Section I

identifying patterns and administering treatment

biàn zhèng shï zhì

See determining treatment by patterns identified.

identifying patterns and determining treatment

biàn zhèng lùn zhì

See determining treatment by patterns identified.

identifying patterns and seeking the causes

biàn zhèng qíu yïn

seek the cause from patterns identified.




immediate vomiting of ingested fluids


Vomiting of fluids very soon after ingestion; a sign of water-damp collecting internally.

immediate vomiting of ingested food


Vomiting of food very soon after eating. Immediate vomiting of ingested food is observed in heat vomiting, food accumulation vomiting, phlegm vomiting, and dysphagia-occlusion .

impact injury

pèng zhuàng sûn shäng

knocks and falls.

impaired depurative downbearing of the lung

fèi shï  jiäng

A pathomechanism involving a disturbance of the lung's functions of governing depurative downbearing and regulation of the waterways. The lung governs the qi of the whole body. If, for any reason, lung qi is inhibited, there may be signs such as cough, nasal congestion, and counterflow qi, and if the movement and distribution of water is affected, causing inhibited urination, puffy swelling and panting and cough may be observed. See lung disease.

impaired harmonious downbearing of the stomach

wèi shï  jiàng <

impaired harmonious downbearing> nondownbearing of stomach qi.

impaired lung depuration

fèi shï qïng 

Poor depurative downbearing. The lung governs depurative downbearing, i.e., its qi is clean in nature and cleansing in action, and it moves downward and governs regulation of the waterways. Impaired lung depuration is reflected in panting counterflow, cough, and inhibited urination.

impaired pulmonary depuration

fèi shï qïng 

impaired lung depuration.

impairment of gastric harmony and downbearing

wèi shï  jiàng

nondownbearing of stomach qi.

impairment of splenic movement and transformation

 shï jiàn yùn

splenic movement and transformation failure.


Synonym:  bi ;

Synonym:  obturation .

Definition:  Blockage, as in throat impediment.


Synonym:  wind-cold-damp impediment .

Blockage of the channels arising when wind, cold, and dampness invade the fleshy exterior and the joints, and manifesting in signs such as joint pain, sinew and bone pain, and heaviness or numbness of the limbs. Elementary Questions ( wèn) states, ``When wind, cold, and damp evils concur and combine, they give rise to impediment.'' Distinction is made between three pattern types, each of which corresponds to a prevalence of one of three evils:

wind impediment  (fëng ) (or moving impediment) characterized by wandering pain and attributed to a prevalence of wind;

cold impediment  (hán ) (or painful impediment) associated with acute pain and attributed to a prevalence of cold; and

damp impediment  () (or fixed impediment) characterized by heaviness and attributed to a prevalence of dampness. A fourth type,

heat impediment  ( ) occurs when the three evils transform into heat. Impediment is readily complicated by qi vacuity and blood vacuity. See blood impediment; blood vacuity impediment; qi vacuity impediment. Other specific forms of bi include joint-running wind ; generalized impediment; flesh impediment; skin impediment; sinew impediment; bone impediment; vessel impediment.

Western Medical Concept:  arthritis* sciatica* spondylosis* arthritis; sciatica; spondylosis.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on points chosen according to patterns, local points, and points on the affected channel, supporting them with . The main points are chosen according to the prevalence of wind, cold, dampness, heat, and complications; see wind impediment, cold impediment, damp impediment, and heat impediment. In addition to these, choose from the following points according to the affected area: Shoulder: LI-15 (jiän , Shoulder Bone) , TB-14 (jiän liáo, Shoulder Bone-Hole) , SI-10 (nào shü, Upper Arm Transport) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , TB-5 (wài guän, Outer Pass) , and SI-3 (hòu , Back Ravine) . Elbow: LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , TB-10 (tiän jîng, Celestial Well) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , and TB-5 (wài guän, Outer Pass) . Wrist: TB-4 (yáng chí, Yang Pool) , TB-5 (wài guän, Outer Pass) , and LI-5 (yáng , Yang Ravine) . SI-4 (wàn , Wrist Bone) . Spine: GV-26 (shuî göu, Water Trough) , GV-12 (shën zhù, Body Pillar) , GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , and GV-3 (yäo yáng guän, Lumbar Yang Pass) . Thigh: GB-30 (huán tiào, Jumping Round) , GB-29 ( liáo, Squatting Bone-Hole) , GB-39 (xuán zhöng, Suspended Bell) , GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , and BL-40 (wêi zhöng, Bend Center) . Knee: , ST-34 (liáng qïu, Beam Hill) , GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , and GB-33 ( yáng guän, Knee Yang Joint) . Ankle: BL-62 (shën mài, Extending Vessel) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , BL-60 (kün lún, Kunlun Mountains) , GB-40 (qïu , Hill Ruins) , and ST-41 (jiê , Ravine Divide)

Definition:  Blockage affecting the bowels and viscera that may or may not be related to wind-cold-damp impediment. See heart impediment; liver impediment; spleen impediment; lung impediment; kidney impediment; bladder impediment.

impediment pattern


See impediment.

impediments of the five viscera


Synonym:  visceral impediment .

Forms of impediment that develop when sinew impediment, vessel impediment, bone impediment, and skin impediment, etc., through repeated contraction of cold, wind and dampness, begin to affect the associated viscus. They may also be caused by qi and blood vacuity, essence depletion, or nonmovement of yang qi permitting evil qi to enter and gather in the chest and abdomen.

imperial physician


A healer employed to treat the emperor and members of the court.


yáng wêi

Synonym:  yang wilt ;

Synonym:  yin wilt ;

Synonym:  yang rising failure ;

Synonym:  failure to rise ;

Synonym:  loss of yin organ use .

Inability to perform coitus from failure to achieve or maintain a full erection. Impotence is caused by debilitation of the life gate fire, liver-kidney vacuity fire, heart-spleen vacuity, binding depression of liver qi, liver channel damp-heat pouring downward, spleen-stomach of damp-heat, or fright damaging the kidney.

Debilitation of the life gate fire  (mìng mén huô shuäi) causing impotence is identified by genital cold, lumbar pain, limp knees, tinnitus, hair loss, loosening of the teeth, fear of cold, cold limbs, emaciated body, shortness of breath and lack of strength, dizziness, bright white facial complexion, pale enlarged tongue possibly with dental impressions, and a fine slow sunken weak pulse.

Medication:  Warm and supplement the kidney with Right-Restoring Life Gate Pill (yòu guï wán) or Procreation Elixir (zàn  dän).

Acupuncture:  Select CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , and KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa. Selection of points according to signs: For seminal emission and seminal efflux, add CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) and BL-52 (jïng göng, Palace of Essence) . For dizzy head and tinnitus, add GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , GB-2 (tïng huì, Auditory Convergence) , and TB-3 (zhöng zhû, Central Islet) .

Liver-kidney vacuity fire  (gän shèn  huô) impotence arises when damage to liver-kidney yin causes frenetic movement of kidney fire. It is accompanied by premature ejaculation, seminal emission or efflux, vexation and thirst, red tongue, and rapid fine pulse.

Medication:  Enrich yin and downbear fire. Use Anemarrhena and Phellodendron Eight-Ingredient Pill (zhï bâi  wèi wán) or Major Yin Supplementation Pill (  yïn wán).

Acupuncture:  Needle with supplementation at CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , and KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and with drainage at KI-2 (rán , Blazing Valley) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , HT-8 (shào , Lesser Mansion) , and HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) .

Heart-spleen vacuity  (xïn  ) impotence is associated with signs of heart-spleen qi vacuity such as heart palpitations, shortness of breath, spontaneous sweating, emaciation, fatigued spirit and lack of strength, reduced food intake, distention of the stomach duct, sloppy stool, pale tongue, and a fine pulse, or with signs of heart-spleen blood vacuity such as heart palpitations or fearful throbbing, susceptibility to fright, profuse dreaming, loss of sleep, bright white facial complexion, emaciated body and fatigued spirit, pale tongue, and a fine pulse. In clinical practice, heart-spleen qi vacuity and heart-spleen blood vacuity are not clearly differentiated.

Medication:  Nourish the heart and spleen with Spleen-Returning Decoction (guï  täng) or Major Origin-Supplementing Brew (  yuán jiän) and variations.

Acupuncture:  Select BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , LR-6 (zhöng , Central Metropolis) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa. Selection of points according to signs: For seminal emission and seminal efflux, add the points mentioned above. For heart palpitations and insomnia, add HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) and PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) . For dizzy head and vision, add ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , and apply moxa at GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) .

Binding depression of liver qi  (gän   jié) patterns arise when affect-mind dissatisfaction cause binding and depression of qi and disturb the liver's free coursing. Impotence occurring in such patterns is accompanied by the classic signs of binding depression of liver qi such as oppression in the chest, frequent sighing, rib-side distention, bitter taste in the mouth, and a dry throat that may feel as though it is blocked by a foreign body. The tongue is thin and white, while the pulse is sunken.

Medication:  Course the liver and resolve depression. Use Depression-Freeing Decoction (  täng) plus Astragali Complanati Semen (shä yuàn ) and Psoraleae Semen (  zhï). Alternatively, use Counterflow Cold Powder (  sân) plus Psoraleae Semen (  zhï) and Loranthi seu Visci Ramus (säng  shëng).

Acupuncture:  Select CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , CV-2 ( , Curved Bone) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage or with drainage.

Liver channel damp-heat pouring downward  (gän jïng shï  xià zhù) patterns develop when mind-affect depression causes binding depression of liver qi that prevents fluids from being transformed and allows damp turbidity to arise, which in time transforms into heat and obstructs qi dynamic. In this case, impotence takes the form of an insufficient erection. Other signs include dampness or itching of the scrotum, reddish urine with pain on urination, and a dry mouth with a bitter taste. There are signs of binding depression of liver qi and liver channel signs such as rashness, impatience, and irascibility, rib-side pain, lesser-abdominal pain, and distending pain in the testicles.

Medication:  Clear heat and disinhibit dampness with Gentian Liver-Draining Decoction (lóng dân xiè gän täng) or Tangkuei, Gentian, and Aloe Pill (däng guï lóng huì wán).

Acupuncture:  Select LR-8 ( quán, Spring at the Bend) , CV-1 (huì yïn, Meeting of Yin) , BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , KI-7 ( lïu, Recover Flow) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) . Needle with drainage.

Spleen-stomach damp-heat  ( wèi shï ) patterns are attributable to damp-turbidity brewing internally and transforming into heat. This pathomechanism develops from dietary irregularities or from a liking for strong liquor and rich food in obese patients who get little exercise. Externally contracted damp-heat may also be a factor. The main signs are impotence with weak libido, torpid intake, nausea and vomiting, sticky mouth with sweet flavor, and oppression and fullness in the chest and heavy limbs. The tongue fur is yellow and slimy or white and slimy, while the tongue is red. The pulse is slippery and rapid.

Medication:  Diffuse the center burner; transform dampness and clear heat. Use Three Kernels Decoction (sän rén täng) or Sweet Dew Toxin-Dispersing Elixir (gän  xiäo  dän).

Acupuncture:  Select CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , BL-31 through BL-34 ( liáo, Eight Bone-Holes) , KI-7 ( lïu, Recover Flow) , LR-8 ( quán, Spring at the Bend) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) ; needle with drainage.

Fear and fright damaging the kidney  (jïng kông shäng shèn) causes impotence that is characterized by failure to achieve an erection only in sexual contact and that is associated with general susceptibility to fright, suspicion, and apprehension. The tongue and pulse in such cases may be normal.

Medication:  Quiet the spirit and stabilize the mind using Mind-Stabilizing Pill (dìng zhì wán).

Acupuncture:  Select GV-1 (cháng qiáng, Long Strong) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , CV-14 ( què, Great Tower Gate) , BL-19 (dân shü, Gallbladder Transport) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , and GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) ; needle with supplementation.

Phlegm-stasis  (tán ) can be responsible for a poor or unlasting erection with limp aching lower limbs. Other signs include dizziness, tinnitus, distention and pain in the smaller abdomen and testicles, and dry sparse yellowed pubic hair, dull tongue with stasis macules and slimy tongue fur, and a hard but forceless or interrupted ( jie2 dai4) wrist pulse with a faint instep yang pulse. Phlegm-stasis impotence is rarely discussed in traditional literature, and its appearance in modern literature seems to be based on Western medical recognition that impotence can be the result of arteriosclerosis, hyperlipemia, hypertension, and obesity. arteriosclerosis* hyperlipemia* hypertension* obesity*

Medication:  Treat by quickening the blood, dispelling stasis, and transforming phlegm, assisted by boosting qi and supplementing the kidney. Use Rejuvenation Elixir (huán shào dän) or House of Blood Stasis-Expelling Decoction (xuè  zhú  täng).

Acupuncture:  Main points: CV-1 (huì yïn, Meeting of Yin) , CV-2 ( , Curved Bone) , and LR-12 ( mài, Urgent Pulse) . Supporting points: ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , and BL-31 through BL-34 ( liáo, Eight Bone-Holes) . First tap BL-15, BL-17, BL-23, GV-4, and Eight Bone-Holes. Then needle ST-40 making the needle sensation travel upward rather than downward. Then needle CV-1, and after obtaining qi, twirl and remove needle without retaining. Needle CV-2, CV-6, and LR-12, with drainage, retaining the needles for ten minutes. Finally, after needling, moxa CV-6. Treat once every two days in 12-session courses. At least two courses are necessary. Impotence is not easy to cure when, as is most commonly the case, it forms a vacuity pattern. In the treatment of vacuity impotence, success has been attained in recent years by the use of chong2 products such as in Agelena and Hornet's Nest Pill (zhï fëng wán), which comprises Agelena (câo zhï zhü), Vespae Nidus ( fëng fáng), Rehmanniae Radix Conquita (shú  huáng), Hominis Placenta (  chë), Epimedii Herba (yín yáng huò), and Cistanches Caulis (ròu cöng róng).

inability to eat


Failure to take normal, adequate, or any sustenance. See reduced food intake.

inability to get food down

shí  xià

Difficulty in swallowing food or difficult passage of food to the stomach; a sign of dysphagia-occlusion.

inability to recognize people

 zhï rén

loss of consciousness.

inability to suckle

 néng shûn 

Inability of the child to take milk.

in acute conditions treat the tip

  zhì biäo

Treat secondary manifestations when these are acute. For example, the sudden appearance of sore swollen throat preventing swallowing (tip) in patients suffering from yin vacuity fever (root) is an acute condition requiring immediate attention. In severe cases, swelling of the throat can cause life-threatening asphyxiation, hence its treatment is more urgent than that of the root. Compare in moderate (chronic) conditions treat the tip. See also root and tip.




