points, the needle is inserted and rotated for a few seconds. The needle may be retained for 30--60 minutes, during which time the needle may be rotated at intervals. Needles may also be implanted. Ear acupuncture has broad applications. The action of each point is usually indicated by the name. Points named after organs or parts of the body are used to treat diseases of those organs or parts. For example, the anus point is used to treat itching anus, splitting of the anus, hemorrhoids, and prolapse of the rectum; the toe, heel, ankle, and knee points are used to treat pain and stiffness in those areas. Points named after diseases or therapeutic actions treat those diseases or have those therapeutic actions. Thus, the allergy point treats allergies, whereas the panting-calming point relieves coughing and panting. A small number of points are named by their position on the auricle. These include helix points 1--6, which all treat disease of the tonsils and the apex point, which abates heat, reduces inflammation, lowers blood pressure, and resuscitates. Some ear points can be used in acupuncture anesthesia.

ear gate

êr mén


The tonguelike projection in front of the ear.

Western Medical Concept:  tragus* tragus.

Definition:  TB-21 (êr mén, Ear Gate) , which is located at the tragus.

earlier heaven

xiän tiän

What is received from the parents at an individual's conception; the congenital constitution. Earlier heaven is understood to be governed by the kidney, in opposition to later heaven (or the acquired constitution) governed by the spleen.

ear lock


The lock of hair in front of the ear.

early morning diarrhea

chén xiè

See fifth-watch diarrhea.

ear mushroom

êr jùn

Synonym:  ear pile .

A growth on the ear, bulbous in form and attached to the body by a thinner stem. An ear mushroom may be associated with slight pain, and pressure may cause pain stretching to the vertex of the head. It gradually grows in time and may block the ear hole or hang out of it. It can cause hearing impairment. It is attributed to congealing and gathering of liver and kidney channel fire toxin.

Western Medical Concept:  neoplasm of the ear*!benign benign neoplasm of the ear.

Medication:  Clear the liver and drain fire using Gardenia Liver-Clearing Decoction (zhï  qïng gän täng). Sal Ammoniac Powder (náo shä sân) can be applied topically.

ear pain

êr tòng

Pain within the ear, usually associated with reduced hearing ability. Ear pain patterns are identified by attending signs. The main patterns are liver-gallbladder wind-heat, wind with damp-heat, vacuity fire, and qi-blood stasis obstruction.

Liver-gallbladder wind-heat  (gän dân fëng ) ear pain is attended by itching. Concurrence of intense triple burner and ministerial fire is characterized by swelling and distention.

Medication:  Treat by coursing wind and clearing heat with formulas such as Diaphragm-Cooling Powder (liáng  sân). Intense triple burner and ministerial fire is treated by clearing and discharging liver, gallbladder, and triple burner fire, using formulas like Gentian Liver-Draining Decoction (lóng dân xiè gän täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GB, TB, and LI. Select GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , TB-5 (wài guän, Outer Pass) , TB-17 ( fëng, Wind Screen) , GB-2 (tïng huì, Auditory Convergence) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) , and GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) ; needle with drainage. For concurrent intense triple burner and ministerial fire, add TB-3 (zhöng zhû, Central Islet) and prick TB-1 (guän chöng, Passage Hub) to bleed.

Wind evil with damp-heat  (fëng xié jiän jiä shï ) causes pain accompanied by erosion and watery discharge.

Medication:  Dispel wind, eliminate dampness, and clear heat with formulas such as Sweet Dew Toxin-Dispersing Elixir (gän  xiäo  dän), minus Amomi Cardamomi Fructus (bái dòu kòu) and Agastaches seu Pogostemi Herba (huò xiäng) plus Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix (qín jiäo), Ledebouriellae Radix (fáng fëng), and Bombyx Batryticatus (bái jiäng cán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GB, TB, LI, SP, and ST. Select GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , TB-5 (wài guän, Outer Pass) , TB-17 ( fëng, Wind Screen) , SI-19 (tïng göng, Auditory Palace) , TB-3 (zhöng zhû, Central Islet) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , and GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) ; needle with drainage.

Vacuity fire  ( huô) ear pain is characterized by mild pain and dizziness upon standing up after crouching.

Medication:  Nourish the blood and enrich yin with Anemarrhena, Phellodendron, and Rehmannia Pill (zhï bâi  huáng wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on KI and TB. Select BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , TB-17 ( fëng, Wind Screen) , TB-21 (êr mén, Ear Gate) , and TB-3 (zhöng zhû, Central Islet) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage.

Qi-blood stasis obstruction  ( xuè  ) is characterized by a pulling pain in the ear with clouded head and tinnitus, thin tongue fur, dark tongue, and a fine rough pulse.

Medication:  Clear and drain liver heat; quicken the network vessels and free the orifices. Use Gentian Liver-Draining Decoction (lóng dân xiè gän täng) combined with Four Agents Decoction (  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on TB, LR, and SP. Select TB-17 ( fëng, Wind Screen) , TB-3 (zhöng zhû, Central Islet) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) as the main points. For gallbladder heat evil, add GB-2 (tïng huì, Auditory Convergence) , GB-43 (xiá , Pinched Ravine) , and LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , needling with drainage. For external injury with congealing qi and blood, add TB-21 (êr mén, Ear Gate) and LI-4 ( , Union Valley) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage and if necessary prick to bleed with a three-edged needle.

ear pile

êr zhì

ear mushroom.


In the doctrine of the five phases, the phase associated with the season of long summer, the spleen (and stomach), the flavor sweetness, and the color yellow.

earth engenders the myriad things

 shëng wàn 

The earth produces plant life on which man and animals feed. In the body, spleen belongs to earth; it extracts the essence of grain and water (nutrients in foodstuffs) that nurtures the whole body.

earth failing to dam water

  zhì shuî

In the five phases, the spleen belongs to earth and the kidney belongs to water. Normally, the spleen restrains the fluids and ensures their normal movement and transformation, thereby preventing diseases characterized by the flooding of water. When spleen-earth is weak, it fails to restrain water-damp, causing water swelling or phlegm-rheum. Water in this context refers to fluid in the body rather than to the kidney, the viscus belonging to water in the doctrine of the five phases.

earth level


The lower third of the insertion range of a needle, i.e., the lower third of the distance between the surface of the body and the point of deepest insertion. See heaven, human, and earth.

earth likes warmth and dryness

  wën zào

Earth needs fresh water to produce crops, but if inadequately drained, it remains permanently damp and soggy, and therefore less productive. Its production is greatly increased by warmth. Similarly, the spleen, the viscus that corresponds to earth in the body, needs liquid as well as solid food (water and grain) to supply the body with nutrients (essence of grain and water). However, impairment of the splenic movement and transformation can give rise to water-damp in the body with inhibited urination, water swelling, and phlegm-rheum; conversely, exuberant water-damp and ingestion of raw and cold food places an added burden on the spleen's movement and transformation function. Through five-phase correspondences, ``earth likes warmth and dryness'' sums up these physiological and pathological characteristics.

earth rampart


See eight ramparts.

Eastern Jin

döng jìn

The name of a dynasty ( 317--420).

Eastern Later

döng hàn

The name of a dynasty ( 25--220).

Eastern medicine


Chinese medicine as it is known in Korea and Japan.

Eastern Wei

döng wèi

The name of a dynasty ( 534--550).

Eastern Zhou

döng zhöu

The name of a dynasty (770--256 ).


rèn shën xián zhèng

See epilepsy of pregnancy.



Denotes uncontrollable loss of urine, and especially stool or semen. The term occurs in the phrases ``seminal efflux,'' ``efflux desertion'' (see desertion), and ``efflux diarrhea'' (see diarrhea). See also exuberance and debilitation.

efflux desertion

huá tuö

See desertion.

efflux diarrhea

huá xiè

Diarrhea with loss of voluntary continence; results when enduring diarrhea causes qi fall. The diarrhea is uncontrollable and may occur in the day or night without regularity. Other signs include reduced intake of food and drink, reversal cold of the limbs, sometimes swelling of the limbs, physical cold and shortness of breath, emaciation, and in some cases heat. Distinction is made between cold and heat.

