Section A

abating heat


clearing heat or reducing heat~effusion (fever).


Synonym:  belly .

The anterior aspect of the body from the ribs down to the genitals, considered yin in relationship to the back, which is yang. The abdomen is divided into the greater abdomen (the part above the umbilicus) and the smaller abdomen (the part below the umbilicus). A small part of the greater abdomen immediately below the breastbone is variously referred to as the region below the heart or the heart region. The central part of the upper abdomen is called the stomach duct. The lesser abdomen usually refers to the lateral areas of the lower abdomen, but is sometimes used to mean smaller abdomen. 1. Region below the heart 2. Stomach duct 1, 2, and 3. Greater abdomen 4. Smaller abdomen 5. Lesser abdomen 6. Rib-side 7. Vacuous li

abdominal distention



Enlargement of the abdomen (objective sign). See drum distention.

Definition:  A subjective feeling of fullness. See abdominal fullness (subjective sign).

abdominal fullness


A subjective feeling of fullness in the abdomen without pronounced visible or palpable expansion. Abdominal fullness may be observed in vacuity and repletion patterns. Continued fullness without relief, associated with hard stool or continued fullness relieved by passing of flatus, belching, or defecation indicates repletion. Periodically abating fullness that likes pressure, associated with sloppy stool or with fullness following defecation is a vacuity pattern. Essential Prescriptions of the Golden Coffer (jïn guì yào lüè) describes the former as ``abdominal fullness with little or no relief,'' and the latter as ``abdominal fullness recurring after periods of relief.'' Abdominal fullness commonly occurs in the cold-damp, spleen-stomach vacuity, damp-heat, food stagnation, and heat bind patterns.

Cold-damp  (hán shï) abdominal fullness is attributable to cold evil directly striking the interior, living in damp places or eating unclean cold foods. The fullness is unrelieved by pressure (repletion), and is accompanied by poor appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, pain in the stomach duct or abdomen, thirst without desire for fluids, and a slimy tongue fur and stringlike pulse.

Medication:  Warm and transform cold-damp using Stomach-Calming Poria (Hoelen) Five Decoction (wèi líng täng) or Magnolia Bark Center-Warming Decoction (hòu  wën zhöng täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment for abdominal fullness mainly on ST and CV, selecting ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) as the main points. For cold-damp, add SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) and LI-4 ( , Union Valley) ; needle with drainage and large amounts of moxa.

Spleen-stomach vacuity cold  ( wèi  hán) abdominal fullness arises from usual presence of spleen-stomach yang vacuity, excessive consumption of cold and fatty foods, or excess use of cold or cool medicinals in treatment, imbalance following major illness, and lack of nourishment due to enduring illness. The fullness is intermittent and likes warmth and pressure (and sometimes warm drinks or food), and is accompanied by lassitude of spirit and lack of strength, a pale tongue possibly with dental impressions, a thin white tongue fur, and a slow pulse.

Medication:  Use Center-Rectifying Decoction ( zhöng täng) or Magnolia Bark, Fresh Ginger, Pinellia, Licorice, and Ginseng Decoction (hòu  shëng jiäng bàn xià gän câo rén shën täng).

Acupuncture:  To the main points given above add BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , and LR-13 (zhäng mén, Camphorwood Gate) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa. and the can also be used to warm the center and dispel cold.

Brewing damp-heat  (shï  yùn jié) abdominal fullness is associated with distention stomach duct glomus, nausea and vomiting, vexation and oppression in the heart, thirst without desire to drink much, periodic sweating, sloppy diarrhea, short voidings of reddish urine, slimy yellow tongue fur, and a soggy rapid pulse.

Medication:  Transform dampness and clear heat using Wang's Coptis and Magnolia Bark Beverage (wáng shì lián  yîn).

Acupuncture:  To the main points given above, add LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , and ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) ; needle with drainage.

Food stagnation  (shí zhì) abdominal fullness is relieved by the passing of flatus or belching, and is associated with sour belching, swallowing of upflowing acid, diarrhea smelling like rotten eggs, thick slimy tongue fur, and a slippery sunken pulse.

Medication:  Disperse food and abduct stagnation using Harmony-Preserving Pill (bâo  wán).

Acupuncture:  To the main points given above, add , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , and CV-10 (xià wân, Lower Stomach Duct) ; needle with drainage.

Heat bind  ( jié) abdominal fullness, which occurs in heat (febrile) disease, is fullness without relief sometimes associated with hardness and pain, pain around the umbilicus, constipation, streaming sweat on the hands and feet, tidal heat~effusion, delirious speech, a sunken replete pulse or forceful slow pulse, and a dry yellow tongue fur.

Medication:  Drain and precipitate the heat bind with Major Qi-Coordinating Decoction ( chéng  täng).

Acupuncture:  To the main points given above, add LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , ST-37 (shàng  , Upper Great Hollow) , and SP-14 ( jié, Abdominal Bind) ; needle with drainage. Compare abdominal distention; glomus.

abdominal pain


Pain in the stomach duct, in the umbilical region, in the smaller abdomen, or in the lesser abdomen. Abdominal pain is attributable to external contraction of one of the six excesses, dietary irregularities, affect damage, stagnation of qi dynamic, blood stasis obstructing the vessels, or worm accumulations, etc. In pattern identification, it is first of all important to identify cold, heat, vacuity, and repletion, qi stagnation, and blood stasis.

Cold  (hán) pain is pain that is exacerbated by exposure to cold and likes warmth, and is accompanied by physical cold and fear of cold, absence of thirst, white tongue fur, and a pulse that is either sunken and slow or sunken and tight.

Heat  () pain is pain that is periodic and accompanied by thirst, dry tongue, reddish urine, constipation or diarrhea, a red tongue with yellow fur, and a rapid surging pulse.

Vacuity  () pain is a continual pain that likes pressure.

Repletion  (shí) pain is pain accompanied by fullness and comes in violent attacks.

Qi stagnation  ( zhì) pain (often simply called qi pain) is also a pain that comes in bouts, and is characteristically of unfixed location.

Blood stagnation  (xuè zhì) pain (often simply called stasis pain) is a stabbing pain of fixed location. As to location, pain in the greater abdomen (upper abdomen) is a sign of spleen or stomach morbidity; pain in the umbilical region is attributable to large or small intestinal morbidity; pain in the center of the abdomen below the umbilicus itself is attributable to bladder or kidney diseases; pain on both sides of the abdomen below the umbilicus is usually related to the liver. See entries listed below.

Abdominal Pain

abdominal pain in pregnancy

rèn shën  tòng

uterine obstruction.

abdominal urgency and heaviness in the rectum

  hòu zhòng <

abdominal urgency>

Synonym:  tenesmus .