A unit of measure equal to a tenth of a cubit

Definition:  body-inch.

Definition:  Of the three positions of the wrist pulse, the one furthest from the elbow. See wrist pulse.

inch opening

cùn kôu

See wrist pulse.

inch whiteworm

cùn bái chóng

Synonym:  spleen worm disease ;

Synonym:  white worm disease .

From The Origin and Indicators of Disease (zhü bìng yuán hòu lùn) One of the nine worm diseases. A worm disease attributed to eating raw or improperly cooked pork or other meat and characterized by abdominal pain, abdominal distention, and diarrhea with the passing of white segments (proglottids). Inch whiteworm is so called because the worm is passed in short segments.

Western Medical Concept:  tapeworm infestation* cestodiasis* taeniasis* tapeworm infestation (cestodiasis, taeniasis).

Medication:  Treat by expelling worms until the head segment (scolex) is passed. Use medicinals such as Arecae Semen (bïng láng), Cucurbitae Semen (nán guä ), Agrimoniae Herba (xiän  câo), and Granati Pericarpium (shí líu ).

incised wound

jïn chuäng

A cut in the flesh made with a knife blade or similar object. Incised wounds in mild cases are associated with pain, bleeding and damage to the skin and flesh. In severe cases, there is damage to sinew with persistent bleeding and severe pain. Massive bleeding can cause somber white complexion, dizziness, black vision, and scallion-stalk or faint fine pulse. Minor cuts can be treated with Sagacious Incised Wound Powder ( shèng jïn däo sân) or Litharge Paste (tuó sëng gäo) and appropriately wrapped. Nowadays, major cuts are stitched, and massive bleeding is treated by transfusion.

incised-wound tetany

jïn chuäng fëng




See supplementation.

increased eating with rapid hungering


swift digestion with rapid hungering.

increasing food intake

jìn shí

opening the stomach.

increasing humor


See increasing water to move the ship.

increasing water to move the ship

zëng shuî xíng zhöu

Synonym:  refloating the grounded ship .

A method of moist precipitation applied in warm disease to treat constipation due to heat bind and desiccation of humor and presenting as half vacuity, half repletion patterns.

Medication:  Increasing water to move the ship involves large doses Humor-Increasing Decoction (zëng  täng), which contains large amounts of Scrophulariae Radix (xuán shën), Rehmanniae Radix Exsiccata seu Recens (shëng  huáng), and Ophiopogonis Tuber (mài mén döng), which boost the fluids and eliminate the heat bind by facilitating the passage of stool. In cases of pronounced repletion heat, this formula can be supplemented with Rhei Rhizoma ( huáng) and Mirabilitum (máng xiäo), thus forming Humor-Increasing Qi-Coordinating Decoction (zëng  chéng  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on alarm, back transport, and lower uniting points of LI, and on LI and ST. Select BL-25 ( cháng shü, Large Intestine Transport) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , ST-37 (shàng  , Upper Great Hollow) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , SP-14 ( jié, Abdominal Bind) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , and KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) ; needle with drainage.

incrusted skin

  jiâ cuò

encrusted skin.


zhû zhì

Usually plural. The diseases or signs for which a medicinal or formula should be described.

indirect moxibustion

jiän jië jîu

Moxibustion performed on an insulating material such as crushed garlic or a slice of ginger that spreads the heat and reduces its intensity, as well as protecting skin from burning. See the entries listed below.

Indirect Moxibustion

indistinct vision

shì zhän hün miâo

Unclear vision. The Level-Line of Pattern Identification and Treatment (zhèng zhì zhûn shéng) speaks of ``indistinct vision without any internal or external eye signs.'' This is observed in various internal obstructions.

ineffectiveness of the yin organ

yïn   yòng



xiâo ér

Newborn or young child. In examining infants, special attention is paid to the head. A head that is unusually small or large generally indicates depletion of kidney essence or an insufficiency of the congenital constitution that may be accompanied by water-rheum. A depressed fontanel indicates yin humor depletion, whereas a bulging fontanel indicates acute fonantel or chronic fright-wind (see ). Failure of the cranial sutures to close and the inability to keep the head upright indicate an insufficiency of kidney essence and bone marrow vacuity. An uncontrollable shaking of the head indicates a wind disease. In infants, the difficulty of performing the pulse examination calls for the use of one finger instead of three, or its replacement with the finger examination. See infant's finger examination; children's diseases.

infantile cinnabar toxin

xiâo ér dän  occurring in infants.

Western Medical Concept:  erysipelas* erysipelas and other inflammatory diseases.

infants' and children's diseases

xiâo ér  bìng

children's diseases.

infant's finger examination

xiâo ér zhî zhên

finger vein examination. A diagnostic method based on observation of the veins in the fingers of children, developed by Wang Chao of the Tang Dynasty, and further refined by Chen Fu-Zheng in The Young Child Compendium (yòu yòu  chéng) The examination of the finger veins has considerable clinical value in diagnosing children below the age of three, before natural thickening of the skin makes the veins indistinct. The finger examination provides supplementary diagnostic data that is particularly useful in judging the severity of disease. It also helps to compensate for difficulties of pulse examination due to the infant's very short radial pulse, which must be taken with only one finger, and to disturbances of the pulse that result from the distress commonly experienced by infants in unfamiliar surroundings. The greater yin lung channel runs from the chest through the inch, bar, and cubit, and through the fish's margin (thenar eminence) to the tip of the thumb. The veins of the inner side of the index finger lie on a branch that separates from the main channel at a point proximal to the wrist, and provide diagnostic data that accords with that of the radial pulse. The finger is divided into three segments, known as bars. The first segment, from the metacarpophalangeal joint to the proximal interphalangeal joint is known as the wind bar. The second, from the proximal interphalangeal joint to the distal interphalangeal joint, is known as the qi bar. The final segment, from the distal interphalangeal joint to the fingertip, is called the life bar. The examination should be conducted with the child facing a good light source (sunlight being preferable to electric light). The practitioner holds the child's index finger in his left hand, and rubs it several times with the right hand from the life bar down to the wind bar, to enable the veins to stand out more clearly. In healthy infants, the veins appear as dimly visible, pale purple, or reddish-brown lines. Generally, they are only visible in the wind bar. In sickness, the color and degree of fullness of the veins may undergo change. The depth, color, paleness, stagnation, and length are examined. Veins that are particularly distinct and close to the surface indicate an exterior pattern. An external evil is assailing the exterior, and right qi is trying to resist, hence qi and the blood tend toward the surface. Veins that appear deep and only dimly visible indicate the presence of an evil in the interior. Bright red usually indicates wind-cold. Purple-red indicates interior heat; pale yellow indicates spleen vacuity; purple black reflects depression in the blood network vessels and indicates a severe or critical condition. A green-blue coloring is observed in fright wind and pain patterns. Black generally indicates blood stasis. Pale veins are a vacuity sign. Veins of a stagnant complexion (i.e., visually discernible impairment of blood flow) are associated with repletion patterns such as phlegm-damp, food stagnation, or binding depression of evil heat. The longer the visible veins, the more severe the disease. If the veins are distinct only in the wind bar, the condition is relatively mild. If they are also distinct in the qi bar, the condition is more severe. The infant's life may be in jeopardy if veins become distinct in the life bar (hence its name). Extension of visible veins through all the bars to the fingertip is the mark of a critical condition. In external contractions, visible veins confined to the wind bar indicate invasion of the network vessels. If they extend into the qi bar and are deeper in color, the evil has entered the channels. Extension into the life bar marks penetration into the bowels and viscera. finger vein examination.

infant's gate


The mouth of the uterus.

Western Medical Concept:  orificium uteri* Orificium uteri.

infant's-pillow pain

ér zhên tòng

Synonym:  mother'

s blood lump .

Postpartum lower abdominal pain caused by static blood. This pattern may stem from incomplete elimination of the lochia or wind-cold exploiting vacuity to invade the uterine vessels causing a collection of static blood. Both patterns involve stasis, but their pathomechanisms differ.

Incomplete elimination of the lochia:  (è  wèi jìn) Infant's-pillow pain stemming from incomplete elimination of the lochia is characterized by hardness and pain in the lower abdomen that refuses pressure or a palpable lump combined with retention of the lochia.

Medication:  Quicken the blood and eliminate stasis. Use Bind-Dissipating Pain-Relieving Decoction (sàn jié dìng téng täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV, SP, and ST. Main points: CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , and SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) . For incomplete elimination of the lochia, add LR-8 ( quán, Spring at the Bend) and LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , needling with even supplemenation and drainage and adding moxa.

Wind-cold:  (fëng hán) Invasion of wind-cold is characterized by cold pain in the lower abdomen that likes warmth, accompanied by a white green-blue or white complexion, lack of warmth in the limbs and stagnant inhibited flow of lochia.

Medication:  Warm the channels, dissipate cold, and dispel stasis. Use Engendering Transformation Decoction (shëng huà täng).

Acupuncture:  To the main points given above, add ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , ST-29 (guï lái, Return) , and SP-8 ( , Earth's Crux) , needling with even supplementation and drainage and adding moxa. Compare postpartum abdominal pain.



Synonym:  being without child ;

Synonym:  breaking lineage .

Inability to become pregnant between menarche and menopause. In clinical practice, a woman who fails to become pregnant within three years of normal conjugal life without the use of contraception is considered infertile. Discounting male factors, Chinese medicine recognizes congenital factors (see five unwomanlinesses) and acquired factors. Infertility that can be treated is attributed to a variety of causes. See kidney vacuity infertility; liver depression infertility; blood vacuity infertility; phlegm-damp infertility; kidney vacuity infertility; uterine cold infertility; blood stasis infertility.



Synonym:  influx .

Term used in disease names indicating infection and permanent lodging. Examples include worm infixation, toxin infixation (both old names for pulmonary consumption), and summer infixation.



infixation. Occurs in disease names such as demonic influx, cadaverous influx, and taxation influx, all denoting pulmonary consumption. See infixation.

influx heart pain

zhù xïn tòng

Sudden heart pain with dark green-blue face and eyes, clouded spirit and delirious speech, and a pulse now large, now small, different at both hands as if belonging to two different people.

Medication:  Free yang and move qi; quicken the blood and transform stasis. Use Liquid Storax Pill (  xiäng wán), Coronary Liquid Storax Pill (guän xïn   wán) or Salvia Beverage (dän shën yîn). See heart pain.

ingrown eyelash

quán máo dào jié

An eyelash that rubs against the eyeball, usually as the result of a improperly treated peppercorn or ulceration of the eyelid rim. The eyelash should be removed.

inhibited bladder qi transformation

páng guäng  huà  

See bladder qi transformation failure.

inhibited menstruation

yuè jïng  

See scant menstruation.

inhibited qi dynamic


Reduced activity of qi that disrupts the normal upbearing of the clear and downbearing of the turbid, and manifesting in signs such as hiccough, cough and panting, glomus and oppression in the chest and stomach duct, abdominal distention, abdominal pain, and disease of stool and urine.

inhibited urination

xiâo biàn  

Difficult voiding of scant urine. Inhibited urination is ascribed to nondiffusion of lung qi, devitalization of spleen yang, debilitation of kidney yang, internal damp-heat obstruction, or qi stagnation with damp obstruction. These patterns all involve reduced flow of urine to the bladder due to yang qi vacuity or the presence of evil qi. In addition, there are yin vacuity patterns, which, according to some, should not strictly be considered as inhibited urination patterns because they are essentially attributable to depletion of fluids.

Nondiffusion of lung qi  (fèi   xuan) inhibited urination results from invasion of wind evil (wind-cold or wind-heat) and is associated with swelling of the eyelids gradually giving way to generalized water swelling, heavy aching limbs, heat~effusion, fear of wind, cough and hasty panting, sometimes sore throat, thin white tongue fur, and a tight floating or rapid floating pulse.

Medication:  Diffuse the lung and move water with formulas such as Spleen-Effusing Decoction (yuè  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on alarm and back transport points of BL, and on LU and LI. Select LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , BL-28 (páng guäng shü, Bladder Transport) , and BL-22 (sän jiäo shü, Triple Burner Transport) ; needle with drainage. Selection of points according to signs: For water swelling, add CV-9 (shuî fën, Water Divide) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , GV-26 (rén zhöng, Human Center) , and LI-6 (piän , Veering Passageway) . For heat~effusion and fear of wind, add GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , TB-5 (wài guän, Outer Pass) , and GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) . For cough and panting, add LU-7 (liè quë, Broken Sequence) . For sore swollen throat, prick LU-11 (shào shäng, Lesser Shang) to bleed.

Devitalization of spleen yang  ( yáng  zhèn) can cause inhibited urination associated with water swelling that is more severe below the waist, lassitude of spirit and physical fatigue, withered-yellow facial complexion, head heavy as if swathed, heavy cumbersome limbs, distention and fullness in the stomach duct and abdomen, reduced food intake, sloppy stool, lack of warmth in the extremities, pale enlarged tongue, glossy white tongue fur, and a forceless slow sunken pulse.

Medication:  Warm and move spleen yang; promote the qi transformation and move water. Use Spleen-Firming Beverage (shí  yîn) and variations.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, SP, and ST. Select BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , BL-22 (sän jiäo shü, Triple Burner Transport) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa. Selection of points according to signs: For generalized swelling, add CV-9 (shuî fën, Water Divide) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) . For heavy-headedness, add ST-8 (tóu wéi, Head Corner) and . For distention and fullness in the stomach duct and abdomen, add PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , and CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) . For sloppy stool, add CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , LR-13 (zhäng mén, Camphorwood Gate) , and ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) .

Kidney yang vacuity  (shèn yáng ) inhibited urination is associated with water swelling that is more pronounced below the waist, bright white facial complexion, panting, cough, and phlegm rale, heart palpitations and hasty breathing, physical cold and cold limbs, cold heavy aching lumbus and knees, pale enlarged tongue with dental impression, glossy white tongue fur, and a sunken weak cubit pulse.