Cold efflux  (hán huá) is efflux characterized by pronounced cold signs.

Medication:  Use Five Pillars Powder ( zhù sân).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GV, LU, CV, ST, and SP. Select GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , CV-9 (shuî fën, Water Divide) , ST-21 (liáng mén, Beam Gate) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with supplementation and large amounts of moxa. Perform moxibustion on salt or ginger at CV-8 (shén què, Spirit Gate Tower) .

Heat efflux  ( huá) is efflux characterized by pronounced heat signs.

Medication:  Use Intestine-Securing Pill ( cháng wán) or Chebule Powder (  sân).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GV, CV, ST, and SP. Select GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , ST-21 (liáng mén, Beam Gate) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and ST-37 (shàng  , Upper Great Hollow) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage. Moxa CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) . See also efflux.



Exuberant (of heat or fire). See heat.

effulgent gallbladder fire

dân huô wàng shèng

See gallbladder heat.

effulgent heart fire

xïn huô wàng

See heart fire.

effulgent heart-liver fire

xïn gän huô wàng

A disease pattern characterized by signs of both liver fire and heart fire. The chief signs are sleeplessness, distention and fullness in the chest and rib-side, and generalized heat~effusion. Other signs include red face, red eyes, bitter taste in the mouth, yellow urine, dry stool, vexation, agitation, and irascibility. In some cases there is mania or blood ejection or spontaneous external bleeding. The tongue is red with dry yellow fur. The pulse is stringlike, rapid, and forceful.

Medication:  Clear the liver, drain fire, and quiet the heart. Use Coptis Toxin-Resolving Decoction (huáng lián jiê  täng).

Comparison:  Effulgent heart-liver fire is similar to liver fire flaming upward. Both have heat~effusion, red eyes, thirst, yellow urine, and dry stool. Effulgent heart-liver fire differs by the additional presence of signs of heart fire flaming upward such as insomnia, mania, and blood ejection or spontaneous external bleeding.

effulgent life gate fire

mìng mén huô wàng

hyperactive kidney fire.

effulgent liver yang

gän yáng piän wàng

See ascendant hyperactivity of liver yang.

effulgent yin depletion fire

yïn kuï huô wàng

effulgent yin vacuity fire.

effulgent yin vacuity fire

yïn  huô wàng

Synonym:  exuberant yin vacuity fire .

A strong fire that arises from yin vacuity according to the principle that when yin is vacuous, heat develops internally. Effulgent yin vacuity fire is characterized by vexation, agitation, and irascibility, reddening of the cheeks, dry mouth and sore throat, and excessive libido.

Acupuncture:  Needle with supplementation at BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and with drainage at KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , KI-2 (rán , Blazing Valley) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , and HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) . If there is effulgent fire, prick HT-8 (shào , Lesser Mansion) to bleed. Compare yin vacuity with yang hyperactivity.


To move outward, as sweat through the interstices; to induce such movement. For example, ``effuse the exterior'' means to induce sweating so that evils located in the exterior can escape.

effusing sweat





The act of effusing; see effuse.

Definition:  A large severe welling-abscess or flat-abscess , e.g., effusion of the back.

effusion of the back


A headed flat-abscess of the back, usually on the governing vessel or bladder channel and attributable to stagnation in the channels and blockage of qi and blood stemming either from fire toxin brewing internally or exuberant yin vacuity fire. Distinction is made between effusions of different locations. Effusions of the upper back are located at BL-10 (tiän zhù, Celestial Pillar) ; effusions of the middle of the back are located at GV-8 (jïn suö, Sinew Contraction) ; effusions of the lower back are located at GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) ; reachable sores of the upper back are located at BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) ; reachable sores of the middle of the back are located at BL-43 (gäo huäng shü, Gao-Huang Transport) ; reachable sores of the lower back are located at BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) and BL-51 (huäng mén, Huang Gate) . See also reachable sore; welling-abscess.

effusion of the brain


A headed flat-abscess located on the pillow bone (occipital bone) or in the region of GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) .

effusion of the breast


Synonym:  shell-

bursting mammary welling-abscess yong1 .

A severe mammary welling-abscess that putrefies after bursting, quickly spreads, and easily gives rise to the development of fistulae.

Western Medical Concept:  cellulitis of the breast*!necrotic cellulitis of the breast* cellulitis of the breast; necrotic cellulitis of the breast.

eggplant disease

qié zi 

yin protrusion.

eggplant yin

yïn qié

yin protrusion.

eight extraordinary vessels

 jïng  mài

Synonym:  extraordinary vessels .

Any of the eight vessels that do not home to any organs, have no interior-exterior relationships, and whose function is to supplement the insufficiencies of the other channels. The eight extraordinary vessels are the governing , controlling , thoroughfare , girdling , yang linking , yin linking , yang springing , and yin springing vessels.

eight meeting points

 huì xué

A set of eight points, each of which treats diseases of one of eight physiological entities: the viscera, bowels, qi, blood, sinews, marrow, vessels, and bones (see Table ).

Application:  The meeting points are used to treat a general category of disease and are combined with others to address the specific needs of a patient. For example, BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , the meeting point of the blood, can be combined with SP-1 (yîn bái, Hidden White) and LR-1 ( dün, Large Pile) to treat flooding and spotting, and GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , the meeting point of the sinews, can be coupled with local points in the treatment of sprains and strains in any part of the body.

eight methods


A classification of medicinal treatment methods by Cheng Zhong-Ling of the Qing Dynasty under the eight rubrics sweating, ejection, precipitation, harmonization, warming, clearing, supplementation, and dispersion.

eight-principle pattern identification

 gäng biàn zhèng

Synonym:  eight principles .

Identification of disease patterns by eight fundamental principles, namely interior and exterior, cold and heat, vacuity and repletion, and yin and yang. Interior and exterior are the principles of depth of the disease; cold and heat are the nature of disease; vacuity and repletion are the weakness of right qi and strength of evil qi. Yin and yang, which embrace the other six principles, are general categories of disease. Interior, cold, and vacuity are yin, whereas exterior, heat, and repletion are yang. Each principle is associated with specific signs. By matching the patient's signs to them, it is possible to determine the depth and nature of the disease, and the relative strength of the forces that resist disease and those that cause it. Eight-principle pattern identification is a preliminary organization of examination data: treatment should be determined only when other methods of pattern identification have provided a more detailed picture of the patient's condition.

eight principles


See eight-principle pattern identification.

eight ramparts


Eight divisions of the eye; the water, wind, heaven, earth, fire, thunder, marsh, and mountain ramparts. These have correspondences with the five wheels. The water rampart is the pupil, corresponding to water wheel. The wind rampart is the black of the eye, corresponding to the wind wheel. The heaven rampart corresponds to the qi wheel. The earth rampart corresponds to the flesh wheel. The fire, thunder, marsh, and mountain ramparts (the upper and lower parts of the inner and outer canthi respectively), correspond to the blood wheel. In former times, the eight ramparts were applied in diagnosis; however, there was disagreement about their diagnostic significance.

eight signs of fright wind

jïng fëng  hòu

Eight traditionally recognized signs of fright wind are: convulsions, pulling, tremor, grabbing, arching, drawing, piercing, looking. See the list below. Since fright wind patterns vary in their manifestations, the eight signs are not necessarily all present at the same time, e.g., jerking of the limbs sometimes is unaccompanied by rigidity of the body or arched-back rigidity.

Eight Signs of Fright Wind
  • Convulsions ( chu4): spasmodic flexing of the elbow
  • Pulling ( che4): drawing together of the shoulders
  • Tremor ( chan4): trembling of the arms and legs
  • Grabbing ( nuo4): clenching of the fist or alternating tensing and slackening of the fingers
  • Arching ( fan3): arching of the back (arched-back rigidity, opisthotonos)
  • Drawing ( yin3): stretching backward of the arms as if drawing a bow
  • Piercing ( cuan4): forward staring of the eyes
  • Looking ( shi4): squinting and exposure of the whites of the eyes



To spontaneously expel matter from the digestive or respiratory tract through the mouth.