From The Classic of Difficult Issues (nàn jïng) Urge to defecate with abdominal pain, pressure in the rectum, and difficult defecation. Abdominal urgency and heaviness in the rectum is mostly caused by damp-heat, and is one of the main signs of dysentery.



To carry away; specifically to carry stagnant food down the digestive tract. See dispersing food and abducting stagnation.

abductive dispersion

xiäo dâo

See dispersing food and abducting stagnation.

abhorrence of cold

zëng hán

External shivering with internal heat vexation arising when a deep-lying internal heat evil blocks yang qi and prevents it from reaching the exterior. Abhorrence of cold occurs, for example, in deep-lying rheum, pestilential qi epidemic toxin hidden in the membrane source, thunder head wind, and gan of the lung.

abiding ailment


Synonym:  long-

standing ailment .

Any disease that persists over many months or years.

abiding food


From Essential Prescriptions of the Golden Coffer (jïn guì yào lüè) Food and drink accumulating in the stomach and intestines. Abiding food arises when, in food damage, food accumulation remains untransformed for days. It is usually caused by voracious eating or spleen vacuity. It is characterized by abdominal pain and distention, belching of sour fetid qi, nausea, aversion to food, constipation or diarrhea, slimy tongue fur, and in some cases, aversion to cold, heat~effusion, and headache. Abiding food can cause phlegm, which in turn can engender heat. Such conditions are known by the compound term phlegm-food.

Medication:  Treat by fortifying the spleen and stomach and by dispersing food and abducting stagnation. Use Harmony-Preserving Pill (bâo  wán) or Center-Ordering Decoction (zhì zhöng täng) and variations. For lodged food in the upper stomach duct, characterized by oppression, glomus, and distention in the stomach duct and nausea, mechanical ejection may be used. For heat~effusion and aversion to cold, headache, constipation, or diarrhea with ungratifying defecation, use formulas such as Major Bupleurum Decoction ( chái  täng) and Unripe Bitter Orange Stagnation-Abducting Pill (zhî shí dâo zhì wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV and ST. Select CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , CV-10 (xià wân, Lower Stomach Duct) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) as the main points. For voracious eating, add ; and ST-37 (shàng  , Upper Great Hollow) ; needle all points with drainage. For spleen-stomach vacuity, add BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , and SP-4 (göng sün, Yellow Emperor) ; needle all points with supplementation, adding moxa. Selection of points according to signs: For constipation, add BL-25 ( cháng shü, Large Intestine Transport) . For diarrhea with ungratifying defecation, add PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) and LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) . For glomus and oppression, add SP-4 (göng sün, Yellow Emperor) . For putrid belching and swallowing of upflowing acid, add GB-40 (qïu , Hill Ruins) and GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) . Compare food damage, food stagnation, and food accumulation.

abnormal passage to the pericardium

 chuán xïn bäo

In warm diseases, the passage of evils directly to the pericardium without passing through construction. Abnormal passage to the pericardium occurs in febrile disease that is not a regular common cold or flu, e.g., in what Western medicine calls encephalitis~B. encephalitis B* See heat entering the pericardium; pericardiac pattern.

abnormal qi


pestilential qi.

absence of sweating


The absence of normal sweating. In externally contracted febrile (heat) disease, absence of sweating with aversion to cold is a sign of external wind-cold or cold-damp fettering the exterior, i.e., cold evil blocking the interstices of the flesh (sweat ducts and pores) and thereby preventing normal sweating. This is an exterior repletion pattern that can often be treated with Ephedra Decoction ( huáng täng). Absence of sweating with heat~effusion is a sign of blood and fluid depletion or of cold in the exterior and heat in the interior. It stems from a lack of sweat rather than blockage in the sweating function and forms part of a vacuity pattern or a vacuity-repletion complex. See sweating.

absence of thirst


Absence of normal desire for fluids. Absence of thirst or intake of warm fluids in small amounts indicates a cold pattern. In cold patterns, normal sweating is reduced, and diminished fluid loss can be compensated with lesser amounts of fluid. Compare thirst.



Inattention to present objects or surroundings, or low powers of mental concentration. It is a sign of heart disease.

accumulated cold stomach duct pain

 lêng wèi wân guân tòng

See internal damage stomach duct pain.

accumulated heat stomach duct pain

  wèi wân guân tòng

See internal damage stomach duct pain.


Gathering, amassment; specifically: a type of abdominal lump (see concretions, conglomerations, accumulations, and gatherings); accumulation of food in the digestive tract (see food accumulation).

aching bones


From The Magic Pivot (líng shü) Aching pain in the bones. Aching bones are usually attributable to kidney vacuity and damage to essence, and are accompanied by limp weak lumbus and knees. Less commonly, this sign occurs in repletion patterns caused by wind-damp and turbid toxin may. Aching bones are observed in wilting, impediment. and in vacuity taxation. Compare bone pain. See

aching lumbus

yäo suän

Continual dull pain and discomfort in the lumbus as distinct from lumbar pain, which generally denotes more acute pain. Aching lumbus is attributed either to a) kidney vacuity arising from insufficiency of kidney qi in advancing years or from damage to kidney qi by sexual intemperance, or b) taxation detriment, i.e., wear and tear from physical strain or poor posture. Kidney vacuity lumbar pain is a continual pain exacerbated by physical strain and relieved by rest. In severe cases, there is distinct pain and lack of strength associated with cold knees, and heel pain. In some cases, there may also be hair loss, loosening of the teeth, impotence, and seminal emission. The tongue is pale and the pulse is sunken and fine. When from vacuity detriment, the aching is located in a specific spot, is exacerbated by strain but not markedly relieved by rest, is worse on rising in the morning, and abates with light exercise. The two patterns are mutually conducive and hence not clearly distinguishable.

Medication:  Kidney vacuity lumbar pain can be treated by warming, supplementing, and nourishing the kidney with formulas such as Young Maid Pill (qïng é wán) and Seven-Jewel Beard-Blackening Elixir ( bâo mêi rán dän). Vacuity taxation can be treated with the same formulas. Compare lumbar pain.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on BL and GV. Main points: BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) and BL-40 (wêi zhöng, Bend Center) . For kidney vacuity add KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , BL-52 (zhì shì, Will Chamber) , and GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , needling with supplementation. For vacuity detriment, add GV-26 (shuî göu, Water Trough) and BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , needling with supplementation.

aching lumbus and limp knees

yäo suän  ruân

See limp aching lumbus and knees.

aching lumbus and limp legs

yäo suän tuî ruân

See limp aching lumbus and legs.

aching pain

suän tòng

Pain of continuous duration, felt in the sinews and bones. See pain.

acid regurgitation

tün suän

swallowing of upflowing acid.

acid upflow

fàn suän

The upflow of acid from the stomach into the mouth, that may be ejected or swallowed before it can be ejected. If it is expelled from the body, it is called acid vomiting; if it is swallowed, it is called swallowing of upflowing acid.

acid vomiting


From Elementary Questions ( wèn) Expulsion through the mouth of sour fluid that flows up from the stomach. Acid vomiting is similar to swallowing of upflowing acid, in which sour water flowing up from the stomach is swallowed before it is ejected, but differs in that the sour water is actually ejected. Acid vomiting is attributed to abiding food, phlegm-fire, liver fire invading the stomach, or spleen-stomach vacuity cold.