Medication:  Warm the kidney and assist yang; promote qi transformation and move water. Use True Warrior Decoction (zhën  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, GV, CV, KI, and SP. Select BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-22 (sän jiäo shü, Triple Burner Transport) , KI-10 (yïn , Yin Valley) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa. Selection of points according to signs: For generalized swelling, see above. For panting, cough, and phlegm rale, add BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , LU-9 (tài yuän, Great Abyss) , ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) , and LI-4 ( , Union Valley) . For heart palpitations and hasty breathing, add BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , CV-14 ( què, Great Tower Gate) , and HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) . For cold heavy aching lumbus, add GV-3 (yäo yáng guän, Lumbar Yang Pass) and BL-40 (wêi zhöng, Bend Center) .

Internal damp-heat obstruction  (shï  nèi ) causes inhibited urination associated with heart vexation, desire to vomit, bitter taste in the mouth with sticky slimy sensation, thirst without desire to drink, torpid intake and abdominal distention, constipation or sloppy and grimy stool, red tongue with yellow fur, and a soggy rapid pulse.

Medication:  Treat by clearing heat and disinhibiting dampness, and offensively expelling water-damp, with formulas such as Coursing and Piercing Drink (shü zao2 yîn zi).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on alarm and back transport points of BL, and on SP. Select CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , BL-28 (páng guäng shü, Bladder Transport) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , and KI-7 ( lïu, Recover Flow) ; needle with drainage. Selection of points according to signs: For thirst, add TB-2 ( mén, Humor Gate) , and KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) . For torpid intake and abdominal distention, add ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , and ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) . For constipation, add, LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , TB-6 (zhï göu, Branch Ditch) , and ST-37 (shàng  , Upper Great Hollow) . For sloppy grimy stool, add ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , and ST-37 (shàng  , Upper Great Hollow) .

Qi stagnation with damp obstruction  ( zhì shï ) causes inhibited urination accompanied by bitter taste in the mouth, dry pharynx, constrained feeling in the chest and rib-side, reduced food intake, belching, swallowing of upflowing acid, and abdominal distention after eating, in severe cases with enlargement of the abdomen but with no hardness under pressure. The tongue is red with a thin yellow fur, and the pulse is stringlike.

Medication:  Course the liver and resolve depression; move qi and disinhibit water. Use Bupleurum Liver-Coursing Powder (chái  shü gän sân) combined with Stomach-Calming Poria (Hoelen) Five Decoction (wèi líng täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on alarm and back transport points of BL, and on LR, GB, PC, and SP. Select CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , BL-28 (páng guäng shü, Bladder Transport) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) ; needle with drainage. Selection of points according to signs: For discomfort in the chest and ribs, add LR-14 ( mén, Cycle Gate) and GB-24 ( yuè, Sun and Moon) . For belching and swallowing of upflowing acid, add CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) and CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) . For abdominal distention after eating, add CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , CV-10 (xià wân, Lower Stomach Duct) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , and CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) .

Yin vacuity  (yïn ) can also cause inhibited urination associated with short voidings of yellow urine, dizziness, tinnitus, heart vexation, bitter taste in the mouth, dry pharynx, vexing heat in the five hearts, limp aching lumbus and knees, in some cases repeated episodes of water swelling, red tongue with scant fur, and fine rapid pulse.

Medication:  Treat by enriching the liver and kidney, and by disinhibiting urine. Use Life Saver Kidney Qi Pill ( shëng shèn  wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points and KI. Select BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , BL-22 (sän jiäo shü, Triple Burner Transport) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , KI-10 (yïn , Yin Valley) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and KI-7 ( lïu, Recover Flow) ; needle with supplementation. Selection of points according to signs: For heart vexation, add HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) and HT-5 (töng , Connecting Li) . For dry pharynx, add KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) and TB-2 ( mén, Humor Gate) . For limp aching lumbus and knees, GV-3 (yäo yáng guän, Lumbar Yang Pass) and BL-40 (wêi zhöng, Bend Center) . Inhibited urination due to exhaustion of yin liquid through excessive promotion of sweating, ejection, or precipitation is treated exclusively by nourishing yin and increasing humor, and hence goes beyond the scope of inhibited urination proper. See dribbling urinary block; strangury-turbidity; shifted bladder; water swelling.

inhibited urination in pregnancy

rèn shën xiâo biàn  

From The Origin and Indicators of Disease (zhü bìng yuán hòu lùn) Difficult voiding of scant urine during pregnancy. Inhibited urination in pregnancy is attributed to accumulated heat in the small intestine and heat binding in the bladder, obstructing qi transformation. It may also be due to spleen-lung qi vacuity and impaired regulation of the waterways, preventing normal downward transportation to the bladder.

Accumulated heat in the small intestine  (xiâo cháng  ) causes inhibited urination with thirst, heart vexation, and reddish urine.

Medication:  Clear heat and move water. Use Eight Corrections Powder ( zhèng sân).

Spleen-lung qi vacuity  ( fèi  ) is characterized by heart palpitations, shortness of breath, and lassitude of spirit and lack of strength.

Medication:  Supplement the spleen and lung with variations of Center-Supplementing Qi-Boosting Decoction ( zhöng   täng).



Disfluency (of qi, fluids, or dampness) or difficulty (of physical movement, urination, and speech). Methods of treating such conditions are often described as disinhibition. See stoppage.

inhibition of lung qi


Any disturbance of depurative downbearing of lung qi and the lung's governing of the waterways. The lung governs the qi of the whole body and governs the regulation of the waterways. The appearance of cough or nasal congestion on the one hand, or inhibited urination or water swelling on the other are signs of inhibition of lung qi. Compare nondiffusion of lung qi.

initial-stage qi-aspect heat

 fèn chü 

A warm disease pattern arising when evil first enters the qi aspect. The main signs include effusion generalized heat~, thirst, heart vexation, anguish, and mixed yellow and white tongue fur. Initial-stage qi-aspect heat is treated with Gardenia and Fermented Soybean Decoction (zhï  chî täng) to clear heat and outthrust evils. The main formula treating exuberant lung-stomach heat is Supplemented Ephedra, Apricot Kernel, Gypsum, and Licorice Decoction (jiä wèi  xìng shí gän täng), which clears heat and diffuses the lung. This formula may be combined with heat-clearing phlegm-transforming formulas such as Minor Chest Bind Decoction (xiâo xiàn xiöng täng) and further supplemented with heat-clearing toxin-resolving medicinals such as Lonicerae Flos (jïn yín huä), Forsythiae Fructus (lián qiào), Scutellariae Radix (huáng qín), and Gardeniae Fructus (shän zhï ).

injection fluid

zhù shè 

Intramuscular or acupoint injection fluids are made either by distillation or decoction followed by complex filtering procedures.

in moderate chronic conditions treat root

huân  zhì bên

Treat the root of disease when there are no secondary manifestations that are more pressing Compare in acute conditions treat the tip. See also root and tip.

inner body


The inner part of the body; synonymous with interior, but used especially in the context of deep-lying and internal disease. interior.

inner canthus


The inner angle of the eye.

innominate toxin swelling

 míng zhông 

Localized pain and swelling that suddenly appears on any part of the body. The Great Compendium of External Medicine (wài   chéng) states, `` not a welling-abscess , not a flat-abscess , not a sore, not lichen , resembling a malign sore in form, either healing or worsening; it is called an innominate toxin swelling.'' It is caused by wind, cold, or heat lodging in the channels. When due to wind evil, there is neither head nor root. When due to qi contending with the blood, there is a head but no root. When due to wind-cold, the swelling is hard and white. When due to heat toxin, the swelling is red and hot.

Medication:  For exterior patterns, treat by dissipation, using Schizonepeta and Ledebouriella Toxin-Vanquishing Powder (jïng fáng bài  sân). For interior patterns, treat by precipitation with formulas such as Internal Coursing Coptis Decoction (nèi shü huáng lián täng). See toxin; toxin swelling.