Definition:  To induce expulsion of harmful matter from the digestive tract, throat, or lungs through the mouth. See ejection.



One of the eight methods. A method of treatment that involves induction of vomiting, either by medicinals or by mechanical means (e.g., tickling the throat with a feather) in order to expel collected phlegm or lodged food. In clinical practice, ejection is used when phlegm-drool obstructs the throat and hampers breathing or when, after voracious eating, food stagnates in the stomach, causing distention, fullness, and pain. This method may also be used to treat poisoning, provided treatment is administered swiftly after ingestion of the toxic substance. Ejection medicinals include Cucumeris Melonis Pedicellus (guä ), Veratri Radix et Rhizoma ( ), Chalcanthitum (dân fán), Gleditsiae Fructus (zào jiá), and salt. Commonly used formulas include the powerful Melon Stalk Powder (guä  sân) and less powerful Ginseng Tops Beverage (shën  yîn). Ejection is generally contraindicated in pregnancy and must be used with care in weak patients.

ejection of foamy drool


Copious drooling or vomiting of foamy drool, attributable to rheum evil.

Medication:  Warm and transform using formulas such as Minor Green-Blue Dragon Decoction (xiâo qïng lóng täng), Poria (Hoelen) Five Powder ( líng sân), or Evodia Decoction ( zhü  täng). Compare vomiting of phlegm-drool and phlegm-drool congestion.

eject phlegm-drool

 tán xián

To induce the ejection of harmful substances from the throat and chest by emesis. Ejection of phlegm-drool is used in three conditions: For throat wind, throat moth, or throat impediment caused by exuberant phlegm obstructing the throat, use Realgar Toxin-Resolving Pill (xióng huáng jiê  wán). For wind stroke phlegm reversal characterized by phlegm-drool congesting the diaphragm and throat, causing a rasping sound, and comatose states, use Drool-Thinning Powder ( xián sân). For phlegm stagnating in the chest and diaphragm, use Sagacious Powder ( shèng sân).

elbow taxation

zhôu láo

Synonym:  tennis elbow .

Pain and weakness in the elbow joint, developing gradually, without any history of obvious injury. The pain sometimes stretches down the lower arm or up to the shoulder. Elbow taxation is exacerbated by rotating movement of the lower arm such as are performed when wringing a flannel. There is no obvious swelling, and despite the pain there is no impeded movement of the joints, although there is a pressure point at the humeral epicondyle. It arises through constant rotation of the lower arm and flexing of the wrist and elbow. It affects people such as carpenters, plumbers, electricians, and tennis players. Unlike sprains, which involve sudden damage to muscles and sinews, tennis elbow develops gradually through a combination of repeated strain and external contraction of wind and cold, which concentrate in the elbow joint. The condition is thus one of taxation damage to qi and blood or wind-cold contracting the vessels and sinew channels.

Western Medical Concept:  epicondylitis*!external humeral bursitis*!radiohumoral epicondylitis*!radiohumeral external humeral epicondylitis; radiohumeral bursitis; radiohumeral epicondylitis.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on local points, selecting LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , LI-10 (shôu sän , Arm Three Li) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , and the ouch point ; needle with drainage and add moxa. Tapping with a cutaneous needle until blood appears and cupping are methods that may be used.


diàn zhën liáo 

A method of acupuncture in which an electrical current is applied to needles inserted in the body in order to produce a combined needle and electrical stimulus. Electroacupuncture was first reported after the Communist Party assumed power in China, and over recent years has come to be widely used. Select two suitable acupuncture points, insert needles, and obtain qi. Then wire the needles to the electrical stimulator, and apply a stimulus of appropriate intensity and duration. Then turn off the electrical stimulus and remove the needles. Electroacupuncture can be used in regular body acupuncture, ear acupuncture, head acupuncture, facial acupuncture, and for anesthesia. In patients suffering from heart disease, it is important not to allow the current to pass through the region of the heart.

elevated scar

ròu  da

A scar from a wound, burn, or surgical incision that protrudes from the flesh, is pink or deep red in color, uneven, smooth, hairless, and sometimes associated with pain or itching (especially in hot weather).

Medication:  Treat by topical application of Black Cloth Paste (hëi  gäo).



See drain.

eliminating depression and stale water

  chén cuò

From Elementary Questions ( wèn) A method of treatment used to address stagnation and old fluid accumulations with medicinals such as Kansui Radix (gän suì) and Pharbitidis Semen (qiän níu ). See expelling water.

Synonym:  warm opening .

To treat cold-damp phlegm turbidity obstructing the pericardium with coma by means of formulas such as Liquid Storax Pill (  xiäng wán). This method is used, for example, in the treatment of wind stroke with clouding collapse, unconsciousness, green-blue or white complexion, cold limbs and a sunken pulse. See opening the orifices.

expelling phlegm

zhú tán

To eliminate phlegm forcefully.

expelling pus

pái nóng

To promote suppuration to help a sore run its natural course. See expelling pus and expressing toxin.

expelling pus and expressing toxin

pái nóng tuö 

expressing toxin and outthrusting pus. See internal expression.

expelling stasis


A method of treatment used to address blood amassment and internal static blood binds. It includes: internal static blood bind characterized by abdominal pain and distention (sometimes with palpable lumps), black stool, scant menstrual flow, black menstrual flow, heat~effusion, and, in severe cases, manic states, and constipation; menstrual block or scant menstrual flow, black menstrual flow and irregular menses resulting from the presence of static blood; uterine concretions and gatherings with malign discharge; the condition identified by Western medicine as extrauterine pregnancy.

Medication:  The principal medicinals used are blood breakers and draining precipitants such as Rhei Rhizoma ( huáng), Mirabilitum (máng xiäo), Eupolyphaga seu Opisthoplatia (zhè chóng), Persicae Semen (táo rén), Carthami Flos (hóng huä), Sparganii Rhizoma (sän léng), Zedoariae Rhizoma (é zhú), and Manitis Squama (chuän shän jiâ). Peach Kernel Qi-Coordinating Decoction (táo  chéng  täng) is used for recent static blood formations, and Dead-On Pill ( dàng wán) is used for old formations. In recent times, extrauterine pregnancy has been treated by the method of expelling static blood, using Engendering Transformation Decoction (shëng huà täng) with the addition of Rhei Rhizoma ( huáng) and Mirabilitum (máng xiäo), or combined with Nine Pains Pill (jîu tòng wán).

expelling stones

pái shí

A method of treatment used to cause gallstones or urinary stones to be passed out of the body through the stool or urine respectively. Before the modern era, Chinese medicine medicine knew of urinary stones (see stone strangury), but did not know of gallstones. The term pai2 shi2 comes from Western medicine ( pai2 shi2 yao4 translating the English `lithogogue'), and is now used to describe Chinese medical treatments for gallstones or urinary calculus. Formulas whose names contain the term `expelling stones', such as Biliary Calculus Decoction (dân dào pái shí täng), are modern creations.

expelling water

zhú shuî

A method of treatment used to eliminate by precipitation yang water repletion patterns such as severe hydrothorax* ascites* hydrothorax and ascites, characterized by urinary and fecal stoppage, abdominothoracic fullness inhibiting respiration, and a forceful replete pulse. This method may be used where the evil is strong, yet right qi is still resilient enough to withstand attack. In modern clinical practice, it is mainly used to treat what Western medicine identifies as ascites due to cirrhosis of the liver. cirrhosis of the liver* Commonly used water-expelling medicinals are Kansui Radix (gän suì), Daphnes Genkwa Flos (yuán huä), Euphorbiae seu Knoxiae Radix ( ), and Pharbitidis Semen (qiän níu ). Ten Jujubes Decoction (shí zâo täng) and Boats and Carts Pill (zhöu chë  wán) drain abdominal water, whereas Drool-Controlling Elixir (kòng xián dän) is used to drain hydrothorax.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV and back transport points. Select CV-9 (shuî fën, Water Divide) , BL-22 (sän jiäo shü, Triple Burner Transport) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LU-7 (liè quë, Broken Sequence) , LI-6 (piän , Veering Passageway) , and SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) ; needle with drainage. SAME WESTERN MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE: HYDROTHORAX AND ASCITES}

expelling worms


Synonym:  killing worms .