Lodged food  ( shí) causes acid vomiting or swallowing of upflowing acid with belching of putrid qi.

Medication:  Treat by harmonizing the center, dispersing food, and abducting stagnation with Medicated Leaven and Atractylodes Pill ( zhú wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on the alarm and lower uniting points of the stomach channel, selecting CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) as the main points. For lodged food, add CV-10 (xià wân, Lower Stomach Duct) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , and GB-40 (qïu , Hill Ruins) ; needle with drainage.

Phlegm-fire  (tán huô) causes acid vomiting with heart vexation, and oppressed breath and copious phlegm.

Medication:  Transform phlegm and clear fire using Gardenia and Coptis Two Matured Ingredients Decoction (zhï lián èr chén täng).

Acupuncture:  To the main points given above, add ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) , SP-4 (göng sün, Yellow Emperor) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , and GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) ; needle with drainage.

Liver fire invading the stomach  (gän huô fàn wèi) causes heart vexation and acid vomiting with stabbing pain in both rib-sides, bitter taste in the mouth, dry throat, and a rapid stringlike pulse.

Medication:  Discharge the liver and clear fire using Left-Running Metal Pill (zuô jïn wán).

Acupuncture:  To the main points given above, add CV-13 (shàng wân, Upper Stomach Duct) ; ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , and GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) ; needle with drainage.

Spleen-stomach vacuity cold  ( wèi  hán) causes acid vomiting with distention and oppression in the chest and stomach duct, belching, white tongue fur, and fine stringlike pulse.

Medication:  Warm the spleen and stomach using Saussurea and Amomum Six Gentlemen Decoction (xiäng shä lìu jün  täng).

Acupuncture:  To the main points given above, add BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , LR-13 (zhäng mén, Camphorwood Gate) , and SP-4 (göng sün, Yellow Emperor) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa. and the can also be used to warm the center and dispel cold.



Blackheads (comedones) or red papules acne* comedones* (``pimples'') on the face that can be squeezed to produce an oily, chalky substance, and that can develop into pustules. Acne is most common in young people. In severe cases, pimples may be large, red, and swollen, and coalesce and spread to the neck, shoulders, and back. Acne is attributed to brewing lung-stomach heat fuming the face, causing heat and stagnation of the blood. It is often found to be related to consumption of rich food.

Medication:  Diffuse the lung and clear heat, taking Loquat Leaf Lung-Clearing Beverage (  qïng fèi yîn) orally and applying Reversal Powder (diän dâo sân) mixed with cold water topically.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, ST, and LI. Select LI-20 (yíng xiäng, Welcome Fragrance) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and needle with drainage. For pronounced heat signs, pick BL-40 (wêi zhöng, Bend Center) and prick LU-11 (shào shäng, Lesser Shang) to bleed. See also drinker's nose.

acquired constitution

hòu tiän

later heaven.



See acridity.



Synonym:  pungency .

One of the five flavors. Acridity enters the lung; it can dissipate and move. See five flavors; five-flavor entries.

acridity enters the lung

xïn  fèi

Acrid medicinals act upon the lung. Examples of acrid medicinals that enter the lung are Platycodonis Radix (jié gêng), Ephedrae Herba ( huáng), Borneolum (bïng piàn), Bombyx Batryticatus (bái jiäng cán), Tribuli Fructus (  ), Zingiberis Rhizoma Exsiccatum (gän jiäng), Citri Exocarpium (chén ), Peucedani Radix (qián ), Raphani Semen (lái  ), and Gleditsiae Fructus (zào jiá).

acrid opening and bitter discharging

See opening with acridity and discharging with bitterness.

acrid opening and bitter downbearing

See opening with acridity and downbearing with bitterness.

act(ion) according to person

yïn rén zhì 

To determine what is suitable for patients according to their constitution, sex, age, lifestyle, and history. For example, males and females have physiological differences that have to be considered when deciding treatment; children tend to have tender, weak bowels and viscera, whereas elderly people suffer from debilitation of qi and blood so that treatment must be adjusted according to age.

act(ion) according to place

yïn  zhì 

To determine what is suitable for the patient in accordance with the geographic location. For example, in China, damp-heat patterns are common in the hot, rainy south, whereas dryness patterns are common in the dry north.


göng xiào

The manner in which a medicinal acts on the body. For example, Poriae Cortex ( líng ) has the action of disinhibiting water and dispersing swelling, whereas red peony has the action of moving stasis, relieving pain, cooling the blood, and dispersing swelling. Traditionally, acupuncture points were selected according to their ability to eliminate or alleviate particular disease patterns, and since World War II have been ascribed actions in a manner similar to medicinals. Thus, HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , traditionally said to treat heart vexation, mania and withdrawal, forgetfulness, heart palpitations and fearful throbbing, is now also said to quiet the heart and spirit, clear fire and cool construction, and clear heart heat.

act(ion) according to time

yïn shí zhì 

To determine what is suitable for the patient in accordance with the time of the year. The seasons are associated with different types of weather that can all affect the human body. For example, in summer the weather is hot, the interstices loosen and open, so that when treating patients suffering from wind-cold, warm acrid medicinals should not be used to excess if copious sweating and damage to yang qi and the fluids is to be avoided. In the winter, the interstices respond to cold weather by tightening, so that in treating patients with wind-cold, warm acrid medicinals must be used in larger quantities to ensure enough sweating to resolve the evil.


zhën   zuì

A method of acupuncture in which needles are inserted at specific points and manipulation or electrical current is applied to enable surgical operations to be performed painlessly while the patient is conscious.


zhën jîu

Synonym:  acupuncture .

, moxibustion, and other related techniques such as magnetic acupuncture.


zhî zhën

Synonym:  shiatsu .

A method of treatment involving the application of finger pressure at acupuncture points.


zhën jîu


The practice of puncturing the body with metal needles (steel, gold, or silver) at specific points in order to regulate construction, defense, qi, and the blood.