wèn zhên

One of the four examinations; examination by questioning the patient or those attending him. According Zhang Jing-Yue (Ming, 1563--1640), inquiry should be based on ten questions: 1.~Heat~effusion and aversion to cold. 2.~Sweating. 3.~Head and body. 4.~Stool and urine. 5.~Food and drink. 6.~Chest. 7.~Deafness. 8.~Thirst. 9.~Identifying yin and yang from the pulse and complexion. 10.~Noting any odors or abnormalities of the spirit. The first eight of these items, actually the only ones that are essentially part of inquiry, are still to this day considered to apply. To those eight, can be added hearing and vision, sleep, previous disease, emotional problems, and diseases specific to women and men. The practitioner should inquire whether the patient suffers from sensations of cold or heat. Heat and cold can sometimes be felt, but sometimes not. The term heat~effusion``'' generally denotes heat that can be felt, but in some case refers to what the patient experiences. is a patient's subjective feeling of cold; in the patient suffering from aversion to cold, heat~effusion may sometimes be detected by an observer palpating the skin. This combination of heat~effusion and aversion to cold is a typical indication of the onset of external diseases. The prominence of aversion to cold indicates the presence of external wind-cold; a milder aversion to cold, often called aversion to wind, with a more pronounced heat~effusion indicates wind-heat. is usually seen in midstage penetration patterns, such as malaria. An unabating high fever without aversion to cold indicates that the disease has already entered the interior. A persistent but remittent high fever, unabated by sweating, with intermittent aversion to cold, indicates that the evil is intense and the condition is relatively severe. , a persistent high fever that peaks from about 3 to 5 p.m., is principally associated with gastrointestinal heat bind. Persistent heat~effusion accompanied by signs of dampness evil indicates lingering damp-heat. A low fever (often little more than hot palms and soles and flushed cheeks) that occurs in the afternoon or evening, and abates after night or morning sweating, is known as steaming bone tidal heat~effusion, and is attributable to yin vacuity. Heat~effusion that is present during the day and rises at night indicates a relatively severe condition. If the patient feels hot and vexed, but has a normal or slightly high body temperature, the condition is generally found to be heat in the bowels and viscera. An irregularly intermittent low fever with lassitude and weakness usually indicates qi vacuity. Aversion to cold usually accompanies heat~effusion, but occurring alone, it is a sign of yang vacuity. Often resulting from a sudden drop in body temperature, such a condition demands special attention since it may indicate vacuity desertion due to collapse of yang. A fluctuating generalized heat~effusion, i.e., one characterized by alternating reduction and increase, indicates damp-heat lodged in the qi aspect. An unsurfaced heat, i.e., one that can only be felt by extended palpation, indicates dampness and heat binding together, with the former preventing the latter from being easily detected at the surface of the body. is pronounced trembling due to cold. In malaria, it comes at regular intervals and is followed by high fever; in other febrile diseases, shivering is a sign of exuberant interior heat preventing yang qi from effusing to the exterior. As aversion to cold, it may also be the sign of pronounced yang vacuity. Sweat is produced from the fluids and blood, and is said to be formed by the heart heart forms sweat(see ). Normal secretion is regulated by construction and particularly by defense. Abnormal secretion, therefore, reflects the state of the fluids and blood, as well as that of construction and defense. Excessive sweating during the daytime or sweating at the slightest physical exertion is termed spontaneous sweating. This most often occurs in patients suffering from qi vacuity or yang vacuity and is an indication of vacuous defense qi and a slackening of the interstices. Sweating during the night is termed night sweating and generally occurs in patients suffering from yin vacuity. It indicates yin vacuity internal heat and insecurity of construction qi. Heat~effusion with dry skin and absence of sweating may occur either in depletion of blood and fluids, or in external disease when the exterior is assailed by an evil, depressing defense qi and blocking the interstices. Correlation with other signs is necessary to ensure a right diagnosis. Sweating provides a valuable indicator of the patient's condition. streaming constantly from the skin indicates yang collapse vacuity desertion, and is a severe condition. If, as a result of sweating, the body temperature drops and the pulse stabilizes, right qi is dispelling the evil from the body. A much less common sign of evil expulsion is shiver sweating. This refers to a shivering bout followed by sweating that reduces a persistent high fever. Sweating fails to abate heat~effusion in two cases: a)~in exterior patterns with construction-defense disharmony preventing the expulsion of an exterior evil, characterized by continuing, intermittent, but not severe heat~effusion with aversion to wind, and spontaneous sweating; b) in great qi-aspect heat patterns where high fever and great sweating are accompanied by aversion to heat and great vexation and thirst. Inquiry about the head entails asking about headache, dizziness, and heavy-headedness. The head contains the brain marrow and is an area where the channels are highly concentrated. Most of the regular and irregular channels, in particular the yang channels, pass through the head. is among the most common signs of disease, occurring in both external diseases and internal damage. The nature, severity, and duration of headaches are all important factors in diagnosis. Headache of recent onset usually indicates external disease. Enduring headache indicates internal damage. Severe headaches usually form part of repletion patterns, whereas dull headaches are generally associated with vacuity. If the pain is exacerbated by exposure to wind and cold, the patient is likely to be suffering from a wind-cold disease. Exacerbation by warmth generally indicates ascendant hyperactivity of liver yang. A headache accompanied by heavy-headedness, known as a head heavy as if swathed (bag-over-the-head sensation), is generally attributable to phlegm-damp clouding the upper body. Frontal headaches are often associated with the yang brightness channel; pain in the temporal area is generally associated with the lesser yang channel; pain in the back of the head and neck is associated with the greater yang channel; and pain at the vertex is generally associated with the reverting yin channel. , which in some literature includes a vague distinction between dizzy head and dizzy vision, may be associated with liver yang, wind-phlegm, and vacuity diseases. The ears are the orifices of the kidney, and vacuity of kidney essential qi may cause tinnitus (ringing in the ears) and deafness. Because the ears are located on the path of the lesser yang channel, disease affecting the lesser yang may lead to deafness. Loss of hearing may also occur in warm disease repletion patterns where evil qi clouds the clear orifices. Loss of hearing acuity and deafness, occurring in some chronic diseases, generally are part of qi or kidney vacuity patterns. Gradual loss of hearing in old age is due to vacuity. Tinnitus and deafness fundamentally have identical meaning in pattern identification. The eyes are the orifices of the liver. and flowery vision are generally associated with liver fire or ascendant hyperactivity of liver yang, and liver-kidney essence-blood depletion. Loss of visual acuity and dry eyes are usually attributable to liver-kidney insufficiency. Inquiry about the body involves asking the patient about pain, discomfort, lumps, or similar irregular phenomena in the trunk or limbs. Generalized aching accompanied by heat~effusion and aversion to cold generally occurs in exterior patterns. Pain of specific location, or wandering pain in the joints, generally indicates an impediment pattern. Insufficiency of qi and blood with blood failing to nourish the sinews may cause relatively mild aching and numbness in the sinews and bones. Heavy body and fatigued limbs usually indicates damp encumbrance. Asking about the patient's urine is indispensable part of the inquiry examination. Urine provides a valuable indicator of repletion, vacuity, cold, and heat. It is produced from fluids and its production and voiding depend on qi transformation; hence urination can provide useful information about the state of the fluids and qi transformation. , the total loss of control over voidings is most commonly a sign of severe qi vacuity or wind stroke desertion patterns. , also called bedwetting especially when observed in children, as is most commonly the case, is due to bad sleeping and waking habits, spleen-lung qi vacuity affecting regulation of the waterways, or insecurity of kidney qi. and in particular profuse urination at night (nocturia) indicate vacuous kidney yang failing to perform its containing function. , when not due to inadequate replacement of fluids lost through sweating in hot weather, indicate repletion heat. is any reduction of urine volume or difficulty in discharge of urine attributed to qi vacuity or the presence of evil resulting in inhibition of the qi transformation. is a specific form of inhibited urination characterized by frequent short voidings of scant urine, which arises in pregnancy due to pressure on movement of the bladder. inhibited urination with frequency and stinging pain on voiding, sometimes with the passing of stones or blood. conventionally refers to the presence of bloody urine in patterns other than strangury, and is attributed either to insufficiency of kidney yin with effulgent heart-liver fire spreading to the small intestine or to dual depletion of the spleen and kidney preventing the blood from being contained. Stool changes are largely attributable to morbidity of the spleen, stomach, and intestines, but may also be associated with liver and kidney dysfunction. and hard, dry stool are mainly attributable to heat and repletion, although cold and vacuity are not uncommon causes. Constipation with fullness, distention, and pain in the abdomen occurring in externally contracted heat (febrile) disease is a result of gastrointestinal heat bind repletion pattern of heat constipation. Constipation marked by dry hard stool without pronounced abdominal distention is a vacuity pattern attributed to insufficiency of intestinal humor due to blood and fluid depletion. Vacuity constipation includes cold constipation, which involves difficult defecation experienced by the elderly as a result of yang vacuity affecting movement and transformation of food. and sloppy stool occur in vacuity, repletion, cold, and heat patterns. Fulminant diarrhea usually indicates repletion. Enduring diarrhea generally indicates vacuity, or a vacuity-repletion complex. Diarrhea characterized by frequent evacuation of small amounts of stool with tenesmus and a burning sensation indicates damp-heat in the large intestine. is observed in vacuity and repletion patterns. Abdominal pain followed, and relieved, by diarrhea is most often attributable to food accumulations. Bouts of diarrhea with abdominal pain that is unrelieved by defecation are brought on by emotional stimuli. This is due to liver-spleen disharmony. Diarrhea occurring shortly after eating indicates spleen-stomach qi vacuity. Diarrhea each day before dawn is known as early morning diarrhea and is attributable to spleen-kidney yang vacuity. Diarrhea with loss of the voluntary control over bowel movements, sometimes accompanied by prolapse of the rectum, is known as intestinal vacuity efflux desertion, and is attributed to vacuity cold or to center qi fall. Dietary considerations are categorized in three parts: thirst and fluid intake; food intake and digestion; and taste in the mouth. Thirst and fluid intake: Inquiry about thirst and fluid intake provides a valuable indicator of heat and cold. Absence of thirst, or intake of warm fluids in small amounts, indicates a cold pattern. Thirst with little or no desire to drink, or immediate vomiting of ingested fluids, indicates water-damp collecting internally and impaired upbearing of fluids. Thirst with a preference for cold fluids and severe thirst with large fluid intake are signs of heat. Thirst unallayed by a large fluid intake, together with a high increase in urine volume, indicates dispersion-thirst. Food intake and digestion: Information concerning the patient's intake of solid foods is particularly valuable in prognosis. Maintenance of a good appetite and digestion in spite of long or severe illness shows that the stomach qi has not expired and the patient's prospects for recovery are good. Hence it is said, ``If sustenance is taken, the body thrives.'' Persistent poor appetite may affect the prospects for recovery. Most illnesses characterized by a reduced food intake, distention, and oppression after eating are traceable to spleen-stomach vacuity or inner body damp-heat obstruction. A normal appetite with indigestion signifies a strong stomach and a weak spleen. Increased eating with rapid hungering and clamoring stomach after eating indicates stomach heat. Stomach pain slightly relieved by eating signals a vacuity. Predilection for rich and fatty foods increases susceptibility to phlegm-damp. A perverted appetite indicates worm accumulations. Taste in the mouth: Taste changes are of corroborative value in pattern identification. If the taste in the mouth is unaffected by illness, the mouth is said to be in harmony. This indicates that there is no heat in the interior. A bitter taste in the mouth is a sign of heat, and usually indicates stomach heat, liver heat, or liver-gallbladder damp-heat. A sweet or bland taste or slimy sensation in the mouth indicates damp obstruction or spleen vacuity with dampness. A sour putrid taste is usually attributable to food stagnation. Intermittent acid upflow usually indicates stomach heat, or invasion of the stomach by liver fire. All the major organs, with the exception of the brain, are located within the chest and abdomen. Most diseases of the bowels and viscera are therefore reflected by pain or discomfort in this region. Inquiry thus involves identifying possible glomus, fullness, distention, and pain, and determining the presence of cold or heat and vacuity or repletion. fullness and possibly with pain, and accompanied by coughing and copious phlegm indicates chest impediment or a cold-rheum pattern. If the same signs are accompanied by vexation heat, thirst, and slimy tongue fur, the pattern is one of phlegm-heat. A feeling of oppression in the chest with weak breathing indicates vacuity. rib-side pain and distention indicates either binding depression of liver qi or liver-gallbladder damp-heat. Both of these are readily identifiable by the correlation of other signs. Lancinating pain and oppression around the heart, with ashen complexion, and dripping cold sweat, is termed true heart pain and is a critical condition. occurs in vacuity and repletion patterns. When the pain likes pressure, it is ascribed to vacuity; if it refuses pressure, it is ascribed to repletion. Pain soothed by the application of heat is attributable to cold. Stabbing or lancinating pain of specific location indicates accumulation of static blood forming an internal welling-abscess . Remittent scurrying pain of nonspecific location is usually qi pain. Intermittent scurrying pain in the umbilical region may indicate a worm accumulation. relieved by the passing of flatus or belching is usually related to qi stagnation or food accumulation; it is often further characterized by torpid intake. Continued distention without relief, together with hard stools, indicates repletion. Periodically abating vacuity distention combined with sloppy stool form a vacuity pattern. Essential Prescriptions of the Golden Coffer (jïn guì yào lüè) describes the former as ``abdominal fullness with little or no relief,'' and the latter as ``abdominal fullness recurring after periods of relief.'' Sleep disturbances include insomnia, somnolence, and clouding sleep. (insomnia), the inability to gain a full night's rest, is observed in a number patterns. When marked by reduced and unquiet sleep, profuse dreaming, heart palpitations, and susceptibility to fright and fear, it is attributable to insufficiency of heart blood, disquieting of the heart spirit, or liver blood insufficiency. When characterized by heart vexation and interior heat, initial insomnia, or, in severe cases, nightlong sleeplessness, it is attributable to effulgent yin vacuity fire. Persistent, severe insomnia with signs of both heart fire and kidney vacuity indicate noninteraction of the heart and kidney. Insomnia due to phlegm-fire harassing the upper body, spleen-stomach vacuity, or indigestion, is loosely termed unquiet sleep due to stomach disharmony. , pronounced drowsiness and tendency to sleep for long periods, occurs most notably in external diseases such as heat entering the pericardium or phlegm clouding the orifices of the heart. It may also be a sign of debilitation of yang qi, which is referred to in On Cold Damage (shäng hán lùn) where it states, ``When the lesser yin is affected by disease there is desire only for sleep.'' Patients suffering from yang vacuity may fall asleep almost instantly, but readily awaken. This condition is distinguished from the former by the absence of heat signs. hypersomnia* , equivalent to hypersomnia in Western medicine, occurs in heat entering the pericardium. Old illness includes both long-standing illnesses and previous illnesses. Information about the patient's history of illness is important when judging new conditions. Presence of long-standing ailments: The practitioner should ask patients whether they were already suffering from any long-standing complaint when the present condition arose. Liver fire and liver yang disease is a predisposing factor for stirring of internal wind and sudden wind strokes. Enduring diarrhea or water swelling frequently indicates spleen-kidney yang vacuity. Patients ordinarily suffering from phlegm-rheum may be found to have insufficiency of lung, spleen, and kidney qi transformation. Previous treatment and its implications for medication: Patients should be questioned about previous treatment and its effects. If, for example, a condition was previously identified as a heat pattern, yet treatment with cold or cool medicinals produced no marked effect, either the pattern was wrongly identified, or the diagnosis was right but the formula chosen was inappropriate. Possibly, the formula was simply not strong enough. Reappraisal in the light of presenting signs should pinpoint the error. People who are taciturn and melancholy by nature are more prone than others to binding depression of liver qi. Impulsiveness, rashness, and impatience are predisposing factors for liver fire flaming upward and upstirring of liver yang. Predilection for cold, raw, and fatty foods, and smoking may cause phlegm-damp. Attention should be paid to the diseases commonly associated with the patient's occupation; for example, the occupational diseases of outdoor manual laborers include low back pain and aching legs, and cold-damp bi. Menstruation and childbearing are associated not only with the uterus, but also the heart, the liver, the spleen, and kidney, as well as the thoroughfare and controlling vessels. Information concerning menstruation, pregnancy, and childbirth is therefore relevant in many nongynecological diseases. The practitioner should ask about menstruation, history of pregnancy and childbirth, and future plans with regard to having children. When inquiring about menstrual history, attention should be paid to the length of the menstrual period (premature or delayed arrival of periods), flow, color (light red, red, purple), and the consistency (thin, thick, clotted) of the discharge. Any abnormalities in these are called menstrual irregularities. (i.e., premature arrival of periods) with a heavy flow and a thick red discharge, generally indicates blood heat. (i.e., late periods) with reduced flow and a light-colored discharge generally implies blood vacuity. A heavy flow with a thin pale discharge indicates qi vacuity. Purple discharge with clots indicates blood stasis. (i.e., periods sometimes early sometimes late) is due to binding depression of liver qi, spleen vacuity, or kidney vacuity. A clotted flow indicates binding depression of liver qi, a pale thin flow indicates either spleen or kidney vacuity. A scant pale thin flow indicates kidney vacuity, while a copious flow indicates spleen vacuity (blood management failure). Excessive childbearing frequently leads to depletion of the thoroughfare and controlling vessels. Women with histories of miscarriage and difficult deliveries may be suffering from nongynecological diseases such as insufficiency of qi and blood or liver-kidney depletion. Information concerning menstruation and pregnancy is vitally important in selecting medication for nongynecological diseases, since in pregnancy qi-breaking and blood-quickening medicinals and needling of SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , GB-21 (jiän jîng, Shoulder Well) , and any points on the lower abdomen can cause miscarriage. many be normal if scant and white. A copious clear white discharge without malodor is called white vaginal discharge and is caused by cold-damp pouring downward with spleen vacuity. A foul-smelling copious thick yellow discharge is called yellow vaginal discharge and is due to damp-heat pouring downward. Problems specific to men include notably seminal emission, impotence, and premature ejaculation which are broadly attributed to kidney vacuity. For infants and children, general inquiry about their development is important for assessing the state of their kidney essential qi and spleen-stomach function. When infants are breast-fed, inquiry about lactation may be pertinent.

insects in the ear

chóng  êr

Insects that have found their way into the ear should be removed as quickly as possible. Drip oil, Allii Fistulosi Herbae Succus (cöng zhï), Allii Sativi Bulbi Succus (suàn zhï), or alcohol into the affected ear, and remove the insect, taking care not to damage the ear drum.



Failure to secure or be secured; vulnerability (to invasion by evils or loss of essential elements). The word ``insecurity'' occurs in the term ``insecurity of defense qi,'' which denotes weakness of defense qi and a consequent loosening of the interstices, laying the body open to invasion by external evils. It also occurs in ``insecurity of kidney qi,'' which denotes impairment of the kidney's function of storing essence, and is characterized by seminal emission, seminal efflux, and premature ejaculation, or urinary frequency, enuresis, and incontinence.

insecurity of bladder qi


Weakness of bladder qi failing to retain urine (often stemming from kidney yang vacuity) and manifesting as urinary incontinence or enuresis.

insecurity of defense qi


insecurity of exterior qi.

insecurity of defensive yang

wèi yáng  

insecurity of exterior qi.

insecurity of exterior qi


Synonym:  insecurity of defense qi ;

Synonym:  insecurity of the defensive exterior ;

Synonym:  insecurity of defensive yang .

Vacuity of the yang qi that defends the body. Yang qi vacuity manifests in fear of cold, and because it causes looseness of the interstices (sweat pores), there is spontaneous sweating. Elementary Questions ( wèn) states, ``Yang protects the outer body and thereby assures security.'' Insecurity of exterior qi is a failure of this function.

insecurity of heart qi


Synonym:  noncontraction of heart qi .

A condition in which the heart spirit floats astray, characterized by dissipated spirit, forgetfulness, susceptibility to fright, heart palpitations, spontaneous sweating or sweating at the slightest exertion.

insecurity of kidney qi


Synonym:  insecurity of the lower origin .