A method of treatment used to cause the elimination of worms (especially in the intestines). Commonly used worm-expelling medicinals are listed below. } Modern research has shown that certain traditional medicinals have the power to expel different parasites recognized in modern medicine. } } }

Acupuncture:  The main acupuncture point for expelling worms is , in the inside of the thigh, three body-inches up from the kneecap. For roundworm, for example, this point can be combined with BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-25 ( cháng shü, Large Intestine Transport) , ST-4 ( cäng, Earth Granary) , SP-15 ( hèng, Great Horizontal) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) .

expiration sweating

jué hàn

Synonym:  desertion sweating .

Sweating in critical conditions where separation of yin and yang is imminent. Expiration of qi is characterized by putting forth of pearly sweat that sticks to the body and does not run. Dissipation of qi is marked by putting forth of oily sweat, and incessant panting. Extreme vacuity is marked by incessant cold sweating.

Medication:  Return yang and stem desertion with medicinals such as Ginseng Radix (rén shën), Aconiti Tuber Laterale ( ), Mastodi Ossis Fossilia (lóng ), and Ostreae Concha ( ).



To come to an end; to be critically exhausted.

expressing toxin and outthrusting pus

tuö  tòu nóng

Synonym:  expelling pus and expressing toxin .

An internal expression method applied when right qi is exuberant. See internal expression.



internal expression

extended tongue

shën shé

Synonym:  protracted tongue .

A tongue that is habitually extended out of the mouth and cannot be retracted. An extended tongue that feels scorching hot accompanied by unclear spirit-mind reflects phlegm-heat evil harassing the heart spirit affecting the ``sprout of the heart'' (the tongue).

Medication:  Clear the heart and transform phlegm. A limp, numb, extended tongue is usually a sign of qi vacuity. Compare protrusion and worrying of the tongue.



The outer part of the body as opposed to the interior; includes the fleshy exterior (i.e., the skin and exterior muscles of the head, limbs and trunk) and bowels, which are the organs of the exterior through which the essence of grain and water (nutrients in food) are absorbed and waste is expelled. See exterior and interior.

exterior and interior


The outer part of the body and the inner part of the body; two of the eight principles. The skin and the body hair, the flesh, and the superficial channels are exterior. The bone marrow, the bowels and viscera, etc., are considered as interior. Exterior and interior are two of eight principles of pattern identification, by which the depth of penetration of external evils is determined. External evils usually pass through the exterior before penetrating the interior; hence their presence makes exterior-interior pattern identification a necessity. Internal damage miscellaneous diseases originate within the body and invariably manifest as interior patterns, so that the need for interior-exterior pattern identification is of little significance. In the cold damage and warm disease theories, exterior and interior have specific definitions. In cold damage, there are two definitions: a) the yang channels are exterior and the yin channels are interior, b) among the yang channels, greater yang is exterior, whereas yang brightness is interior, with lesser yang as ``half exterior half interior.'' In warm disease triple burner pattern identification, the upper burner is exterior, whereas the middle and lower burners are interior.

exterior cold

biâo hán

Exterior cold patterns are characterized by pronounced cold signs with a distinct aversion to cold. The pulse is tight and floating, and the tongue fur is thin, white, and moist. ``When cold prevails there is pain,'' and in exterior cold patterns headache and generalized pain and heaviness are also pronounced. Runny nose with clear snivel (nasal mucus), and expectoration of clear thin phlegm are common signs. Exterior cold patterns are generally caused by contraction of wind-cold evil.

Medication:  Exterior cold patterns are treated with warm acrid exterior-resolving medicinals. The most commonly used are Ephedrae Herba ( huáng), Cinnamomi Ramulus (guì zhï), Notopterygii Rhizoma (qiäng huó), Perillae Folium (  ), Schizonepetae Herba et Flos (jïng jiè), and Ledebouriellae Radix (fáng fëng). Formulas include Ephedra Decoction ( huáng täng) and Schizonepeta and Ledebouriella Toxin-Vanquishing Powder (jïng fáng bài  sân).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LI, LU, and BL. Select BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , BL-12 (fëng mén, Wind Gate) , LU-7 (liè quë, Broken Sequence) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , KI-7 ( lïu, Recover Flow) , and BL-11 ( zhù, Great Shuttle) ; needle with drainage and moxa can be used.

exterior cold and interior heat

biâo hán  

A pattern of cold in the exterior and heat in the interior arising when external evil passes into the interior and transforms into heat before the exterior cold has resolved. It can also arise in a condition of internal heat when cold evil is contracted. Exterior cold and interior heat patterns are characterized by aversion to cold, heat~effusion, absence of sweating, and generalized pain. These signs may be accompanied by vexation and agitation, thirst, and constipation.

exterior heat


Exterior heat patterns are characterized by pronounced heat signs, such as a red sore pharynx and a relatively red tongue with dry fur. In addition to the regular external signs, the pulse is floating and rapid. Other signs include cough and the production of thick white or yellow phlegm. Most exterior heat patterns are attributable to contraction of wind-heat evil. Note that identification of exterior heat patterns is based on assessment of heat and cold ``signs'' rather than the actual body temperature. Heat~effusion as a sign does not necessarily correspond to heat in the sense of the eight principles.

Medication:  Exterior heat patterns are treated with cool acrid exterior-resolving medicinals such as Menthae Herba ( ), Arctii Fructus (níu bàng ), Glycines Semen Fermentatum Insulsum (dàn dòu chî), and Mori Folium (säng ). Formulas include Lonicera and Forsythia Powder (yín qiào sân) and Mulberry Leaf and Chrysanthemum Beverage (säng  yîn).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LU, LI, and PC. Select BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , TB-5 (wài guän, Outer Pass) , LU-10 ( , Fish Border) , LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , and GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) ; needle with drainage. For red sore pharynx, prick LU-11 (shào shäng, Lesser Shang) and LI-1 (shäng yáng, Shang Yang) to bleed with a three-edged needle.

exterior heat and interior cold

biâo   hán

A condition of heat in the exterior with cold in the interior arising on contraction of wind-heat in patients ordinarily suffering from spleen-stomach vacuity cold. Signs include heat~effusion without sweating, sore throat and cough, sloppy diarrhea, long clear voidings of urine, pale enlarged tongue, slightly yellow turbid tongue fur, and a moderate floating pulse.

exterior heat passing into the interior

biâo  chuán 

heat evil passing into the interior.

exterior pattern

biâo zhèng

The manifestation of disease in the exterior of the body, caused by any of the six excesses entering the body's exterior. Exterior pattern is characterized by sudden onset and by aversion to cold (or the milder aversion to wind), heat~effusion, headache, a thin tongue fur, and a floating pulse. Other possible signs are headache, nasal congestion, and aching pain in the limbs and joints. Exterior patterns vary according to the offending evil and its strength in relation to that of right qi. Wind accompanied by cold or heat is the most common cause; summerheat, dampness, and dryness are less common. Distinction is made between exterior cold, exterior heat, exterior vacuity, and exterior repletion. Exterior patterns are treated by sweating to expel the evil from the body.

exterior repletion

biâo shí

Exterior patterns without sweating are exterior repletion patterns. In most cases, exterior repletion patterns are exterior cold patterns caused by contraction of exuberant cold evil that obstructs defense qi and blocks the interstices, and manifesting in a tight floating pulse.