Definition:  acumoxatherapy. See moxibustion.

acupuncture point

xué wèi }

point. A place on the surface of the body where qi and blood of the channels and network vessels gather or pass. Through the channels and network vessels, points are connected to other parts of the body and notably the bowels and viscera, whose state of health they can reflect. Various stimuli such as needling, moxibustion, massage, acupressure, and electroacupuncture can be applied at points to regulate internal functions. A distinction is made between channel point, nonchannel point, and ouch point. See also point combination and point selection for use of points. shu1 are all explained as , transport; kong3, hole. The Chinese xue4 reflects the notion that acupuncture points are usually depressions or crevices between bones, sinews, etc.; this notion is not properly conveyed by the English word ``point.''}

acute fright wind

 jïng fëng

Febrile disease in infants and children characterized by clenched jaw and by convulsions of the limbs. The appearance of clenched jaw and convulsions in high fever with vexation and agitation, red face and limbs, and hasty breathing due to phlegm congestion marks the development of an acute fright wind pattern. Clenched jaw is the first fright wind sign to appear. This is often followed by convulsions of the limbs, and in more severe cases by rigidity of the neck or arched-back rigidity (opisthotonos) with clouded spirit. Spasm may come in intermittent bouts. Fright wind is a manifestation of extreme heat engendering wind, occurring when intense internal heat is depressed and blocked by externally contracted wind (see block pattern) and exacerbated by congealing phlegm and stagnant qi.

Medication:  Acupuncture or acupressure is the best emergency treatment. Subsequent treatment involves settling the liver and extinguishing wind, clearing the heart and flushing phlegm, using Fright-Disinhibiting Pill ( jïng wán), Green-Blue--Draining Pill (xiè qïng wán), or Dragon-Embracing Pill (bào lóng wán).

Acupuncture:  For emergency treatment, do not stretch contracted limbs; apply finger pressure at GV-26 (rén zhöng, Human Center) at the philtrum and LI-4 ( , Union Valley) or at and KI-1 (yông quán, Gushing Spring) . If needles are available, base emergency treatment on GV and LR. Select GV-26 (shuî göu, Water Trough) , GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , and GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) as main points; needle with drainage and prick the to bleed. Further points may be selected according to cause: For external contractions, add LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) . For phlegm-heat, add CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) , and HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) . For fright and fear, add , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , and KI-1 (yông quán, Gushing Spring) . See fright wind. Compare child visiting hostility.

acute jaundice



From The Origin and Indicators of Disease (zhü bìng yuán hòu lùn) Jaundice mostly caused by damp-heat toxin evil scorching construction-blood and characterized by sudden yellowing together with fullness in the heart region and panting that threaten the patient's life. The body swiftly turns to the color of tangerines, and, in severe cases, there is clouded spirit and delirious raving, high fever, vexation and thirst, fullness in the chest and abdominal distention, blood ejection and spontaneous external bleeding, bloody stool, and ascites. The pulse is stringlike, slippery, and rapid. The tongue is red or crimson with a dry yellow fur.

Medication:  Clear heat and resolve toxin; cool the blood and open the orifices. Use Coptis Toxin-Resolving Decoction (huáng lián jiê  täng) or Spirit-Like Rhinoceros Horn Elixir (shén  dän).

Definition:  scourge jaundice.

acute throat wind

 hóu fëng

Synonym:  constricting throat wind .

A form of throat wind that develops swiftly, soon making the throat swollen and blocked. It occurs in patients given to excessive consumption of fat meat, fine grain, and strong flavors (i.e., rich food), and liquor and fried foods, or who have brewing lung-stomach heat. Acute throat wind arises when contraction of wind-heat stirs fire and engenders phlegm, the combined evil toxin becoming congested in the throat. At onset, the throat quickly becomes swollen, inhibiting normal swallowing. Subsequently, the whole throat becomes scorching red, hot swollen, and congested with phlegm-drool. There is a constricted sensation, phlegm rale, hasty labored breathing, and hoarse voice. Blockage of the throat hampers the swallowing of liquids, and, in severe cases, can lead to death by asphyxiation.

Medication:  Disperse swelling and resolve toxin; clear heat and disinhibit the throat. Use Scourge-Clearing Toxin-Vanquishing Beverage (qïng wën bài  yîn). If there is heart vexation and clouded spirit, open the orifices and sweep phlegm with Peaceful Palace Bovine Bezoar Pill (än göng níu huáng wán). When pus has formed, lance and drain, and insufflate Borneol and Borax Powder (bïng péng sân). Where asphyxiation is threatened, modern surgery is necessary to maintain respiration.

Western Medical Concept:  edema of the throat* abscess*!retropharyngeal edema of the throat; retropharyngeal abscess. See throat wind.

add at end

hòu xià

Add a medicinal toward the end of the process of decocting the other medicinals in the formula. Some exterior-resolving medicinals such as Menthae Herba ( ), Agastaches seu Pogostemi Herba (huò xiäng), and Eupatorii Herba (pèi lán) loose their qi and flavor when boiled for a long time (i.e., they loose their volatile oils). They are therefore added after the other medicinals have boiled for 15 minutes for the final 5--10 minutes. Uncariae Ramulus cum Unco (göu téng) is added just a few seconds before the end. Rhei Rhizoma ( huáng) may be first soaked in a small amount of water and likewise added a few seconds before the decoction process is complete.

advanced menstruation

yuè jïng xiän 

The arrival of the menstrual period eight days or more before the normal time (i.e., within 20 days of the onset of the previous period in women who normally have a standard 28-day cycle). See blood heat advanced menstruation; liver depression advanced menstruation; qi vacuity advanced menstruation.




Any natural movement of the heart, such as joy, anger, or grief. For example, states, ``What are the human affects? They are the seven things---joy, anger, grief, fear, love, loathing, and desire---of which a person is capable without learning.''

Definition:  The seven specific emotional and mental activities joy, anger, anxiety, thought, sorrow, fear, and fright, which in excess can cause disease. See internal damage by the seven affects. Five of seven bear the same name as the five minds.

affect damage

nèi shäng  qíng

internal damage by the seven affects.

affect-mind binding depression

qíng zhì  jié

Depression of general mental or emotional activity that results from a dominant mental or emotional activity or response and that causes depression of the activity of qi in the body, ultimately affecting normal functioning of the bowels and viscera and causing disease. In Chinese medicine, mental and emotional activity is viewed in terms of the five minds (joy, anger, anxiety, thought, sorrow, fear) or seven affects (joy, anger, thought, sorrow, fear, fright, anxiety), which, when prolonged or excessive, have a narrowing, dampening, stultifying effect on mental life that can depress normal physiological function. For example, anger, which is frequently associated with frustration, can cause binding depression of liver qi, manifesting as chest and rib-side pain, goiter, gastrointestinal problems, or menstrual irregularities. Excessive thought (cogitation, preoccupation) can damage the spleen and cause digestive tract problems. Affective binding depression often leads to development of fire; see five minds forming fire.

affect-mind internal damage

qíng zhì nèi shäng

internal damage by the seven affects.

affects causing binding depression

qíng zhì  jié

See affect-mind binding depression.

afflux pouch


An accumulation of fluid; a sign of phlegm lodged in the chest and rib-side.