Breakdown of the kidney's governing of opening and closing or storing of essence that manifests in urinary disturbances, such as frequent and long voidings of clear urine, incontinence, enuresis, and dribbling urination, or disturbances of the reproductive function such as seminal emission, seminal efflux, and premature ejaculation. Insecurity of kidney qi results from debilitation of kidney qi in old age or maldevelopment of kidney qi in youth, or from damage through sexual intemperance or early marriage (early commencement of sexual activity). It is usually, therefore, accompanied by signs of general kidney vacuity such as fatigued spirit, lumbar back pain, limpness of the knees, a tongue that tends to be pale, and a fine weak pulse. Mild cold signs are also observed. Furthermore, stirring fetus due to kidney vacuity may also be considered as a manifestation of insecurity of kidney qi (see stirring fetus).

Medication:  Secure the kidney and astringe essence. Combine general qi-supplementing medicinals with medicinals that astringe essence and check enuresis such as Rosae Laevigatae Fructus (jïn yïng ), Euryales Semen (qiàn shí), Mastodi Ossis Fossilia (lóng ), Ostreae Concha ( ), Tribuli Fructus (  ), Nelumbinis Stamen (lián ), Dioscoreae Rhizoma (shän yào), and Mantidis O"otheca (säng piäo xiäo). Use Golden Lock Essence-Securing Pill (jïn suô  jïng wán) to treat seminal emission, and Stream-Reducing Pill (suö quán wán) to treat copious urine with urinary frequency or incontinence in the aged. Use Mantis Egg-Case Powder (säng piäo xiäo sân) for enuresis in children.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on KI, CV, and back transport points. Select CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , BL-52 (zhì shì, Will Chamber) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , KI-7 ( lïu, Recover Flow) , GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) ; needle with supplementation and moxa. Selection of points according to signs: For enuresis, add CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) and BL-28 (páng guäng shü, Bladder Transport) . For dribbling urination, add BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-28 (páng guäng shü, Bladder Transport) , CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , and SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) . For seminal emission, add BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , and HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) . For seminal efflux, add CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , CV-2 ( , Curved Bone) , and KI-12 ( , Great Manifestation) .

insecurity of the defensive exterior

wèi biâo  

insecurity of exterior qi.

insecurity of the essence gate

jïng guän  

Inability to withhold semen manifesting in signs such as seminal emission, seminal efflux, and premature ejaculation. See essence gate.

insecurity of the lower origin

xià yuán  

insecurity of kidney qi.

insecurity of the thoroughfare and controlling vessels

chöng rèn  

Damage to the thoroughfare and controlling vessels with dual vacuity of qi and blood, causing flooding and spotting, miscarriage, or vaginal discharge.

insensitive impediment


A condition of numbness of the skin and flesh with inability to sense pain or itching, and sometimes aching pain in the extremities.

insensitivity of the flesh

 ròu  rén

Inability to experience pain, itching, cold or heat in the flesh. Elementary Questions ( wèn) states, ``When spleen qi is hot, then the stomach is dry, there is thirst and insensitivity of the flesh. This develops into flesh wilting.'' The Clear Rationale of Cold Damage (shäng hán míng  lùn) states, ``Insensitive means not lithe, not knowing itching, not knowing pain, not knowing cold, and not knowing heat. Any bending and stretching, moxibustion and acupuncture treatment is not felt. This is called insensitivity, which arises when evil qi is congested, right is qi blocked and hidden by evil qi that lies depressed and fails to effuse, and when construction and defense qi are vacuous and scant, and cannot move freely.'' See wilting; impediment; and wind stroke.

insensitivity of the skin


Numbness of the skin. Essential Prescriptions of the Golden Coffer (jïn guì yào lüè) states, ``When evil is in the network vessels, there is insensitivity of the skin.'' See numbness and tingling of the skin.


shï mián



wàng zhên

Synonym:  visual examination ;

Synonym:  looking examination .

One of the four examinations; looking at the patient and his phlegm, urine, and stool for diagnostic information. In inspection, attention is paid to the spirit, general physical appearance, and any part of the body where there is discomfort. Special attention focuses on the complexion and tongue, which are important indicators of the bowels and viscera. Inspection theoretically covers products discharged from the body (stool, urine, vomitus, phlegm), although, in practice, information concerning these matters is gleaned through inquiry. See spirit; bearing; facial complexion; infant's finger examination; tongue; tongue fur; head; stool; urine. See also sand veins; fish network vessels.

instep yang pulse

 yáng mài

One of the three positions and nine indicators. A pulse 1.5 body-inches in front of ST-41 (jiê , Ravine Divide) on the upper side of the foot. The instep pulse lies on the foot yang brightness stomach channel, and indicates the state of the stomach and spleen.



Lack (of substance) or incompleteness (of function); opposite of superabundance. Compare vacuity and repletion. See also exuberance and debilitation.

insufficiency of center qi


Synonym:  spleen-

stomach qi vacuity .

Weakness of the spleen and stomach qi in the center burner with movement and transformation failure. Signs include yellow facial complexion with little luster, pale or dull lips, poor appetite, abdominal distention after eating, dizziness, low voice, shortness of breath, fatigue with lack of strength, sloppy stool, tender-soft tongue with thick fur, and a vacuous pulse. In some cases, there is stomach pain that likes pressure.

Medication:  Supplement the center and boost qi, using Center-Supplementing Qi-Boosting Decoction ( zhöng   täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transports, CV, SP, and ST. Select BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , and CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa. See spleen qi vacuity; stomach qi vacuity.

insufficiency of center yang

zhöng yáng  

spleen-stomach yang vacuity.

insufficiency of essence-blood

jïng xuè  

Synonym:  liver-

kidney essence-blood depletion .

A combined pattern of insufficiency of kidney essence and liver blood vacuity.

Medication:  Nourish the liver and supplement the kidney. Six-Ingredient Rehmannia Decoction (lìu wèi  huáng täng) plus Angelicae Sinensis Radix (däng guï), Paeoniae Radix Alba (bái sháo yào), Ligustici Rhizoma (chuän xiöng), Ziziphi Spinosi Semen (suän zâo rén), and Polygoni Multiflori Radix ( shôu ).

insufficiency of fluids


Reduction of body fluids (see fluids) as a result of vigorous heat~effusion with great sweating, profuse urination, vomiting, and diarrhea. It may also result from misappropriate use of sweat-effusing medicinals, water-disinhibiting medicinals, draining precipitant medicinals, or warm dry medicinals. Distinction is made between the mild form, damage to liquid, and the severe form, damage to yin (humor desertion).

insufficiency of gallbladder qi


Synonym:  gallbladder vacuity and qi timidity ;

Synonym:  gallbladder qi vacuity ;

Synonym:  gallbladder vacuity .

A pattern arising after illness as a result of dysfunction among the internal organs. Signs include vacuity vexation, insomnia, susceptibility to fright, bitter taste in the mouth, doubt and suspicious, and frequent sighing. It is treated by warming the gallbladder and quieting the spirit.

insufficiency of heart blood

xïn xuè  

See heart blood vacuity.

insufficiency of heart construction

xïn yíng  

insufficiency of heart yin.

insufficiency of heart qi


See heart qi vacuity.

insufficiency of heart yin

xïn yïn  

Synonym:  insufficiency of heart construction .

See heart yin vacuity.

insufficiency of kidney essence

shèn jïng  

A disease pattern resulting from enduring illness or improper development during the fetal stage. Insufficiency of kidney essence differs from kidney yin and yang vacuity in that vacuity signs are accompanied by neither cold nor heat signs of any marked degree. The kidney governs the bones and engenders marrow, and the brain is the sea of marrow. Only when kidney essential qi is abundant can the bone, marrow, and brain fulfill their functions. Insufficiency of kidney essence may thus lead to signs of essence-marrow depletion and sea-of-marrow vacuity, such as impairment of intellectual function, osteodystrophy, and deficiency of the reproductive function. Insufficiency of kidney essence is generally characterized by dizziness, tinnitus, limp aching lumbus and knees, deficient reproductive function, loss of head hair, and loosening of the teeth. Insufficiency of essence-marrow or sea-of-marrow vacuity manifests in different ways according to age. In children, it can result in retarded growth and development, short stature, sluggishness of physical movement, low intelligence, weak bones, or retarded closure of the fontanels. In adults, it may lead to premature senility, or weakness in the legs, difficulty in walking, dullness of essence-spirit, and slowness of physical movement.

Medication:  ``Insufficiency of essence is treated by supplementation with flavor.'' Commonly used medicinals include: Hominis Placenta (  chë), Cervi Cornu ( jiâo) Testudinis Plastrum (guï bân), Eucommiae Cortex ( zhòng), Lycii Fructus (gôu  ), Cistanches Caulis (ròu cöng róng), Morindae Radix (  tiän), Cynomorii Caulis (suô yáng), Corni Fructus (shän zhü ), Cuscutae Semen (  ), and Rehmanniae Radix Conquita (shú  huáng). Formulas include Left-Restoring Kidney Yin Pill (zuô guï wán) and powdered Hominis Placenta (  chë). Where cold signs are present, Right-Restoring Life Gate Pill (yòu guï wán) may be used to replenish essence and warm the kidney. The presence of heat signs calls for Placenta Great Creation Pill ( chë  zào wán), which enriches the kidney and boosts essence.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on KI and back transport points. Select BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , BL-52 (jïng göng, Palace of Essence) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and GB-39 (jué , Severed Bone) ; needle with supplementation.

insufficiency of kidney water

shèn shuî  

See kidney yin vacuity.

insufficiency of kidney yin

shèn yïn  

See kidney yin vacuity.

insufficiency of liver blood

gän xuè  

See liver blood vacuity.

insufficiency of liver blood rib-side pain

gän xuè   xié tòng

Rib-side pain characterized by continuous dull pain and accompanied by dizzy head and vision, lusterless complexion, menstrual irregularities, pale red tongue with scant fur, and a fine rapid pulse.

Medication:  Treat with All-the-Way-Through Brew ( guàn jiän) plus Adenophorae seu Glehniae Radix (shä shën), Ophiopogonis Tuber (mài mén döng), Angelicae Sinensis Radix (däng guï), Paeoniae Radix Alba (bái sháo yào), Rehmanniae Radix Exsiccata seu Recens (shëng  huáng), Lycii Fructus (gôu  ), Toosendan Fructus (chuän liàn ), and Albizziae Flos ( huän huä),

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, LR and SP. Select BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) LR-14 ( mén, Cycle Gate) , LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) ; needle with supplementation. For dizzy head and vision, add GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) and GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) .

insufficiency of liver qi


See liver qi vacuity.

insufficiency of liver yin

gän yïn  

See liver yin vacuity.

insufficiency of spleen qi


See spleen qi vacuity.

insufficiency of spirit qi


Lack of spirit or vigor. See spirit qi.

insufficiency of stomach yin

wèi yïn  

Synonym:  stomach yin depletion .

See stomach yin vacuity.

insufficiency of the brain marrow

nâo suî   The Magic Pivot (líng shü) says,

when the brain is insufficient, the brain turns and the ears ring.

insufficiency of the life fire

mìng huô  

See kidney yang vacuity.

insufficiency of the true origin

zhën yuán  

See kidney yang vacuity.

insufficiency of true yang

zhën yáng  

See kidney yang vacuity.

insufficiency of true yin

zhën yïn  

See kidney yin vacuity.


To blow (into the nose, throat, or ear). See insufflation.


chuï yào

A topical powder for ear, nose, throat, and mouth diseases that is blown into the nose, traditionally through rolled up paper, fine bamboo tubes or straws. A sore swollen throat with qi block in children, for example, can be treated by insufflating ground Glycyrrhizae Radix Cruda (shëng gän câo) and Mirabilitum Non-Purum ( xiäo) Throat Insufflation Powder (chuï hóu sân)() into the throat. sinusitis*!chronic paranasal sinusitis Chronic paranasal sinusitis can be treated by insufflating powdered calcined yellow croaker's Pseudosciaenae Otolithum ( nâo shí) into the nose. Common cold with nasal congestion can be treated by insufflating powdered Centipedae Herba cum Radice (é  shí câo) into the nose. See nasal insufflation.

intense heart fire

xïn huô chì shèng

hyperactive heart fire.

intense heat


Heat stronger than exuberant heat.

intense internal heart fire

xïn huô nèi chì

Synonym:  heart fire deflagrating internally .

A pattern characterized by heart vexation, insomnia, fearful throbbing, and, in severe cases, manic agitation, delirious speech, and incessant laughing. Treat by clearing heat and draining fire, assisted by nourishing the heart and quieting the spirit. Use Cinnabar Spirit-Quieting Pill (zhü shä än shén wán) plus Scutellariae Radix (huáng qín), Gardeniae Fructus (shän zhï ), and Forsythiae Fructus (lián qiáo).

intense stomach fire

wèi huô chì shèng

See exuberant stomach heat.

intercourse bleeding

jiäo jië chü xuè

Bleeding during or after intercourse. Intercourse bleeding is usually attributed to frenetic liver fire preventing blood storage and a vacuous spleen failing to contain the blood.

Medication:  Regulate and supplement the kidney and spleen. Use formulas such as Center-Supplementing Qi-Boosting Decoction ( zhöng   täng) or Spleen-Returning Decoction (guï  täng) plus Terra Flava Usta ( lóng gän). A local examination should be performed to see if there is any lesion.

interdependence of yin and yang

yïn yáng xiäng   cún

See yin and yang are rooted in each other.