Medication:  Treat with strong sweat-effusing warm acrid exterior-resolving medicinals. The classical formula is Ephedra Decoction ( huáng täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LI, LU, and BL. Select BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , BL-12 (fëng mén, Wind Gate) , LU-7 (liè quë, Broken Sequence) , BL-64 (jïng , Capital Bone) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , KI-7 ( lïu, Recover Flow) , and BL-11 ( zhù, Great Shuttle) ; needle with drainage and moxa can be used. The last three points are used to effuse sweat and resolve the exterior.

exterior repletion and interior vacuity

biâo shí  

A pattern arising either when patients ordinarily suffering from heart, spleen, or kidney vacuity contract external evil, or when external contractions manifesting as exterior cold are wrongly treated by offensive attack. Signs include heat~effusion and aversion to cold without sweating with lassitude of spirit, shortness of breath, torpid intake, fatigued limbs, heart palpitations, lumbar pain, a white tongue fur, and a floating pulse.

exterior resolution

jiê biâo

See resolving the exterior.

exterior vacuity


Exterior patterns with persistent sweating and heat~effusion. Exterior vacuity results from construction-defense disharmony in which the body's resistance to external evils is lowered and, despite sweating, fails to expel the evil. Such conditions are reflected in a moderate (i.e., not tight) floating pulse.

Medication:  Exterior patterns with sweating should be treated with formulas that have a sweat-effusing effect. A persistent exterior pattern with sweating characterized by pronounced exterior vacuity signs such as a moderate floating pulse and a thin moist tongue fur should be treated with Cinnamon Twig Decoction (guì zhï täng). This formula harmonizes construction and defense.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LU, LI, and BL. Select BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , LU-7 (liè quë, Broken Sequence) , BL-64 (jïng , Capital Bone) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , and SI-3 (hòu , Back Ravine) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage. The last two points are used to check sweating and secure the exterior.

exterior vacuity and interior repletion

biâo   shí

A condition arising a)~when patients with constitutional insufficiency of defense qi contract evil, and evil heat binds in the interior; b)~when patients suffering from heat brewing in the stomach and intestines and abiding food contract wind evil; or c)~when exterior patterns are not treated properly and interior repletion is treated by sweating. Such a condition is characterized by exterior vacuity signs such as aversion to wind and sweating, and by interior repletion signs such as abdominal pain, constipation, and thick yellow tongue fur.



Located or originating outside (the body), as in external evil.

external blowing

wài chuï

Synonym:  external blowing mammary welling-

abscess .

A postpartum mammary welling-abscess, so called on account of the belief that it arose when, after breast-feeding, the infant slept soundly in the mother's bosom and its cool breath invaded the breast. Compare internal blowing.

external blowing mammary welling-abscess

wài chuï  yöng

external blowing.

external cause

wài yïn

One of the three causes of disease; any evil that assails the body from outside. External causes are the six excesses (and warm evil).

external cold

wài hán


Externally contracted cold evil, characterized by signs such as aversion to cold, heat~effusion, absence of sweating, headache, generalized pain, and a tight floating pulse, which develop when cold evil assails the exterior and prevents the normal diffusion and outthrust of yang qi.

Definition:  Insufficiency of yang qi at the surface of the body, marked by physical cold and fear of cold. Elementary Questions ( wèn) states, ``When yang is vacuous, there is external cold.''

external cold invading the stomach

wài hán fàn wèi

See stomach repletion cold.

external contraction

wài gân

Contraction of external evil; a condition resulting from contraction of external evil.

external contraction lumbar pain

wài gân yäo tòng

Lumbar pain attributed to external evil invading the channels and network vessels. External contraction lumbar pain usually forms a repletion pattern and is treated by dispelling the evil and freeing the network vessels. See wind-damp lumbar pain; cold-damp lumbar pain; damp-heat lumbar pain. See also lumbar pain.

external contraction sleeplessness

wài gân   

Insomnia due to contraction of the external evils. External contraction sleeplessness is observed in exterior heat, internal heat, half exterior and half interior heat, qi-aspect heat, blood-aspect heat, residual heat, and excessive sweating or precipitation. See sleeplessness.

external contraction stomach duct pain

wài gân wèi wân guân tòng

Pain in the stomach due to contraction of external evils such as cold evil or damp-heat. Cold patterns usually occur in people suffering from preexisting center qi cold; heat patterns usually occur in patients with accumulated internal heat.

Cold evil  (hán xié) invades the stomach in sudden cold weather and invariably congeals and binds with phlegm-rheum and food accumulations, thereby obstructing qi dynamic. Such patterns are characterized by fulminant pain, glomus and oppression below the heart, aversion to cold and reversal cold clear uninhibited urine and stool, ejection of cold drool, tight floating or stringlike sunken pulse.

Medication:  Warm and dissipate with formulas such as Five Accumulations Powder (  sân).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on alarm and uniting points of ST, PC, SP, LI, and LU. Select CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , SP-4 (göng sün, Yellow Emperor) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , and LU-7 (liè quë, Broken Sequence) ; needle with drainage and add moxa. Selection of points according to associated evil: For phlegm-rheum, add ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , and CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) . For food accumulation, add CV-10 (xià wân, Lower Stomach Duct) , , and CV-21 (xuán , Jade Swivel) . For pronounced pain, add ST-34 (liáng qïu, Beam Hill) . For pronounced qi stagnation, add CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) .

Damp-heat  (shï ) invades the stomach in sudden hot weather, giving rise to sudden gripping pain. Although the extremities may be cold there is copious sweating from the forehead, and although there may be aversion to cold, there are clear heat signs such as dry mouth and tongue, yellow or red urine, and a rapid pulse.

Medication:  Clear and resolve with variations of Center-Clearing Decoction (qïng zhöng täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on alarm and uniting points of ST, PC, SP, LU, and LI. Select CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , SP-4 (göng sün, Yellow Emperor) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , ST-45 ( duì, Severe Mouth) , and ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) ; needle with drainage. For dry mouth and tongue, add , and KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) See stomach duct pain.

external evil

wài xié

Evil invading the body from outside. See evil.

external injury

wài shäng

Synonym:  trauma .

Any damage to the body from outside; includes knocks and falls, incised wounds, burns and scalds, and snake bites. Most external injuries involve damage to the skin and flesh, the sinews and bone, and the qi and blood. Knocks and falls include most bone fractures and sinew damage. Incised wounds primarily lead to blood spillage; burns and scalds cause damage to the skin and flesh and damage to yin.

external injury lumbar pain

wài shäng yäo tòng

Lumbar pain due to external injury preventing bending and stretching and turning, and even pain when breathing. See static blood lumbar pain.

external kidney

wài shèn

Scrotum or the male genitals.

externally contracted heat febrile disease

wài gân  bìng <

externally contracted> Any disease caused by influences originating outside the body, characterized by heat~effusion and a usually rapid stage-by-stage progression. The earliest extant compilation dealing with external heat (febrile) diseases, On Cold Damage (shäng hán lùn) written in the Han Dynasty, identifies and treats diseases according to their location among the six channels. Further accumulation of experience and developments in medical thought in the ages that followed culminated in the doctrine of warm diseases. On Warm Heat (wën  lùn) and Systematized Identification of Warm Diseases (wën bìng tiáo biàn) are two works of the Qing Dynasty that further synthesized the laws governing the origin and development of external heat diseases into the system known as four-aspect pattern identification and treatment. As a result of these latter-day developments there have emerged two separate schools of thought, the ``cold damage'' school and the ``warm diseases'' school.