The matter discharged from the uterus after childbirth, corresponding in Western medicine to the placenta and fetal membranes discharged with it.


chân hòu  tòng

postpartum abdominal pain.





An accumulation or amassment, as intestinal aggregation and strings and aggregations. pi4, pi3, unhealthy accumulation, a bad habit, addiction, akin to pi4, stagnation or accumulation of fluid. See afflux pouch. }

agitated vexation

zào fán

A feeling of unease or disquietude accompanied by a cold body and unconscious movement of the limbs, physical fatigue and lassitude of spirit, dry mouth with intake of fluid, and a weak fine pulse; a vacuity cold sign of vacuous yang causing a disturbance. See vexation and agitation.



A subjective feeling of vexation outwardly expressed by pronounced abnormal movement. See vexation and agitation.

alarm point


Synonym:  mustering point

Any of a group of points on the abdomen or chest, each of which is the collecting point of the qi of a bowel or viscus in whose vicinity it lies. The alarm points are listed below.

Application:  Disease in a given bowel or viscus may be reflected in tenderness, lumps, gatherings, depressions, or other aberrant signs at its alarm point, and can be treated by applying a stimulus at the point. In clinical practice, the alarm points of each bowels is commonly used in the treatment of that bowel, e.g., CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , the alarm point of the bladder, is almost always used in the treatment of urinary diseases; ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , the alarm point of the large intestine, is frequently used to treat constipation. The alarm points of the viscera are infrequently employed, the back transport points being the preferred points for treatment of diseases of the viscera. The alarm points are often used in combination with the back transport points. See back transport point.

Alarm Points
  • LU-1 (zhöng , Central Treasury) Lung alarm:
  • CV-14 ( què, Great Tower Gate) Heart:
  • LR-14 ( mén, Cycle Gate) Liver:
  • LR-13 (zhäng mén, Camphorwood Gate) Spleen:
  • GB-25 (jïng mén, Capital Gate) Kidney:
  • CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) Pericardium:
  • GB-24 ( yuè, Sun and Moon) Gallbladder:
  • CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) Stomach:
  • ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) Large intestine:
  • CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) Small intestine:
  • CV-5 (shí mén, Stone Gate) Triple burner:
  • CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) Bladder:

allaying thirst


Eliminating thirst. See thirst.

alternating fever and chills

hán  wâng lái

alternating heat~effusion and aversion to cold.

alternating heat~effusion and aversion to cold

hán  wâng lái

Synonym:  alternating fever and chills .

without aversion to cold and aversion to cold without heat~effusion occurring in regular or irregular alternating succession, associated with lesser yang midstage patterns, malaria, or damp-heat obstructing the triple burner.

Lesser yang patterns:  (shào yáng zhèng) Alternating heat~effusion and aversion to cold occurring in lesser yang patterns is accompanied by heart vexation, retching, bitter taste in the mouth, dry throat, dizzy vision, [suffering of] chest and rib-side fullness, red tongue margins, thin yellow tongue fur and a stringlike pulse.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GV and BL. GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) , and PC-5 (jiän shî, Intermediary Courier) can be selected as main points to treat alternating heat~effusion and aversion to cold. To these, add LR-14 ( mén, Cycle Gate) , GB-41 ( lín , Foot Overlooking Tears) , TB-5 (wài guän, Outer Pass) , GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , and TB-6 (zhï göu, Branch Ditch) to clear lesser yang exterior-interior evil; needle with drainage or with even supplementation and drainage.

Malaria:  (nüè ) In malaria, bouts of aversion to cold followed by high fever that abates with sweating occur once every two or three days.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GV and BL. GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) , PC-5 (jiän shî, Intermediary Courier) , GV-13 (táo dào, Kiln Path) , , and can be selected as main points to treat alternating heat~effusion and aversion to cold. To these, SI-3 (hòu , Back Ravine) can be added to free yang and eliminate malaria. Needle with drainage.

Damp-heat obstructing the triple burner:  (shï   zhì sän jiäo) In damp-heat obstructing the triple burner, aversion to cold alternating with heat~effusion that is unrelieved by sweating is associated with oppression in the chest and abdominal distention, retching and vomiting, headache, heart vexation, dry mouth, short voidings of reddish urine, red tongue margins, and thick slimy or white mealy tongue fur and a soggy pulse.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on TB, GV, SP, and ST. GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) and PC-5 (jiän shî, Intermediary Courier) can be selected as main points to treat alternating heat~effusion and aversion to cold. To these, add TB-6 (zhï göu, Branch Ditch) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) to clear and disinhibit triple burner damp-heat.

ambilateral headache

zhèng tóu tòng

medial headache.



menstrual block.

anal desertion

tuö gäng

prolapse of the rectum.

anal fistula

gäng lòu

Synonym:  fistula .

Long pipe-like ulcerations from the perimeter or surrounding area of the anus. They may develop from hemorrhoids, welling- and flat-abscesses of the anus, or splitting of the anus. Fistulas discharge pus-like fluid, are sore and itchy, and heal with difficulty. Distinction is made between vacuity and repletion patterns. Hardness and swelling of the local area, discharge of thick pus, and strong body constitute repletion; softness and depression in the area of the opening, discharge of thin pus, and weakness and emaciation constitute vacuity.

Medication:  Fistulas are treated by threaded ligation and other surgical methods, combined with oral medication. For repletion, clear heat and disinhibit dampness. Use variations of Mysterious Two Pill (èr miào wán), or Fish Poison Yam Dampness-Percolating Decoction ( xiè shèn shï täng). For vacuity, support right and promote internal expression. Use variations of Internal Expression Toxin-Dispersing Powder (tuö  xiäo  sân) or Six-Ingredient Rehmannia Pill (lìu wèi  huáng wán). Compare communicating bowels.

anal welling-abscess

gäng mén yöng

Synonym:  visceral toxin .

A welling-abscess on the inside or outside of the anus; attributable to damp-heat pouring downward. Anal welling-abscesses heal with difficulty, and after bursting easily form fistulas. Distinction is made between repletion and vacuity. Repletion patterns stem from excessive consumption of liquor and rich food and the development of damp turbidity that pours downward to the anus. Repletion patterns are characterized by heat, redness, swelling and pain in the anus and the emergence of a plum-shaped welling-abscess.

Western Medical Concept:  abscess*!perianal perianal abscess. Vacuity patterns arise as a result of spleen, lung, and kidney depletion with damp-heat exploiting the vacuity to pour downward to the anus, and are characterized by flat swelling and slight pain.