The inner part of the body as opposed to the exterior, especially the bowels and viscera. See exterior and interior. Compare internal.

interior attack does not shun cold

göng   yuân hán

From Elementary Questions ( wèn) Heat accumulated in the interior cannot be eliminated unless cold precipitants are used. Cold in the abdomen giving rise to cold constipation can also be treated with cold precipitants provided these are suitably combined with other medicinals. Cold constipation can be treated with Rhubarb and Aconite Decoction ( huáng   täng), which consists of Rhei Rhizoma ( huáng), Aconiti Tuber Laterale Salsum (xián  ), and Asiasari Herba cum Radice ( xïn). Rhubab is cold and bitter, while aconite is greatly acrid and hot and asarum is warm and acrid. These medicinals combined together to form a warm precipitation formula.

interior cold


Cold patterns of the bowels and viscera attributable to insufficiency of yang qi or external cold passing to the interior and characterized by cold limbs and aversion to cold, somber white complexion, cold aching lumbus and knees, sloppy stool and diarrhea, long voidings of clear urine, pale tongue with glossy white fur, and a sunken slow or faint fine pulse.

interior heat


Any heat pattern arising when external evils enter the interior and transform into heat, or when internal depression engenders heat, usually taking the form of gastrointestinal or lung-stomach repletion heat or depressed liver-gallbladder heat. Interior heat is characterized by heat~effusion, aversion to heat rather than cold, thirst with intake of fluid, vexation and agitation or vexation with bitter taste in the mouth, short voiding of reddish urine, red tongue with yellow fur, and a rapid surging or forceful rapid stringlike pulse.

interior of the chest

xiöng zhöng

The chest cavity. The Magic Pivot (líng shü) states, ``The kidney foot lesser yin vessel A branch goes out to the pericardium from the lung, and enters the interior of the chest. Elementary Questions ( wèn) states, ``When there is trouble in the interior of the chest, the throat becomes blocked and there is coughing.'' In The Classified Canon (lèi jïng) Zhang Jing-Yue annotates this line, saying: ``The interior of the chest is the location of the lung.''

interior pattern


Any disease pattern that indicates disease of the interior. Any disease of the internal organs, in contradistinction to externally contracted heat (febrile) disease, e.g., liver disease characterized by dizziness, rib-side pain; heart disease characterized by heart palpitations or fearful throbbing; spleen disease characterized by abdominal distention and diarrhea; and kidney disease characterized by lumbar pain and seminal emission. In externally contracted heat (febrile) disease, an interior pattern arises when an evil that has caused an exterior pattern passes into the interior. Rarely, external evils may strike the interior directly; in most cases, they pass through the exterior. Hence febrile disease interior patterns are identified when aversion to wind or cold---which may or may not be accompanied by heat~effusion or sweating---gives way to high fever or tidal heat~effusion, vexation and agitation, thirst, clouded spirit, abdominal pain or distention, diarrhea or constipation, short voidings of reddish urine or inhibited urination, dry yellow tongue fur, and a rapid sunken pulse. See also interior cold; interior heat; interior repletion; interior vacuity.

interior repletion



Any disease pattern resulting from external evil transforming into heat and entering the interior to bind in the stomach and intestines and thereby causing vigorous heat~effusion, vexation and thirst, abdominal pain and constipation (bowel repletion pattern).

Definition:  Binding depression of qi and blood, gathering of phlegm, food stagnation, and worm accumulation.

interior vacuity


Any pattern that arises when the yin, yang, qi, or blood or one or more of the bowels and viscera is debilitated, and that is marked by shortage of qi, laziness to speak, heart palpitations, lassitude of the spirit, dizziness, cloudy vision, decreased food intake, fatigued limbs, aching lumbus and limp knees, insomnia, dream emission, pale tongue fur, and weak vacuous pulse.

interlocking bones


The joint between the coccyx and sacrum.

intermittent dysentery


From The Origin and Indicators of Disease (zhü bìng yuán hòu lùn) Dysentery that goes on for months and years, continually starting and stopping; hence the name. Intermittent dysentery usually arises from inappropriate treatment or stems from such factors as qi-blood vacuity or insufficiency of the spleen and kidney, causing right vacuity and lingering evil, whereby damp-heat lies latent in the stomach and intestines. During periods of remission, the only signs that remain are lassitude of spirit and lack of strength, poor appetite, emaciation, and lack of warmth in the extremities.

Medication:  Treat by clearing heat and transforming dampness; if necessary, complement with supplementing qi and blood or warming the spleen and kidney. Use formulas such as Saussurea and Coptis Pill (xiäng lián wán) or Carriage-Halting Pill (zhù chë wán) and variations.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on ST and LI. Needle with drainage at LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , ST-37 (shàng  , Upper Great Hollow) , and ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , and with supplementation at BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) , and CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) .

Medication:  Fortify the spleen and stomach; supplement qi and blood. Use Center-Supplementing Qi-Boosting Decoction ( zhöng   täng) or Eight-Gem Decoction ( zhën täng) and variations. For kidney vacuity, use Four Spirits Pill ( shén wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on CV, ST, and back transport points. Select CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , LR-13 (zhäng mén, Camphorwood Gate) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , and BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) . Needle with supplementation and add moxa. For kidney vacuity, add BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) . See dysentery.

intermittent only, without stomach

dàn dài  wèi

See pulse bereft of stomach qi.

intermittent pulse

dài mài

Synonym:  regularly interrupted pulse .

A moderate weak pulse that pauses at regular intervals. It indicates debilitation of the visceral qi and is seen in heart disease, fear and fright, and severe knocks and falls. See pulse condition; spleen pulse is moderate.



Located or arising within the body, especially of diseases due to excesses of the seven affects (internal damage) and evils resembling their external counterparts (e.g., internal wind, internal dampness). Compare interior.

internal block


See block.

internal block clouding reversal

nèi  hün jué (

clouding of consciousness due to abnormal qi flow) in internal block patterns in which evil is trapped in the interior. See block.

internal blowing

nèi chuï

Synonym:  internal blowing mammary welling-

abscess .

A mammary welling-abscess occurring during pregnancy, attributable to effulgent fetal qi and depressed heat evil. It heals with difficulty after birth and special attention is needed to preserve the fetus. See mammary welling-abscess. Compare external blowing.

internal blowing mammary welling-abscess

nèi chuï  yöng

internal blowing.

internal cause of disease

nèi yïn

One of the three causes of disease; the seven affects---joy, anger, anxiety, thought, grief, fear, and fright---as causes of disease. The seven affects are normal responses of the individual, but when excessively intense or persistent, they can disturb the yin-yang and qi-blood balance and cause diseases of the bowels and viscera. This is known as internal damage or affect damage. Internal causes are not to be confused with evils that arise internally. (Internal fire and internal wind, for example, may be the result of affect damage, but they can also develop from insufficiency or from transformation of external evils, which are not internal causes.) Internal damage to the heart and spirit is characterized by heart palpitations or fearful throbbing, forgetfulness, and insomnia, or by abstraction, sorrow or anxiety with tendency to weep, and visceral agitation with frequent stretching and yawning. It may also take the form of fulminant exuberance of heart fire, characterized by manic agitation or mental derangement. Internal damage to the liver manifests as binding depression of liver qi characterized by mental depression, irascibility, pain in the rib-side, belching, and plum-pit qi. In women, this condition may cause swelling of the breasts, painful distention in the lower abdomen, and menstrual irregularities. Affect-mind disturbance that damages both the heart and spleen takes the form of disquieting of the heart spirit and impairment of spleen-stomach movement and transformation. This is characterized by attacks of abdominal pain, together with retching and nausea; or rumbling intestines and diarrhea. Other patterns include glomus and oppression in the chest and stomach duct, little thought of food and drink, and menstrual block. If the spleen fails to manage the blood, flooding and spotting may also occur. Mental and emotional factors have a distinct bearing on physical health. In treating internal damage conditions, a dual approach is necessary. Patients must be encouraged to deal with their emotional problems, while a proper physical analysis should be made of the state of yin and yang, blood and qi, and the organs. See three causes.

internal cold

nèi hán

Cold arising from within when yang qi is debilitated and cannot warm the body. Internal cold affects the movement and transformation of water humor and causes the retention of turbid yin. When yang is vacuous, yin is exuberant, and when yin is exuberant, there is internal cold. The spleen governs the movement and transformation of water-damp. The kidney governs the regulation of water-humor, and kidney yang is the root of the yang qi of the whole body. This pattern is therefore essentially one of spleen-kidney yang vacuity. Its clinical characteristics are vomiting and diarrhea, abdominal pain, and counterflow coldof the limbs, in some cases with water swelling and phlegm-rheum, etc. The patient's snivel, phlegm, drool and spittle, and urine are clear and cold, while his stool is thin. This reflects the statement in Elementary Questions ( wèn) ``All disease with watery humors that are clear, pure, and cold is ascribed to cold.'' Internal cold is the opposite of external cold, i.e., cold entering the body from outside. These two forms of cold are to some degree mutually conducive. For example, individuals whose yang qi is weak are especially vulnerable to external cold evil; and damage to the body's yang qi by cold can cause internal cold.

internal damage

nèi shäng


Any detrimental effect on bowel and visceral qi produced by intemperance of the seven affects (mental and emotional problems) or excesses of hunger, satiety, taxation fatigue, and sexual activity.

Definition:  Any disease pattern resulting from such causes.

internal damage by the seven affects

nèi shäng  qíng

Synonym:  affect damage .

Damage to yin, yang, qi, and blood, etc., by excesses of the seven affects (joy, anger, anxiety, thought, sorrow, fear, and fright). Powerful or lasting emotions and certain mental activities can damage yin, yang, qi, blood, and eventually the bowels and viscera. Elementary Questions ( wèn) describes the effect of six of the affects specifically on qi. See joy causes qi to slacken; anger causes qi to rise; thought causes qi to bind; sorrow causes qi to disperse; fright causes derangement of qi; fear causes qi to precipitate; excess among the five minds. See also affect.

internal damage headache

nèi shäng tóu tòng due to internal damage to the bowels and viscera or qi and blood,

or to the presence of phlegm-damp or stasis, i.e., not due to external causes. Internal damage headaches develop gradually, are periodic, and are accompanied by other signs of insufficiency of bowels and visceral qi or internal evils. See entries listed below. See also headache.

Internal Damage Headache

internal damage lumbar pain

nèi shäng yäo tòng

Lumbar pain due to liver, spleen, or kidney vacuity, to damp phlegm or static blood, or else to internal injury.

Medication:  Treat by supplementing the spleen and kidney, possibly assisted by nourishing the liver, with the addition of dampness-drying, phlegm-transforming, blood-quickening, and stasis-transforming medicinals as necessary. See lumbar pain; kidney vacuity lumbar pain; vacuity-taxation lumbar pain; damp phlegm lumbar pain; blood stasis lumbar pain.

internal damage miscellaneous diseases

nèi shäng  bìng

Synonym:  miscellaneous diseases .

Various diseases due to internal damage, i.e., to causes other than externally contracted heat (febrile) diseases.

internal damage sleeplessness

nèi shäng   

From Pathoconditions, Causes, Pulses, and Treatments (zhèng yïn mài zhì) Sleeplessness due to internal damage by liver fire, gallbladder fire, lung congestion, stomach disharmony, heart blood vacuity, heart qi vacuity, etc. For example, in the case of lung congestion, panting and cough with shoulders leaning forward can be exacerbated by lying down. See sleeplessness and the entries listed below.

Internal Damage Sleeplessness

internal damage stomach duct pain

nèi shäng wèi wân guân tòng

Pain in the stomach due to a variety of internal damage factors including accumulated cold, accumulated heat, spleen-stomach vacuity cold, yin vacuity, food accumulation, phlegm-rheum, qi depression (qi stagnation), blood stasis, and worm accumulation.

Accumulated cold  ( lêng) stomach duct pain is attributed to insufficiency of stomach yang and damage by cold drinks causing yin cold to congeal and bind, and is characterized by stomach duct pain that refuses cold and is accompanied by counterflow cold of the extremities, uninhibited clear stool and urine (clean untransformed stool and clear urine), ejection of foamy drool, and a slow pulse.

Medication:  Warm the center and dissipate cold with formulas such as Lesser Galangal and Cyperus Pill (liáng  wán) or Tsaoko Pill (dòu kòu wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on alarm and uniting points of ST, PC, and SP. Main points: CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , SP-4 (göng sün, Yellow Emperor) . CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) and ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , needling with even supplementation and drainage and large amounts of moxa. Also, perform moxibustion on salt or ginger at CV-8 (shén què, Spirit Gate Tower) .

Accumulated heat  ( ) stomach duct pain is due to intense stomach heat or affect-mind binding depression gradually causing fire formation and is characterized by a urgent pain with scorching hot feeling in the stomach duct, thirst, dry lips, generalized heat~effusion and red face, constipation and copious sweating, rapid pulse, and in some cases vexation, agitation, and irascibility, and is treated by clearing heat and abduction with formulas like Center-Clearing Decoction (qïng zhöng täng), Liver-Transforming Brew (huà gän jiän) and Stomach-Regulating Qi-Coordinating Decoction (tiáo wèi chéng  täng).

Acupuncture:  Use the main points given above. For intense stomach heat, add ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , ST-45 ( duì, Severe Mouth) , TB-6 (zhï göu, Branch Ditch) , and PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , needling with drainage. For heat accumulation due to affect-mind binding depression transforming into heat, add LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , LR-14 ( mén, Cycle Gate) , GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , needling with drainage.

Spleen-stomach vacuity cold  ( wèi  hán) stomach duct pain is characterized by stomach pain that is worse on an empty stomach and slightly relieved by eating, warmth, and pressure, and accompanied by fatigued limbs and lack of strength, reduced food intake, sloppy stool, forceless fine sunken pulse.

Medication:  Supplement the spleen and warm yang; use formulas such as Astragalus Center-Fortifying Decoction (huáng  jiàn zhöng täng) or Center-Rectifying Pill ( zhöng wán). If there is spleen-kidney vacuity with failure to contain blood manifesting in the form of blood ejection or bloody stool, Yellow Earth Decoction (huáng  täng) can be used.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, CV, ST, and SP. Main points: BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , LR-13 (zhäng mén, Camphorwood Gate) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , needling with supplementation and adding moxa. For spleen-kidney depletion and failure to contain blood, add BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , and PC-4 ( mén, Cleft Gate) , needling with supplementation and adding moxa.

Yin vacuity  (yïn ) stomach duct pain is heat pain caused by yin vacuity, and is characterized by clamoring stomach and rapid hungering, dry mouth with little liquid, difficult defecation, red tongue fur (possibly with peeling fur), and a rapid fine stringlike pulse, and can be treated with Six-Ingredient Rehmannia Pill (lìu wèi  huáng wán) or All-the-Way-Through Brew ( guàn jiän).