externally contracted heat febrile disease pattern identification

wài gân  bìng biàn zhèng <

externally contracted> Identification of sign patterns of external heat (febrile) disease. It includes disease-evil pattern identification, six-channel pattern identification, and four-aspect pattern identification. Despite differences between these methods of pattern identification, certain general guidelines are common to both. Disease of external origin are usually (but not always) characterized by heat~effusion and stage-by-stage development (initial stage, exuberant heat~effusion stage, and recovery stage). Externally contracted heat diseases bear two main characteristics: heat~effusion and stage-by-stage development. Heat~effusion results from the fierce struggle between right qi and the evil, and is the essential characteristic of externally contracted heat diseases. Its progress reflects the changing relationship between right qi and evil qi. For example, high fever reflects the strong reaction of an undamaged right qi to a highly toxic evil. The heat~effusion will gradually subside as right qi overcomes the evil. A remittent heat~effusion or persistent heat~effusion sets in when the evil has weakened, but has not been fully eradicated and right qi has suffered damage. Absence of initial-stage heat~effusion, or even a sudden drop in body temperature, are signs of yang collapse resulting from the presence of a highly toxic evil and extreme vacuity of right. Externally contracted heat diseases usually develop through three stages: the initial stage, the exuberant heat~effusion stage, and the recovery stage. These three stages reflect the changing relationship between the evil and right. In the initial stage, the struggle between the evil and right has still not reached its height, so that the heat~effusion is less severe than in the exuberant heat~effusion stage. As the struggle becomes more intense, the disease moves into the exuberant heat~effusion stage; signs are most pronounced, indicating that the disease has reached its climax. It is at this crucial stage that deterioration or improvement is decided. If right defeats evil, the disease passes into the recovery stage. If it fails to do so, the patient's condition deteriorates, possibly leading to death. Of course, recovery may come about at any point during the progression of a disease if evil qi weakens and right qi strengthens, either spontaneously or by appropriate treatment. Similarly, deterioration or relapse may occur at any time if evil qi strengthens and right qi weakens, either spontaneously or by inappropriate treatment. Most incidences of externally contracted heat disease are characterized by the above-mentioned three stages.

external medicine


The branch of medicine that deals with sores, knocks and falls, and bone fractures. For a list of external medical diseases, see disease. ywk}

external obstruction

wài zhàng

Any disease of the eyelids, canthi, white of the eye or black of the eye. External obstructions include red sore swollen eyes (e.g., fire eye), erosion, tearing, eye discharge, or dryness of the eyes, eye screens and membranes, and excrescences of the canthi. They may be attended by subjective sensations such as pain, itching, dryness, and aversion to light. They are mostly attributable to invasion of the six excesses or depressed heat or phlegm-fire in the inner body, or to external injury. In some cases, they may be attributable to liver-kidney vacuity with vacuity fire flaming upward or spleen qi vacuity. Compare internal obstruction.

external welling-abscess

wài yöng

A welling-abscess in the exterior of the body. External welling-abscesses are characterized by clearly circumscribed redness, swelling, heat, and pain; they are easily dispersed, easily form pus and rupture, and easily heal.

Western Medical Concept:  cellulitis* abscesses* cellulitis; acute abscesses.

Medication:  In the early stages, disperse wind and clear heat, quicken the blood and move stasis using Immortal Formula Life-Giving Beverage (xiän fäng huó mìng yîn). Upper body welling-abscesses are largely attributable to wind-heat and can be treated by Arctium Flesh-Resolving Decoction (níu bàng jiê  täng); lower body welling-abscesses are largely attributable to damp-heat, and can be treated with Fish Poison Yam Toxin-Transforming Decoction ( xiè huà  täng). If there is a concurrent exterior pattern, Schizonepeta and Ledebouriella Toxin-Vanquishing Powder (jïng fáng bài  sân) can be used to resolve the exterior and dissipate evil. For repletion heat interior patterns, Internal Coursing Coptis Decoction (nèi shü huáng lián täng) can be used. Welling-abscesses that are slow to suppurate can be treated with Pus-Outthrusting Powder (tòu nóng sân). Excessive discharge of pus can be treated by supplementing blood and qi. In the early stages, clear heat and disperse swelling with Golden Yellow Powder (jïn huáng sân), Jade Dew Powder (  sân), or Tai Yi Plaster (tài  gäo). After pus has formed, the welling-abscess should be cut open and Five-to-Five Elixir (  dän) or Nine-to-One Elixir (jîu  dän) should be applied to raise pus and dispel putridity. When the discharge of pus ceases, use Flesh-Engendering Powder (shëng  sân) or Flesh-Engendering Jade and Red Paste (shëng   hóng gäo) to engender flesh and promote closure. See welling-abscess.

extinguishing wind


Synonym:  calming and extinguishing internal wind .

Any method of treatment used to eliminate internal wind. Extinguishing wind includes the methods listed below.

Extinguishing Wind

extinguishing wind and transforming phlegm

 fëng huà tán <

extinguishing wind> controlling wind and transforming phlegm.

extraordinary organ

 héng zhï 

Any of a class of organs comprising the brain, the marrow, the bones, the vessels, the uterus, and the gallbladder, distinguished from the bowels on the grounds that they do not decompose food and convey waste and from the viscera on the grounds they do not produce and store essence. The gallbladder is an exception, because it is classed both as a bowel and as an extraordinary organ. It is considered a bowel because it plays a role in the processing and conveyance of food, and stands in interior-exterior relationship with its paired viscus, the liver. However, the bile that it produces is regarded as a ``clear fluid'' rather than as waste; hence it is also classed among the extraordinary organs.

extraordinary vessel


See eight extraordinary vessels.

extreme heat engendering cold

  shëng hán

Transmutation of heat into cold. Heat is yang, whereas cold is yin. Since yin and yang are mutually transmutable, heat can give way to cold, as the heat of summer gives way to the cold of winter. In the body, damage to yin by extreme heat can cause yang desertion characterized by counterflow cold of the limbs with great sweating, and a faint pulse on the verge of expiration. Similarly, heat lying deep in the body can cause severe heat and severe reversal.

extreme heat engendering wind

  shëng fëng

Synonym:  exuberant heat stirring wind .

See liver wind stirring internally.



Vigor and abundance. Describes both yin and yang entities.

exuberance and debilitation

shèng shuäi

Exuberance denotes vigor and profusion; debilitation denotes weakness and scarcity. Both describe strength or weakness of organs or physiological elements (qi, blood, fluid, essence), but in the main, exuberance qualifies evils.

Definition:  Exuberant evils, physiological elements, and yin-yang aspects of the organs are often described in terms of the way in which they affect the parts of the organism.

Invasion  (fàn) ( fan4) and

assailment  () ( xi2) both describe the intrusion of an exuberant evil into the body; invasion also describes intrusion of the qi of one bowel or viscus into another, e.g., liver qi invading the stomach.

Fettering  (shù) ( shu4) denotes the inhibitive effect of an external evil on the lung or exterior.

Encumbrance  (kùn) ( kun4) refers to the inhibitive effect of dampness (or damp-heat) on the splenic function of moving water-damp (often manifesting as heavy cumbersome limbs).

Congealing  (níng) ( ning2) is an attribute of dampness, but often describes the dampening effect of cold on the movement of blood or qi.

Clouding  (méng) ( meng2) and ( bi4) and

confounding  () ( mi2) both denote the effect of phlegm on the orifices of the heart resulting in essence-spirit (mental) derangement or coma.

Harassment  (râo) ( rao3) describes the effect of heat or phlegm causing dizziness or essence-spirit (mental) derangement.

Flood  (fàn) ( fan4) denotes water accumulations due to kidney yang vacuity.

Shooting  (shè) ( she4) and

intimidation  (líng) ( ling2) describe the effect of water flood on the lung and heart respectively.

Upsurge  (shàng chöng) ( shang4 chong1) describes the upward movement of qi, as in the sensation associated with running piglet or in the pathomechanism associated with upsurging yellow humor.

Bind  (jié) ( jie2) suggests intensification or concentration when applied to qi, affects, or evils, and also describes the substantial hardening produced as a result (e.g., phlegm nodes).

Contention  (xiàng ) ( xiang1 bo2) describes the mutually inhibitive effect as of phlegm and qi that results in the binding of the two to produce scrofula, phlegm nodes, etc.

Mutual fanning  (xiäng shàn) ( xiang1 shan4) frequently describes the interaction of wind and fire.