Medication:  Repletion patterns are treated by clearing heat, resolving toxin, and disinhibiting dampness; vacuity patterns are treated by enriching yin and eliminating dampness combined with clearing vacuity heat. See external welling-abscess.

ancestral qi


Synonym:  gathering qi .

The qi that converges or concentrates in the ``sea of qi,'' which is the chest, pervades the respiratory tract and controls breathing, and penetrates the heart and vessels. Ancestral qi drives the heart and regulates the pulses; its health is reflected in the strength of breathing and in the voice.

ancestral sinew

zöng jïn


The gathering point of the three yin and three yang channel sinews at the pubic region.

Definition:  The penis. See slackness of the ancestral sinew.

ancestral vessels

zöng mài

See gathering place of the ancestral vessels.

andriatric diseases

nán   bìng

men's diseases.


One of the five minds, associated with the liver; also one of the seven affects.

anger causes qi to rise


Liver qi thrives by orderly reaching and is averse to repression. Excessive emotional stimulus can cause excessive upbearing and effusion of liver qi, causing distention and fullness in the rib-side, headache and dizziness, and red sore swollen eyes. Since the liver stores the blood, liver qi ascending counterflow can carry the blood with it, giving rise to clouding reversal or retching of blood.

anger damages the liver

 shäng gän

Continual anger causes liver qi to rise, carrying blood with it, causing red facial complexion, qi ascent, headache, and dizziness, and in severe cases, blood ejection or clouding reversal.


From On Cold Damage (shäng hán lùn) A feeling of heat and clamoring stomach. Because it is located in the pit of the stomach, it is also called anguish in the heart. It arises when, after exterior patterns have been treated by an inappropriate form of sweating or have been wrongly treated by draining precipitation, the external evil enters the interior and lodges in the chest and diaphragm, thus harassing the stomach. In modern clinical practice, it is seen in febrile disease or in acute gastroenteritis.

animal odor

säo wèi

The odor of or similar to that of sheep and foxes.

animal soul

corporeal soul.

ankle-boring phlegm

chuän huái tán

Flowing phlegm of the ankle. See flowing phlegm.

anterior yin

qián yïn

Synonym:  lower yin .

The exterior genitals (male or female).


gäng mén

Synonym:  posterior yin ;

Synonym:  lower extreme ;

Synonym:  corporeal soul gate .

The lower opening of the large intestine through which stool is discharged.

Diagnosis:  A burning sensation in the anus during defecation is a sign of large intestinal damp-heat. Bleeding from the anus can be attributed either to hemorrhoids or to splitting of the anus by the passage of hard stool in blood heat intestinal dryness patterns. Diseases of the anus include anal fistula; anal welling-abscess; hemorrhoids; splitting of the anus; prolapse of the rectum.



One of the five minds; associated with the lung; also one of the seven affects.

apical pulse


vacuous li.



The desire to eat. Appetite is considered principally to be a reflection of the state of the stomach and spleen. The Magic Pivot (líng shü) states, ``The stomach is the sea of grain and water.'' The stomach governs intake and decomposition of grain and water (i.e., food); the spleen governs movement and transformation of grain and water and the distribution of their essence (i.e., nutrients). The stomach and spleen together form the ``root of the later heaven,'' i.e., the basis of the acquired constitution. When the spleen and stomach are in harmony, the spleen provides adequate nutrients for the body and the stomach signals the need for food by the sensation of hunger. A good appetite is generally a sign of health, and lack of appetite is a sign of disease. ``The presence of stomach qi means life; the absence of stomach qi is death.'' In disease, a good appetite is a sign of a mild condition, and its return is a sign of recovery. Sudden return of an appetite in critical illness is described as the last radiance of the setting sun``,'' and bodes death. See poor appetite.

apply mixed


To apply topically a powder blended with fluid.

arched-back rigidity

Synonym:  opisthotonos ;

Synonym:  arched rigidity of the neck .

Rigidity of the neck and back causing them to arch or bow backward. Arched-back rigidity occurs in child fright wind, lockjaw (tetanus), and other forms of tetany, which may be attributable to wind, cold, damp or fire stagnating in the channels, or to insufficiency of blood, fluid and qi, allowing vacuity wind to stir internally.

Western Medical Concept:  opisthotonos* tetanus* meningitis* encephalitis* opisthotonos (occurring in encephalitis, meningitis and tetanus). gong1, bow; fan3, back;

arched rigidity of the neck

jîng xiâng fân zhäng

arched-back rigidity.



The area around the nipple that is normally darker in color than the breast and lighter in color than the nipple.

Diagnosis:  Darkening of the areolae is one indication of pregnancy.

armpit odor


See foxy odor.


fäng xiäng

Strong smelling. Aromatic turbidity transforming medicinals include Agastaches seu Pogostemi Herba (huò xiäng), Eupatorii Herba (pèi lán), Amomi Semen seu Fructus (shä rén), and Magnoliae Cortex (hòu ). Aromatic orifice-opening medicinal include Acori Rhizoma (shí chäng ) and Styrax Liquidus (  xiäng).

arousing the spleen


A method of treatment that involves fortifying spleen qi using aromatic medicinals to that is applied when spleen is encumbered by dampness and unable to perform normal transformation, characterized by poor appetite, glomus and fullness after eating, dull abdominal pain, thin stool, pale tongue, and soggy weak pulse. Saussurea and Amomum Six Gentlemen Decoction (xiäng shä lìu jün  täng) is an example of a spleen-arousing formula.

ascendant hyperactivity of liver yang

gän yáng shàng yàng

Synonym:  ascendant liver yang ;

Synonym:  effulgent liver yang .

An imbalance of the liver's yin and yang aspects occurring when vacuity of liver-kidney yin lets liver yang get out of control and stir upward excessively. This pathomechanism may be exacerbated when depression, anger, and anxiety impair free coursing, since when free coursing is impaired, depressed qi transforms into fire, fire damages yin-blood, and yin has no power to restrain yang. Ascendant liver yang is identifiable by signs of upper body exuberance and by signs of yin-blood insufficiency from which this condition stems. The main signs are dizziness, tinnitus, pressure and pain in the head, and upbearing fire flush with baking heat in the face. Other signs include insomnia and profuse dreaming, heart vexation, agitation and irascibility, heavy head and light feet, limp aching lumbus and knees, dry throat and mouth. In some cases, there is sudden clouding collapse and unconsciousness. The pulse is stringlike and may also be fine. The tongue is red. Predominance of ascendant yang and yin vacuity signs varies from case to case. In some cases, both are equally pronounced.

Western Medical Concept:  hypertension* hypertension.