Acupuncture:  Needle with even supplementation and drainage at main points given under spleen-stomach vacuity cold above. For yin vacuity heat pain, add KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , and PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , needling with drainage. See food stagnation stomach duct pain; phlegm-rheum stomach duct pain; qi depression stomach duct pain; static blood stomach duct pain; roundworm stomach duct pain; liver-stomach qi pain; stomach qi pain; stomach duct pain.

internal dampness

nèi shï

Dampness that arises when the spleen is vacuous and fails to move and transform fluids, and that is characterized by poor appetite, diarrhea, abdominal distention, scant urine, yellow face, puffy swelling, a pale tongue with glossy fur, and a moderate soggy pulse. Since the spleen action of moving and transforming the fluids relies on the warming action of kidney yang, internal dampness is often observed in patients with spleen-kidney yang vacuity. Internal dampness and external dampness are mutually conducive. Spleen vacuity makes the body vulnerable to external dampness but also may spontaneously cause internal dampness. External dampness entering the body may easily damage the spleen, causing internal dampness. See dampness.

internal dispersion

nèi xiäo

One of the three main methods of treating sores. It involves the use of dispersing and dissipating medicinals to eliminate sores in the initial stage prior to suppuration. It includes the following forms:

Exterior resolution:  (jiê biâo) In the initial stage of sores (first seven days), prior to suppuration or damage to right qi, the appearance of exterior signs (aversion to cold, heat~effusion) call for the use of exterior-resolving medicinals to discharge the sore toxin through sweating. Heat patterns are treated by cool acrid exterior resolution with formulas such as Toad Venom Pill (chán  wán), whereas cold patterns are treated by warm acrid exterior resolution, using formulas such as Unlimited Efficacy Elixir (wàn líng dän). Such treatment should be applied with care in case of severe right qi vacuity.

Freeing the interior:  (töng ) In the initial or middle stage of sores, when there is exuberant heat toxin brewing in the interior, sores can be dispersed by draining precipitants that expel the toxins from the bowels and viscera. A commonly used interior-freeing formula is Internal Coursing Coptis Decoction (nèi shü huáng lián täng). If there is effulgent yin vacuity fire depriving the stomach and intestines of moisture, Intestine-Moistening Decoction (rùn cháng täng) should be used.

Clearing heat and resolving toxin:  (qïng  jiê biâo) Most sores are attributable to heat, and heat clearing medicinals are used in the initial stage, suppurative stage, and post-rupture stage wherever there are signs of repletion heat and fire toxin causing redness, swelling, heat, pain, or discharge of thick pus accompanied by general signs such as heat~effusion, vexation and agitation, thirst, rapid pulse, red or crimson tongue with a yellow fur, and, in severe cases, even clouded spirit and delirious speech. Distinction is made between heat in the qi aspect, which is treated by cold bitter fire draining with formulas such as Coptis Toxin-Resolving Decoction (huáng lián jiê  täng), and heat in the construction aspect, which is treated by cooling the blood and clearing heat with Rhinoceros Horn and Rehmannia Decoction ( jiâo  huáng täng).

Warming the channels and freeing the network vessels:  (wën jïng töng luò) Yin cold sore patterns at any stage of development are treated by warming the channels and freeing the network vessels using oral formulas such as Harmonious Yang Decoction (yáng  täng) and Duhuo and Mistletoe Decoction ( huó  shëng täng) and topical formulas such as Harmonious Yang Decongealing Plaster (yáng  jiê níng gäo).

Moving qi:  ( ) Initial-stage sores often involve qi stagnation and blood stasis. On the basis of the principles that ``qi is the commander of the blood,'' and ``when qi moves, blood moves,'' moving qi can be used alone or in combination with other methods to treat initial-stage stores. An appropriate qi-moving formula is Free Wanderer Powder (xiäo yáo sân).

Moving stasis and harmonizing construction:  (xíng   yíng) Swelling and pain due to blood stasis can often be relieved by regulating construction-blood. The method of moving stasis and harmonizing construction can be used alone or in combination with other methods. An appropriate formula is Blood-Quickening Stasis-Dissipating Decoction (huó xuè sàn  täng).

internal dryness

nèi zào

Depletion of the bodily fluids and yin blood not attributable to dryness evil. Internal dryness is not caused by any evil, either external or internal, but by an insufficiency of blood and fluids. These conditions are usually called damage to fluids, damaged yin, or exhaustion of the blood and fluids.

internal expression

nèi tuö

Synonym:  expression .

Pushing (toxin) outward from within; one of the three main methods of treating sores (see sore). It involves the use of qi and blood-supplementing medicinals to support right qi, express the toxin, and prevent it from falling inward. It includes two forms:

Expressing toxin and outthrusting pus:  (tuó  tòu nóng) This method is used for midstage sores when toxin is exuberant, but right qi has not yet been damaged, and the sore has still not burst. The treatment uses medicinals such as Astragali (seu Hedysari) Radix (huáng ), Angelicae Sinensis Radix (däng guï), Ligustici Rhizoma (chuän xiöng), Manitis Squama (chuän shän jiâ), Angelicae Dahuricae Radix (bái zhî), and Gleditsiae Spina (zào jiâo ).

Supplemental expression:  ( tuö) This method is used when right qi vacuity prevents the expulsion of toxin so that the sore becomes flat with a broad root, and either fails to burst or bursts to produce only a thin scant discharge without abatement of swelling and accompanied by generalized heat~effusion, devitalized essence-spirit, yellow facial complexion, and a forceless rapid pulse. It makes use of medicinals such as Astragali (seu Hedysari) Radix (huáng ), Atractylodis Ovatae Rhizoma (bái zhú), Poria ( líng), Codonopsitis Radix (dâng shën), mix-fried Glycyrrhizae Radix (gän câo), Angelicae Sinensis Radix (däng guï), Paeoniae Radix Alba (bái sháo yào), Gleditsiae Spina (zào jiâo ), Angelicae Dahuricae Radix (bái zhî), Lonicerae Flos (jïn yín huä), Forsythiae Fructus (lián qiào), Platycodonis Radix (jié gêng), and Citri Exocarpium (chén ).

internal fire heat

nèi huô  nei=

4 huo=3 Fire (or heat) arising within the body due to internal factors (affect damage), transformation of externally contracted evils, or insufficiency of yin-humor. Internal fire or heat may form a repletion or vacuity pattern.

Repletion fire  (shí huô) (heat) may arise internally as a result of an imbalance between yin and yang or excesses of the five minds. For example, liver fire, resulting from transformation of liver qi depression, manifests in red eyes, dry mouth, sudden deafness or tinnitus, vomiting of sour or bitter fluid, dry stool, and slippery, stringlike pulse. The red eyes and the stringlike pulse are clear indicators of repletion.

Vacuity fire  ( huô) (vacuity heat) arises internally from yin vacuity, or in some cases (e.g., effulgent heart fire due to heart yin vacuity) from excesses of the five minds. Vacuity heat differs from repletion heat in the following ways: Signs of yin vacuity are present. The fire and heat signs are less pronounced than in repletion heat, the most common being vexation and a red, dry, or mirror tongue. Generally, there is no high fever. Thirst, if present, is generally not severe. The pulse is generally rapid but forceless.

internal food damage tetany

nèi shäng yîn shí jìng (

arched-back rigidity, clenched jaw, convulsions, etc.) resulting from food stagnation causing damage to the stomach and spleen. Internal food damage tetany occurs after vomiting or diarrhea and is characterized by tetanic reversal (tetany and clouding of consciousness due to abnormal qi flow) and is accompanied by lassitude of the spirit, and pale white complexion; it is attributable to spleen-stomach yang vacuity and exhaustion of fluids.

Medication:  Warm and move spleen yang using Center-Rectifying Decoction ( zhöng täng) plus Caryophylli Flos (dïng xiäng), Cinnamomi Cortex (ròu guì), Myristicae Semen (ròu dòu kòu), and Chebulae Fructus ( ).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, SP, ST, and LR. Select BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) , CV-10 (xià wân, Lower Stomach Duct) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , , GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , GV-16 (fëng , Wind Mansion) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , and GV-8 (jïn suö, Sinew Contraction) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa.

internal heat



Heat signs due to excessive wear on yin humor, such as tidal heat~effusion, night heat~effusion, vexing heat in the five hearts, night heat~effusion, vexation and thirst, dry bound stool, short voidings of reddish urine, red tongue with scant fur, and a fine rapid pulse. Elementary Questions ( wèn) states, ``When yin is vacuous, there is internal heat.''

Definition:  Evil heat entering the interior, characterized by red face and eyes, heart vexation, heat~effusion, thirst with a liking for cold drinks, constipation, short voidings of reddish urine, red tongue with dry yellow tongue fur, and a rapid sunken pulse. In severe cases, there is clouded spirit and delirious raving.

internal injury

nèi shäng

Damage to the bowels and viscera and other deep structures of the head, chest, and abdomen through knocks and falls, lifting heavy weights, or spraining. Mild swelling and distention with pain of unfixed location indicates damage to qi. Pronounced pain with red, green-blue, or purple coloration of the skin, and spillage of blood from the vessels, and signs such as heat~effusion and shivering, retching of blood, bloody stool, blood urine, or coughing of blood indicate damage to the blood. Acute pain in the chest, ribs, or abdomen, with clouding reversal, blood ejection, and bloody stool indicate damage to bowels and viscera.

Medication:  When necessary, internal injury is now treated by modern surgical techniques. Damage to qi is treated with Origin-Restoring Qi-Freeing Powder ( yuán töng  sân). For damage to the blood and the organs, use Peach Kernel and Carthamus Four Agents Decoction (táo hóng   täng). For injury to the middle or lower part of the trunk, use Peach Kernel Qi-Coordinating Decoction (táo  chéng  täng).

internal obstruction

nèi zhàng

Any of a number of diseases of the spirit pupil and inner eye manifesting in poor vision. Internal obstructions mostly occur in vacuity patterns and are most commonly attributable to insufficiency of the liver and kidney or dual depletion of qi and blood. Other causes include effulgent yin vacuity fire, qi stagnation and blood stasis, wind-fire and phlegm-damp harassing the clear orifices, and external injury. Signs include subjective sensations like mouches volantes, black floaters, lights and flames appearing to be surrounded rainbow-like halos, clouded vision, night blindness, or sudden blindness. Very often there are no visible objective signs, although the pupil may be dilated or contracted, deformed, or abnormal in color. Internal obstructions include green-blue wind internal obstruction and green wind internal obstruction (corresponding to glaucoma). Compare external obstruction.

internal phlegm turbidity block

tán zhuó nèi 

Synonym:  phlegm block .

Definition:  Any block pattern either attributed by phlegm turbidity invariably associated with wind or heat or arising from other causes and causing phlegm turbidity signs.

Definition:  A block pattern developing from damp-heat in warm heat disease. See block.

internal welling-abscess

nèi yöng

A suppuration within the chest or abdomen affecting the organs. See liver welling-abscess; intestinal welling-abscess; pulmonary welling-abscess; welling-abscess of the stomach duct; welling-abscess.

internal welling-abscess of the stomach duct

wèi wân guân nèi yöng <

internal welling-abscess> See welling-abscess of the stomach duct.

internal wind

nèi fëng


An ancient term denoting a disease arising in sexual taxation with sweating when wind evil invades.

Definition:  Liver wind. In the early phase of Chinse medicine, all wind was believed to be of external origin. However, subsequent theories posited that certain signs such as dizziness, tremor, and convulsions previously attributed to the invasion of external wind were due to a ``wind'' arising internally due to a yin-yang imbalance. See liver wind stirring internally.

interrupting malaria

jié nüè

malaria A method of treating applied two to three hours before an episode to prevent its arrival. Interrupting malaria makes used of medicinals such as Dichroae Radix (cháng shän), Arecae Semen (bïng láng), Amomi Tsao-Ko Fructus (câo guô), and Pinelliae Tuber cum Zingibere Praeparatum (jiäng bàn xià), and formulas such as Malaria-Interrupting Seven-Jewel Beverage (jié nüè  bâo yîn) or Spleen-Clearing Beverage (qïng  yîn), or by needling points such GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) , SI-3 (hòu , Back Ravine) , and PC-5 (jiän shî, Intermediary Courier) , needling with drainage. See malaria.

intersection point

jiäo huì xué

Any point at which two or more channels intersect. Intersection points have the ability to transmit a stimulus through both or all channels that intersect at the point.

Application:  Intersection points are used to treat disease affecting two or more of the intersecting channels. SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , for example, is often used to treat diseases that affect any or all of the three yin channels of the foot because it is the intersection point of the liver, spleen, and kidney. Genitourinary diseases can be treated with point formulas that include CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) because that point is the intersection point of the three leg yin channels and the controlling vessel, all of which are intimately connected with the genitourinary region.



An anatomical entity of unclear identity, explained in modern dictionaries as being the ``grain'' of the skin, flesh, and organs or the connective tissue in the skin and flesh. Elementary Questions ( wèn) ``Clear yang effuses through the interstices.'' Usage of the term suggests that the interstices correspond to the sweat ducts in Western medicine. See sweating.

interstices of the flesh

ròu còu

The interstices located in the flesh. See interstice.

intestinal afflux


Definition:  (

In ancient texts) dysentery.

Definition:  blood arrow; bloody stool due to intestinal stasis.

intestinal aggregation

Synonym:  blood arrow .

A disease characterized by the spurting of blood from the anus, described in Elementary Questions ( xué  mén) as ``enduring swill diarrhea stemming originally from wind damage invasion of the stomach and allowing damp toxin to form an aggregation and to pour into the large intestine to contend with the lesser yin, giving rise to what is called `intestinal aggregation', known popularly as `blood arrow' because of the forceful issue of blood like an arrow that shoots far.''

Medication:  Use Blood-Cooling Rehmannia Decoction (liáng xuè  huáng täng) plus Saussureae (seu Vladimiriae) Radix ( xiäng) and Arecae Semen (bïng láng). For pronounced signs of damp toxin, use Center-Supplementing Qi-Boosting Decoction ( zhöng   täng) minus Bupleuri Radix (chái ) and Citri Exocarpium (chén ), plus Scutellariae Radix (huáng qín), Coptidis Rhizoma (huáng lián), Ligustici Rhizoma (chuän xiöng), Sophorae Fructus Carbonisatus (huái jiâo tàn), and Aurantii Fructus (zhî ). pi4 is composed of chuang2, the illness signifier and pi4, a homophone borrowed to represent the sound. Chinese medical sources say that } is the same as stagnate, accumulate.}

intestinal dryness constipation

cháng zào biàn 

See intestinal humor depletion.

intestinal dryness with difficult defecation

See large intestinal humor depletion.

intestinal humor depletion

cháng  kuï hào

See large intestinal humor depletion.

intestinal impediment

cháng  disease affecting the large and small intestine causing thirst with desire for fluids,

inhibited urination, and diarrhea. Owing to obstruction of the large and small intestine qi, the waterways suffer blockage, so that waste is not transformed and the clear and the turbid are not separated.

intestinal vacuity efflux desertion

cháng  huá tuö

Enduring diarrhea culminating in reduced uplift of yang qi manifesting in persistent diarrhea with periodic fecal incontinence or prolapse of the rectum resulting from bowel movements. Generally there is dull abdominal pain, general physical debilitation, and vacuity cold signs.