Stirring  (dòng) ( dong4) describes the development of wind, either as a result of blood vacuity or of liver fire flaming upward (repletion); it also describes the effect of exuberant heat on the blood, causing frenetic blood. Terms describing the effect of heat may be found under heat. See also transformation.

Definition:  Terms related to debilitation describe the degree and nature of weakness.

Debilitation  (shuài) ( shuai1) itself is a general word, but is often applied to severe conditions.

Devitalization  ( zhèn) ( bu4 zhen4) usually describes a weakened state of the essence-spirit, i.e., lack of mental or general vigor; in the context of spleen yang, it describes a relatively severe weakness.

Insecurity  ( ) ( bu4 gu4) denotes failure to retain sweat, stool, or essence, or to resist invading evils.

Downward fall  (xià xiàn) ( xia4 xian4) is the downward movement of vacuous qi manifesting in the form of prolapse of the rectum and fecal incontinence or prolapse of the uterus. Both insecurity and downward fall are results of debilitation.

Detriment  (sûn) ( sun3) describes the reductive effect of damaging influences.

Despoliation  (duó) ( duo2) is sudden or harsh detriment to body elements.

Wearing  (hào) ( hao4) denotes gradual detriment.

Taxation  (láo) is severe, usually gradual detriment to the organs, often in diseases Western medicine would describe as consumptive.

Depletion  (kuï) ( kui1) and

exhaustion  (jié) ( jie2) describe severe, usually gradual reduction, the former usually being applied to kidney essence, and the latter to the blood, fluids, or essence.

Collapse  (wáng) ( wang2) denotes critical insufficiency of yin, yang, blood, or fluids.

Desertion  (tuö) ( tuo1) is similar to collapse, but also implies the resultant loss to the body; it is also particularly associated with loss of physiological elements, and hence is often used in conjunction with the term

efflux  (huá) ( hua2), which denotes loss of liquids or blood.

Floating  () ( fu2) sometimes describes extreme yang vacuity characterized by vacuity heat signs in the upper body or outer body, and also describes exterior repletion heat in initial-stage externally contracted heat (febrile) diseases.

Expiration  (jué) ( jue2) refers to a critical weakness, usually of organ functions, which portends death.

exuberant fire tormenting metal

huô shèng xíng jïn


Liver fire affecting the lung. See wood fire tormenting metal.

Definition:  Heart fire or fire-heat affecting the lung. Heart fire can damage lung yin, giving rise to panting and cough with phlegm-streaked blood; an intense heat evil becoming depressed in the lung or phlegm-heat obstructing the lung can give rise to high fever, hasty rapid breathing, flaring nostrils, and in severe cases coughing of blood.

exuberant heart fire

xïn huô shèng

hyperactive heart fire.

exuberant heart qi

xïn  shèng

Heart vexation, insomnia, laughing while dreaming in intense heart fire patterns.

exuberant heart-stomach fire

xïn wèi huô shèng

Synonym:  heart-

stomach repletion fire .

A disease pattern arising when, in intense heart fire, evil heat invades the stomach. The chief signs are vexation and insomnia, red face, thirst, mouth sores, scorching pain in the stomach duct, swallowing of upflowing acid, and swift digestion and rapid hungering. Other signs include mania and delirious speech, red urine with inhibited voidings and stinging pain, bloody urine, immediate vomiting of ingested food, bad breath, bleeding gums, sore swollen gums, and constipation. The tongue is red with yellow fur. The pulse is slippery and rapid.

Medication:  Clear the heart and quiet the spirit; drain fire and harmonize the stomach. Heart-Draining Decoction (xiè xïn täng) or Red-Abducting Powder (dâo chì sân).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on PC, HT, and ST. exuberant heart fire Use the main points under , and add ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and LI-4 ( , Union Valley) ; needle with drainage. Selection of points according to signs: For stomach duct pain, add CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , ST-45 ( duì, Severe Mouth) , and TB-6 (zhï göu, Branch Ditch) . For swallowing of upflowing acid, add BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) and GB-40 (qïu , Hill Ruins) . For bloody urine, add CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) . For vomiting, add CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) and PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) . For bad breath, add CV-24 (chéng jiäng, Sauce Receptacle) . For bleeding gums, add ST-45 ( duì, Severe Mouth) and ST-6 (jiá chë, Cheek Carriage) . For treatment of other signs, see exuberant heart fire.

exuberant heart qi

xïn  shèng

Synonym:  exuberant heart yang ;

Synonym:  heart qi repletion .

The heart governs the blood and vessels and stores the spirit, and exuberant heart qi manifests in disease patterns of the spirit mind and of the blood and vessels. The Magic Pivot (líng shü) states, ``When heart qi is exuberant, there is dreaming and a tendency to laughing and fear.'' The Origin and Indicators of Disease (zhü bìng yuán hòu lùn) states, ``When heart qi is exuberant, making the spirit superabundant, there is pain in the chest, propping fullness in the rib-side, pain under the rib-side, pain in the anterior chest, back, shoulder blade, armpit, or pain in the inside of the arm, and incessant joy and laughing; this is repletion of heart qi.'' Clear the heart and drain fire.

exuberant heart yang

xïn yáng shèng

exuberant heart qi.

exuberant heat stirring wind

 shèng dòng fëng

See extreme heat engendering wind.

exuberant internal yin cold

yïn shèng nèi hán

See exuberant yin.

exuberant lung-stomach heat

fèi wèi  shèng

In warm disease, a qi-aspect heat pattern manifesting in classic signs of wind warmth: high fever, cough, rapid breathing, thirst, and yellow tongue fur.

Medication:  The main formula treating exuberant lung-stomach heat is Supplemented Ephedra, Apricot Kernel, Gypsum, and Licorice Decoction (jiä wèi  xìng shí gän täng), which clears heat and diffuses the lung. This formula may be combined with heat-clearing phlegm-transforming formulas such as Minor Chest Bind Decoction (xiâo xiàn xiöng täng) and further supplemented with heat-clearing toxin-resolving medicinals such as Lonicerae Flos (jïn yín huä), Forsythiae Fructus (lián qiào), Scutellariae Radix (huáng qín), and Gardeniae Fructus (shän zhï ).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LU, ST, and LI. Select LU-10 ( , Fish Border) , LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and LI-4 ( , Union Valley) ; needle with drainage. Prick LU-11 (shào shäng, Lesser Shang) or LI-1 (shäng yáng, Shang Yang) to bleed. See qi-aspect pattern.

exuberant qi-aspect heat

 shèng  fèn

Intense heat in the qi aspect, characterized by vigorous heat~effusion without aversion to cold, red facial complexion, vexation, great sweating and great thirst, dry yellow tongue fur, and a large surging pulse.

exuberant stomach heat

wèi  yöng shèng

Synonym:  intense stomach heat .

Severe heat in the stomach characterized by vexing thirst with desire for cold drinks, bad breath, putrefying mouth and lips, painful swollen gums, burning sensation in the stomach duct and abdomen, short voidings of yellow urine, constipation, and a red tongue with a thick yellow fur. Occurring in externally contracted heat (febrile) disease, constipation is more common, and, in severe cases, it is accompanied by clouded spirit, delirious speech, and manic agitation.

Medication:  Use Stomach-Clearing Powder (qïng wèi sân) or Jade Lady Brew ( nüê jiän). For externally contracted heat (febrile) disease, use Qi-Coordinating Decoctions (chéng  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on ST and LI. Select ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and LI-4 ( , Union Valley) ; needle with drainage. For constipation, add LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , ST-37 (shàng  , Upper Great Hollow) , and TB-6 (zhï göu, Branch Ditch) .

exuberant yang

yáng shèng

A surfeit of yang heat, especially exuberant evil heat and exuberant right qi characterized by vigorous heat~effusion, absence of sweating, rough breathing, vexation and agitation, and thirst. This situation is described in Elementary Questions ( wèn) in the following the words: ``when yang is exuberant there is external heat.''

exuberant yang damages yin

yáng shèng yïn shäng

In the ebb and flow of yin and yang, excessively exuberant yang heat invariably harms yin-liquid. Exuberant qi-aspect heat is treated by engendering liquid with cold sweet medicinals; gastrointestinal heat bind is treated by swift precipitation to preserve yin; exuberant construction-blood heat is treated by clearing construction and nourishing yin, supported if necessary by cooling the blood and resolving toxin. Preventing damage to yin is an important principle in the treatment of all patterns of excessively exuberant yang heat.

exuberant yang qi

yáng  shèng


Excessively strong yang qi manifesting in a heat pattern.