Analysis:  Liver-kidney yin vacuity causes limp aching lumbus and knees. Where there is binding depression of liver qi with depressed qi transforming into fire, vexation, agitation, and irascibility are observed. Counterflow hyperactive yang qi gives rise to a red face, generalized heat~effusion, headache, and dizziness. When hyperactive yang stirs wind, qi and blood ascend counterflow, and phlegm-drool congests, causing sudden clouding collapse and unconsciousness that marks a wind stroke block pattern.

Comparison:  Liver fire flaming upward: Ascendant liver yang and liver fire flaming upward are both associated with manifestations of upsurge of fire heat such as red face, red eyes, headache, dizziness, red tongue, and rapid pulse. Ascendant liver yang is at root a vacuity pattern, and is associated with limp aching lumbus and knees, dry eyes, and tinnitus. Furthermore, the tongue fur is scant and the pulse tends to be fine. The condition develops gradually, and is exacerbated by stress. Liver fire flaming upward is a repletion pattern, and develops more rapidly. It is associated with bitter taste in the mouth, dry mouth, constipation, reddish urine, a yellow tongue fur, and forceful rapid pulse. When heat is pronounced, there may be blood ejection or spontaneous external bleeding.

Medication:  Enrich yin, calm the liver, and subdue yang. Use Gastrodia and Uncaria Beverage (tiän  göu téng yîn) or Lycium Berry, Chrysanthemum, and Rehmannia Pill (   huáng wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LR, GB, and KI. Needle with drainage at LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , and GB-43 (xiá , Pinched Ravine) ; and with supplementation at BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) . Selection of points according to signs: For irascibility, add PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) . For dizziness, add GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) . For distention and pain in the head, add and LI-4 ( , Union Valley) . For tinnitus, add TB-17 ( fëng, Wind Screen) and GB-39 (jué , Severed Bone) . For insomnia, add HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , and . For heart palpitations, add HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , and BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) . For lumbar pain, add GV-3 (yäo yáng guän, Lumbar Yang Pass) , BL-40 (wêi zhöng, Bend Center) , and . For weakness in the legs, add GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and GB-39 (jué , Severed Bone) .

ascendant liver yang

gän yáng shàng kàng

ascendant hyperactivity of liver yang.

ashen nail

huï zhî jiâ

Synonym:  goose-

claw wind ;

Synonym:  oily ashen nail .

A disease of the fingers and toes that starts with itching around the nail and that deprives the nail of nourishment of the blood, causing it gradually to thicken, loose its luster, take on an ashen appearance, and eventually to crumble and become deformed. Ashen nail can be treated by soaking in Vinegar Soaking Formula ( pào fäng) or applying pig's bile or crushed fresh Impatientis Balsaminae Flos (fèng xiän huä). Compare also goose-foot wind.

a-shi point

ä shì xué

ouch point.


Intrude, as of evils into the exterior of the body. See exuberance and debilitation.



See sovereign, minister, assistant, and courier.

assisting bone


The smaller of the two bones of the forearm and lower leg.

Western Medical Concept:  fibula* radius* radius and fibula. These bones are so named because they provide support to the main bones (ulna and tibia).

assisting yang

zhù yáng

supplementing yang.

assisting yang and resolving the exterior

zhù yáng jiê biâo

To treat yang qi vacuity in external contractions with signs such as pronounced aversion to cold with mild heat~effusion, absence of sweating, lack of warmth in the extremities, desire to wrap up well to keep warm, fatigued essence-spirit, headache, somnolence, somber white facial complexion, faint low voice, white tongue fur, and a forceless sunken pulse. An example of a yang-assisting exterior-resolving formula is Renewal Powder (zài zào sân), which contains Astragali (seu Hedysari) Radix (huáng ), Codonopsitis Radix (dâng shën), Cinnamomi Ramulus (guì zhï), Glycyrrhizae Radix (gän câo), Aconiti Tuber Laterale Conquitum (shú  ), Asiasari Herba cum Radice ( xïn), Notopterygii Rhizoma (qiäng huó), Ledebouriellae Radix (fáng fëng), Ligustici Rhizoma (chuän xiöng), Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens (shëng jiäng), Paeoniae Radix (sháo yào), and Ziziphi Fructus ( zâo).

associated point

bèi shü

back transport point.

astringent formula


One of the ten formula types. Astringent medicinals can eliminate desertion, i.e., they can treat efflux desertion and insecurity patterns. Formulas in which such medicinals predominate are called astringent formulas. For example, Oyster Shell Powder (  sân), which contains Ostreae Concha ( ), Ephedrae Radix ( huáng gën), and Astragali (seu Hedysari) Radix (huáng ), treats spontaneous sweating after disease due to insecurity of defense qi, whereas Golden Lock Essence-Securing Pill (jïn suô  jïng wán) containing Astragali Complanati Semen (shä yuàn ), Euryales Semen (qiàn shí), Mastodi Ossis Fossilia (lóng ), and Ostreae Concha ( ) treats kidney vacuity with seminal emission.

astringent medicinals can eliminate desertion

   tuö <

astringent medicinals> Astringent medicinals such as Mastodi Ossis Fossilia (lóng ) and Ostreae Concha ( ) can treat efflux desertion and insecurity patterns. See astringent formula.

astringing essence


securing essence.

astringing essence and checking seminal emission and enuresis

 jïng zhî  <

astringing and checking seminal emission> A method of treatment addressing seminal emission or seminal efflux attributed to kidney vacuity with insecurity of the essence gate or enuresis or frequent urination due to kidney vacuity with bladder retention failure. For kidney vacuity seminal emission, kidney-supplementing essence-astringing medicinals such as Astragali Complanati Semen (shä yuàn ), Mastodi Ossis Fossilia (lóng ), Ostreae Concha ( ), Nelumbinis Stamen (lián ), Mantidis O"otheca (säng piäo xiäo), Euryales Semen (qiàn shí), Corni Fructus (shän zhü ), and Rosae Laevigatae Fructus (jïn yïng ) are used. For enuresis or frequent urination, a similar range of medicinals are used: Mantidis O"otheca (säng piäo xiäo), Rubi Fructus ( pén ), and Alpiniae Oxyphyllae Fructus ( zhì rén). Representative formulas include Golden Lock Essence-Securing Pill (jïn suô  jïng wán), designed for seminal emission, but also used for enuresis, Mantis Egg-Case Powder (säng piäo xiäo sân) originally designed for enuresis, but also used for seminal emission, and Stream-Reducing Pill (suö quán wán), mainly used for enuresis, frequent urination, and child bedwetting.

astringing the intestines



Synonym:  astringing the intestines and stemming desertion .

astringing the intestines and checking diarrhea

 cháng zhî xiè

astringing the intestines and stemming desertion.

astringing the intestines and stemming desertion

 cháng  tuö

Synonym:  astringing the intestines and checking diarrhea .