Medication:  Astringe the intestines and stem desertion. Commonly used medicinals include Halloysitum Rubrum (chì shí zhï), Limonitum (  liáng), Granati Pericarpium (shí líu ), Chebulae Fructus ( ), Myristicae Semen (ròu dòu kòu), and Papaveris Pericarpium (yïng  ). Formulas include Major Peach Blossom Decoction ( táo huä täng) and True Man Viscus-Nourishing Decoction (zhën rén yâng zàng täng). Although intestinal insecurity is treated mainly by astringing the intestines and checking diarrhea, qi-rectifying medicinals such as Saussureae (seu Vladimiriae) Radix ( xiäng), Aurantii Fructus (zhî ), and Citri Exocarpium (chén ) are added to prevent stagnation. Upraising medicinals, qi-supplementing medicinals, and yang-warming medicinals may also be employed.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, SP, ST, and CV. Select BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , LR-13 (zhäng mén, Camphorwood Gate) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with supplementation and moxa. For prolapse of rectum, add BL-25 ( cháng shü, Large Intestine Transport) , GV-1 (cháng qiáng, Long Strong) , and BL-57 (chéng shän, Mountain Support) .

intestinal welling-abscess

cháng yöng of the intestine;

attributed to congealing blood that stems from damp-heat or from general qi and blood stagnation.

Western Medical Concept:  appendicitis* abscess*!periappendicular appendicitis, periappendicular abscess. Intestinal welling-abscess was first mentioned in Elementary Questions ( wèn) which attributed it to lesser yang reverse flow and claimed it to be uncurable and fatal. Zhang Ji (2nd--3rd centuries ), in On Cold Damage and Miscellaneous Diseases (shäng hán  bìng lùn) described the presuppurative and suppurative stages in detail and prescribed treatments. Essential Prescriptions of the Golden Coffer (jïn guì yào lüè) gives his description as follows: ``Intestinal welling-abscess is marked by swollen glomus in the lesser abdomen that is painful when pressed and like strangury although though urine is normal, and [by] periodic heat~effusion and spontaneous sweating followed by aversion to cold. If the pulse is slow and tight, pus has not yet formed, and it can be treated by precipitation, which should be manifest in blood in the stool. If the pulse is surging and rapid, pus has formed; precipitation cannot be administered. Rhubarb and Moutan Decoction ( huáng  dän  täng) is the main treatment.'' Distinction is made between large intestinal welling-abscess and small intestinal welling-abscess on the basis of the location of pain. If the pain is in the vicinity of ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , it is called a large intestinal welling-abscess, whereas if in the vicinity of CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , it is called a small intestinal welling-abscess. Any intestinal welling-abscess that makes it difficult to the stretch out the right leg is called a leg-flexing intestinal welling-abscess. However, these distinctions are now considered to have little clinical significance. The first perceptible sign of large intestinal welling-abscess is abdominal pain that gradually localizes on the right side. The pain is of fixed location and refuses pressure, and is accompanied by coughing or sneezing. The right leg may flex and be difficult to stretch out. There is aversion to cold and heat~effusion, with nausea and vomiting, constipation (or diarrhea in some cases), and reddish urine. The tongue fur is thin, slimy and yellow. The pulse is rapid and forceful. As the condition advances, the abdomen becomes tensed and tender, and in some cases a lump may be felt. As vigorous heat~effusion develops, the pulse becomes surging and rapid.

Medication:  Treat with medicinals such as Rhubarb and Moutan Decoction ( huáng  dän  täng). If tenderness is less pronounced, the facial complexion is somber white, and the pulse fine and weak, the condition (recognized in Western medicine as chronic appendicitis) can be treated with Coix, Aconite, and Baijiang Powder (    bài jiàng sân).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on ST and LI. ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , ST-37 (shàng  , Upper Great Hollow) , , and LI-4 ( , Union Valley) . Needle with drainage, and retain the needles for 40--60 minutes. Treatments should be given once or twice a day, and, in severe cases, every four hours. Selection of points according to signs: For heat~effusion, add GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) and LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) . For pain around the umbilicus or tense abdominal skin, add CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) and SP-14 ( jié, Abdominal Bind) . For nausea and vomiting, add PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) .

intestinal wind

cháng fëng


Bleeding hemorrhoids. See hemorrhoids.

Definition:  Bloody stool resulting from taxation detriment to the bowels and viscera, disharmony of qi and blood, and wind-cold and heat toxin contending in the large intestine.

Definition:  Precipitation of blood before the passage of stool; proximal bleeding. It is attributed either to external wind entering and settling or to internal wind exploiting the lower body.

Medication:  For external wind, use Sophora Fruit Pill (huái jiâo wán). For internal wind, use Stomach Wind Decoction (wèi fëng täng). For constitutional vacuity, use Ginseng Stomach Wind Decoction (rén shën wèi fëng täng). For dampness complication, with bloody stool like the juice of adzuki beans, or purplish-black, use Yang-Upbearing Dampness-Eliminating Ledebouriella Decoction (shëng yáng chú shï fáng fëng täng), which contains Ledebouriellae Radix (fáng fëng), Atractylodis Rhizoma (cäng zhú), Atractylodis Ovatae Rhizoma (bái zhú), Scutellariae Radix (huáng qín), Paeoniae Radix (sháo yào), and Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens (shëng jiäng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on ST, BL, LI, and SP. Select ST-37 (shàng  , Upper Great Hollow) , BL-57 (chéng shän, Mountain Support) , GV-1 (cháng qiáng, Long Strong) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with drainage. Selection of points according to pattern: For external wind, add GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) and TB-5 (wài guän, Outer Pass) . For internal wind, add GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , and KI-1 (yông quán, Gushing Spring) . For constitutional vacuity, add CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , and SP-3 (tài bái, Supreme White) , and use moxa. For dampness complication, add SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , and use moxa.

intestinal wind bleeding

cháng fëng xià xuè

See intestinal wind.



Either of the two intestines. See large intestine; small intestine.

intestine-gripping sand

jiâo cháng shä

dry cholera.



To threaten. ``Intimidate'' describes the harmful effects of water qi, as in the expression ``water qi intimidating the heart,'' a pattern in which water qi developing as a result of spleen-kidney yang vacuity collects above the diaphragm hampering heart yang, and characterized by heart palpitations and hasty breathing.

intradermal needle

 nèi zhën

A small needle, such as the wheat-grain and thumb-tack needles, implanted in the skin for extended periods. See needle implantation.



To intrude. Describes, for example, evils entering the body, and liver qi entering the stomach.

invasion of the lung by a warm evil

wën xié fàn fèi

See warm evil invading the lung.

inverted menstruation

dào jïng

counterflow menstruation.



See supplementation.

invigorating fire

zhuàng huô

See invigorating yang.

invigorating the governor of water to restrain the brilliance of yang

zhuàng shuî zhï zhû  zhì yáng guäng <

invigorating governor of water> A comment by Wang Bing of the Tang dynasty on the line in Elementary Questions ( wèn) that reads ``Wherever cold is applied, but heat [remains], treat the yin.'' The implication of this comment is that wherever the use of cold or cool medicinals to treat heat patterns produces no effect or makes the heat worse, the heat pattern is one of yin vacuity with hyperactive yang, i.e., a condition essentially of yin vacuity that is treated by enriching kidney yin (the true water of the kidney viscus). According to this principle, insufficiency of kidney yin with yin vacuity flaming upward causing dizzy head and vision, aching lumbus and limp legs, dry throat, and steaming bone with aching pain is treated with Six-Ingredient Rehmannia Pill (lìu wèi  huáng wán). Invigorating the governor of water to restrain the brilliance of yang is now often called invigorating water to restrain yang, enriching water to restrain fire, or enriching yin to moisten yang.

invigorating water to restrain yang

zhuàng shuî zhì yáng

See invigorating the governor of water to restrain the brilliance of yang.

invigorating yang

zhuàng yáng

Synonym:  invigorating fire .

A method of treatment used to strengthen the yang qi of the body with warming and supplementing medicinals. Invigorating yang usually refers to strengthening the yang qi of the heart and kidney, and especially the latter. See supplementation.

invisible gan worms

gan of the nose.

invisible worm

A disease attributed to erosion by worms.

invisible worm sore

See genital erosion.

invisible worm sore of the nose

A heat sore in the area of the nostrils caused by wind-heat lodged in the lung channel, or by a continually runny nose, or developing from a heat sore. Invisible worm sores of the nose are most commonly observed in children, and are characterized by a purple coloration, ulceration, a thick exudate, and itching without pain.

Western Medical Concept:  eczema of the nose* eczema of the nose.

Medication:  Take Bovine Bezoar Upper-Body-Clearing Pill (níu huáng shàng qïng wán) and apply Cyclinae (seu Meretricis) Concha Pulverata ( fên), Indigo Pulverata Levis (qïng dài), Gypsum (shí gäo), Calomelas (qïng fên), and Phellodendri Cortex (huáng bâi) topically.

invisible worm sore of the genitals

See genital erosion.

inward fall

nèi xiàn

Passage (of evils) into the inner body, due to exuberance of the evil or vacuity of right. For example, when measles is erupting, if the measles toxin is especially strong, or if the wind-cold is contracted, right qi cannot resist, and the evil ``falls inward.'' When this happens, the measles papules suddenly disappear, the face becomes white, and breathing becomes rapid and hasty. Inward fall is also observed in patients suffering from welling-abscess and sores when the sore-toxin falls inward and enters construction blood, i.e., it starts to affect the whole body in a process corresponding to what Western medicine describes in terms of the development of toxemia (see fall pattern). Distinction is made between fire fall, dry fall, and vacuity fall. Compare running yellow.



Proneness to anger. Anger is the mind of the liver, and irascibility is seen in patterns such as ascendant liver yang, binding depression of liver qi, and five minds forming fire.


huáng rén

The colored part of the eye between the white of the eye and the pupil that expands and contracts. The iris corresponds to the wind wheel among the five wheels.

iron-band headache

tóu tòng  chè

headache with pulling sensation.


sào yâng

An irritation relieved, at least temporarily, by scratching. Itching over extensive areas of the body is a sign of wind or blood diseases. If it refuses heat and is accompanied by general heat signs, it is attributable to blood heat, which generally occurs in young people. If it is more pronounced in the autumn and winter and is accompanied by a lusterless complexion, heart palpitations, insomnia, dizziness or flowery vision, it is a sign of blood vacuity, which is more common among the elderly. If scratching gives rises to vesicles that emit a watery discharge, the pattern is one of wind-damp. Itching on the face, chest, neck, and hands, that refuses cold and likes warmth, and accompanied by a tight or moderate floating pulse is a sign of wind-cold.

itchy ear

êr yâng

Irritation of the ears, attributed to liver wind and that may be attended by thickening of the skin due to continual scratching.

Medication:  Secure the kidney and clear the liver; eliminate wind and relieve itch. For topical treatment, steep wine or sesame oil in Zanthoxyli Pericarpium (huä jiäo) and apply as ear drops.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GB, LR, and KI. Select GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , TB-17 ( fëng, Wind Screen) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , KI-1 (yông quán, Gushing Spring) , and GB-2 (tïng huì, Auditory Convergence) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage.

itchy eyes


Irritation of the eyes, attributed to wind-fire, damp-heat, blood vacuity engendering wind, or to abatement of an evil and restoration of right after enduring disease.

Wind-heat:  (fëng ) Itch due to wind-heat is a pronounced itch with scorching sensation, slight fear of light, tearing, and a scant stringy discharge.

Medication:  If heat signs are mild, use Wind-Expelling One Zi Powder ( fëng   sân); if pronounced, use Lonicera and Forsythia Powder (yín qiào sân).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GB and LI. Select GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , TB-5 (wài guän, Outer Pass) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , GB-1 (tóng  liáo, Pupil Bone-Hole) , GB-41 ( lín , Foot Overlooking Tears) , and ; needle with drainage.

Damp-heat  (shï ) causes itchy eyes with red ulcerated eyelid rims, and tears and copious eye discharge. In some cases, there are large grain-like lumps inside the eyelids with itching like wriggling worms.

Medication:  Clear heat and eliminate dampness with variations of Three Yellows Decoction (sän huáng täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LI, ST, SP, and BL. Select LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , , BL-1 (jïng míng, Bright Eyes) , and GV-23 (shàng xïng, Upper Star) ; needle with drainage.

Blood vacuity:  (xuè ) Itchy eyes due to blood vacuity engendering wind is characterized by mild itching of both eyes that is temporarily relieved by rubbing, dryness and discomfort of the eyes, a facial complexion with little lust, a pale tongue, and a fine stringlike pulse.

Medication:  Nourish the blood and dispel wind with Four Agents Decoction (  täng) plus Schizonepetae Flos (jïng jiè suì) and Tribuli Fructus (  ).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GB, LR, SP, and ST. Select GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , LR-8 ( quán, Spring at the Bend) , GB-1 (tóng  liáo, Pupil Bone-Hole) , GB-41 ( lín , Foot Overlooking Tears) , and ; neddle with even supplemenation and drainage. Itching eyes due to abatement of an evil and restoration of right after enduring illness requires no particular treatment. Itching is also associated with the peppercorn sore and ulceration of the eyelid rim.

itchy throat

hóu yâng

Irritation in the throat, sometimes associated with swelling and soreness. Itchy throat is attributed to scorching yin vacuity fire depriving the throat of nourishment or to stomach fire fuming the lung.

Medication:  Treat variously by the methods of enriching yin and downbearing fire, disinhibiting the throat, clearing the stomach, and resolving toxin.

itinerant healer

zôu fäng 

Synonym:  bell healer .

A doctor that roams from place to place, ringing a bell to attract customers, and usually offering herbal or simple cures passed on orally from master to student.