Definition:  Strong yang qi. The Magic Pivot (líng shü) states, ``When yin qi is wasted, and yang qi is exuberant, there is sleep in the day.''

exuberant yang repelling yin

yáng shèng  yïn

A manifestation of extreme heat resembling cold arising when, in a disease that is fundamentally one of heat, the evil lies deep in the interior, blocks yang qi, and prevents it from reaching the exterior, causing false cold signs such as reversal cold of the limbs, a sunken hidden pulse, and inability to take cold medicines. The patient will feel vexation and heat in the heart [region], the abdomen feels scorching hot to the touch, reflecting the fundamental nature of the disease. However, the rest of the body is cold, and the patient does not wish to be covered. The exuberant heat (exuberant yang) thus holds the yin cold in the exterior at bay.

exuberant yin

yïn shèng

Synonym:  exuberant internal yin cold .

Exuberant yin causes debilitation of yang and the appearance of internal cold signs such as reverse-flow, phlegm-rheum, and water qi. Elementary Questions ( wèn) states, when yin is exuberant, there is internal cold``.''

exuberant yin repelling yang

yïn shèng  yáng

Synonym:  repelled yang .

A disease pattern in which exuberant internal cold forces yang qi to the outer body, causing signs of true internal cold and false external heat. False external heat signs include floating heat~effusion, thirst, agitation of the extremities and a large surging pulse. However, despite heat~effusion, the patient likes to keep well wrapped up; despite thirst, he does not drink much, likes hot drinks, or rinses his mouth without wishing to swallow. Despite agitation, the spirit-mind is clear. Although the pulse is large and surging, it is forceless under pressure. Hence the heat signs are false.

exuberant yin vacuity fire

yïn  huô shèng

effulgent yin vacuity fire.


yân jïng

Organ of vision; governed by the liver (see liver opens at the eyes). Parts of the eye are given in the list of entries below.

Parts of the Eye

Diagnosis:  Observing the eyes most often involves observing the spirit. Since the ``essence of the bowels and viscera flows up into the eyes,'' the eyes reflect the state of the bowels and viscera to some extent. Furthermore, the eyes connect through to the brain, which is referred to as the sea of marrow, and ``the essence of marrow is in the pupils.'' Therefore, the pupils, marrow, and essence are considered to be closely related; and the pupils are considered to reflect marrow and essence. In practical diagnosis, if the pupils are normal in enduring or severe illnesses, the disease is considered to be still curable. Conversely, if patients have lusterless eyes, and tend to keep their eyes shut, taking no interest in the world, or if the spirit of their eyes has an abnormal appearance, the condition is critical. If the eyes are turned upward or sideways, or look fixedly ahead, the condition is one of liver wind stirring internally. Dilation of the pupils may, in severe illness, be a sign of approaching death. Reddening of the eyes, often with copious discharge that occurs as part of a broader pattern, usually indicates externally contracted wind-heat, heart fire, or liver fire. See red eyes.

Eye Signs
Lusterless eyes indicate a dual vacuity of blood and qi. Swollen and painful darks of the eyes (corneae) are generally associated with liver fire. Yellowing of the whites of the eyes (sclerae) indicate jaundice, which most often signifies damp-heat, and in rare cases, cold-damp. Dark rings around the eyes indicate kidney vacuity, whereas green-blue or purple rings indicate intraorbital bleeding. Sunken eyes indicate a severe condition of damage to liquid and humor desertion. Slight puffiness around the eyes indicates incipient water swelling. However, senile debilitation of kidney qi may be characterized by slackening and puffiness of the lower lids, though in most cases this does not constitute a sign of disease. Bulging of the eyes is usually caused by binding phlegm-fire depression. For diseases of they eye, see the entries listed below.

Eye diseases

eyebrow bone

méi léng 

The bone that forms the prominence of the eyebrow.

Western Medical Concept:  arch*!superciliary superciliary arch* superciliary arch.

eyebrow bone pain

méi léng  tòng

Pain felt in the eyebrow bone. It is mostly attributable to external contraction of wind-heat and phlegm damp lying depressed in the inner body. It is often seen together with yang brightness headache and lesser yang headache.

Medication:  Dispel wind, clear fire, and flush phlegm. Incisive Light on the Source of Miscellaneous Disease ( bìng yuán líu  zhú) suggests a formula containing Ledebouriellae Radix (fáng fëng), Notopterygii Rhizoma (qiäng huó), Scutellariae Radix (huáng qín), and Glycyrrhizae Radix (gän câo). Alternatively, use variations of Phlegm-Abducting Decoction (dâo tán täng).

Acupuncture:  Main points: BL-2 (zân zhú, Bamboo Gathering) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , GV-24 (shén tíng, Spirit Court) , ST-8 (tóu wéi, Head Corner) , and ST-41 (jiê , Ravine Divide) ; needle with drainage. To dispel wind and clear fire, add GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , TB-5 (wài guän, Outer Pass) , and GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) . To flush phlegm, add ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) and ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) .

eye discharge

yân chï

Thick sticky turbid substance collecting around the canthi and eyelid rims in eye diseases such as wind-fire eye.

eye gan

gän yân

child eye gan.


yân jiân

Synonym:  retainer .

Either of the two movable protective folds, which, when closed, cover the anterior surface of the eyeball. They eyelid is the flesh wheel in the context of the five wheels.

eyelid rim

yân xián

The edge of the eyelid (palpebral margin) from which the eyelashes grow.

eyelid vacuous as a ball

bäo   qíu

spleen vacuous as a ball.

eye nest


The eye socket and eyelids.

eye pain


Any pain of the eye. Pain in the eye during the day is a yang pattern; pain during the night is a yin pattern. Pain accompanied by vexation and oppression indicates qi repletion; pain accompanied by aversion to cold indicates qi vacuity. Intermittent dull pain indicates stirring of yin vacuity fire; pain like the pricking of a needle, that continues unabated indicates fire evil. Pain accompanied by dryness signifies wearing of the fluids or water depletion and blood vacuity. Red sore eyes with copious sticky discharge indicate wind-heat congestion. Mild redness and soreness with inhibited stool and urine indicates repletion fire blazing internally. Pain that refuses pressure and likes cold compresses indicates repletion, whereas pain that likes pressure and hot compresses indicates vacuity.

eye screen



Any external obstruction involving murky opacity or deformation of the black of the eye, or any scarring of this area left after disease, e.g., congealed-fat screen. Screens may occur in repletion patterns of liver wind-heat and vacuity patterns of liver-kidney depletion and effulgent vacuity fire. Repletion patterns are treated by coursing wind and clearing heat, resolving toxin and draining the liver. Vacuity patterns are treated by enriching the liver and kidney, and nourishing yin and clearing heat. In addition, screens may arise through true eye damage in external injury.

Definition:  Any internal or external obstruction that blocks the line of vision, including internal eye screens, such as round eye screens. See internal obstruction; external obstruction.

eye tie


That which connects the eye to the brain. The Magic Pivot (líng shü) states, `` evils strike the nape and, encountering vacuity of the body, they enter deeply, following the eye tie into the brain. When they enter the brain, the brain spins. When the brain spins, it causes tension in the eye tie. When the eye tie is tense, the vision of the eye becomes dizzy and spins.''

Western Medical Concept:  optic nerve* optic nerve and surrounding structure.