The method of treating enduring diarrhea and fecal incontinence, or persistent pus and blood in the stool with dark red blood, conditions that culminate in efflux desertion and prolapse of the rectum, abdominal pain that likes warmth and pressure, and a weak slow pulse. Intestine-astringing medicinals include ones that are warm and supplement the spleen and kidney such as Codonopsitis Radix (dâng shën), Atractylodis Ovatae Rhizoma (bái zhú), Aconiti Tuber Laterale ( ), Cinnamomi Ramulus (guì zhï), and Zingiberis Rhizoma Exsiccatum (gän jiäng). To these should be added securing astringent medicinals to astringe the bowels and stem desertion, such as Psoraleae Semen (  zhï), Myristicae Semen (ròu dòu kòu), Schisandrae Fructus ( wèi ), Papaveris Pericarpium (yïng  ), Halloysitum Rubrum (chì shí zhï), Limonitum (  liáng), Dioscoreae Rhizoma (shän yào), Euryales Semen (qiàn shí), and Nelumbinis Semen (lián ròu). A representative formula is True Man Viscus-Nourishing Decoction (zhën rén yâng zàng täng).






Synonym:  offensive treatment .

Definition:  To treat repletion, especially with drastic draining precipitants.

Definition:  (Of evils) to affect forcefully, e.g., fire toxin attacking the inner body.




attack followed by supplementation

xiän göng hòu 

The principle of destroying evil (attack) before any vacuity is supplemented. The principle of attack followed by supplementation is applied when an extremely strong evil urgently needs to be dispelled, and right qi, though markedly weakened, can still withstand attack, especially where the weakness of right qi is attributable to the evil. This principle may apply in the treatment of gastrointestinal heat bind, and other externally contracted heat (febrile) diseases characterized by constipation and painful fullness in the abdomen. Such conditions may be treated with Major Qi-Coordinating Decoction ( chéng  täng) even though yin may have been damaged; indeed, failure to precipitate the heat bind would cause further damage to yin.

attacking phlegm

göng tán

A method of treatment used to address stagnant, binding phlegm such as occurs in epilepsy, mania, and withdrawal, or in child fright wind characterized by gurgling phlegm congesting the throat, and convulsions of the limbs. The main medicinals used are Chloriti seu Micae Lapis (méng shí) and Descurainiae seu Lepidii Semen (tíng  ) A commonly used formula is Chlorite/Mica Phlegm-Rolling Pill (méng shí gûn tán wán).

audio-olfactory examination

wén zhên

listening and smelling.


êr kuò

The trumpet-shaped flap of the ear used to catch sounds.

autumn dryness

qïu zào

A disease attributable to contraction of dryness qi in autumn, and usually manifesting as mild conditions that undergo relatively few shifts. Distinction is made between cool dryness and warm dryness. Cool dryness is characterized by heat~effusion, headache, aversion to cold, absence of sweating, dry lips and throat, ungratifying coughing of phlegm, and dry thin white tongue fur. Warm dryness is marked by heat~effusion, mild aversion to cold, headache, dry skin, cough with sticky phlegm, dry nose and throat, thirst, and yellow urine. Wu Gen-Chu states, ``In the depth of autumn when cold weather begins and the west wind kills and depurates, wind-dryness is what is mostly contracted; this is cool dryness . If there are long spells of clear, rainless weather and exposure to the autumn sun, warm dryness is mostly what is contracted; this is dryness-heat.'' This suggests that the distinction is made on the basis of weather conditions. The warm disease school places greater emphasis on warm dryness.

Medication:  Cool dryness is treated by acrid opening and warm moistening, and by coursing the evil and diffusing the lung. Apricot Kernel and Perilla Powder (xìng  sân) or Scallion and Fermented Soybean Decoction (cöng chî täng) may be used. Warm dryness is treated by acrid cooling and sweet moistening with formulas such as Mulberry Leaf and Apricot Kernel Decoction (säng xìng täng).

Acupuncture:  For cool dryness, base treatment mainly on LU, LI, KI, and BL. Select BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , BL-12 (fëng mén, Wind Gate) , LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , LU-7 (liè quë, Broken Sequence) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , and KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) ; needle with drainage. For pronounced external cold, use moxa. For warm dryness, base treatment mainly on LU and KI. Drain BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) , LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , and CV-22 (tiän , Celestial Chimney) ; and supplement KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) . See also dryness evil invading the lung.



See seven relations.

aversions of the five viscera

 zàng suô 

Synonym:  five aversions .

The notion contained in Elementary Questions ( wèn) that the five viscera are each averse to a particular evil. See heart is averse to heat; lung is averse to cold; liver is averse to wind; spleen is averse to dampness; kidney is averse to dryness. See these individual entries.

aversion to cold


Synonym:  fear of cold .

A pronounced sensation of cold. With heat~effusion, it is a sign of wind-cold; without heat~effusion, it is associated with cold arising from within due to yang qi vacuity. External cold striking the bowels and viscera directly can also manifest in aversion to cold without heat~effusion, in which case it is accompanied by cold signs in the affected area such as cold stomach duct pain and clear-food diarrhea. Compare abhorrence of cold; shivering. The English `chill' has connotations of sudden onset and hence does not adequately cover the sensation of cold associated with yang qi vacuity. `Aversion to cold', a literal translation of the Chinese, is the preferred term.

aversion to cold in the back

bèi  hán

cold back.

aversion to food

yàn shí


Absence of appetite and sickness at the thought or sight of food. Aversion to food is most commonly observed when voracious eating and drinking impairs decomposition, causing food to stagnate in the stomach. Hence, it is said,``Food damage is invariably characterized by aversion to food.'' If aversion to food occurs with vomiting, absence of menstruation, and a rapid slippery pulse in sexually active women, it is a sign of pregnancy vomiting which arises when an upsurge of thoroughfare vessel qi causes disharmony of stomach qi. Aversion to food differs from poor appetite, which is a reduced feeling of hunger. See poor appetite.

Definition:  malign obstruction.

aversion to heat


Abnormal intolerance of heat. Aversion to heat is observed in externally contracted heat (febrile) disease and in internal damage. In externally contracted heat (febrile) disease, aversion to heat is associated with yang brightness disease. In internal damage disease, aversion to heat is associated with yin vacuity and with repletion fire in the stomach.

aversion to light

 guäng xïu míng

Synonym:  photophobia ;

Synonym:  aversion to lights and fire .

Abnormal insensitivity to or intolerance of light---and sometimes also of warmth (aversion to lights and fire)---causing a desire to close the eyes. Aversion to light, in addition to being experienced after prolonged deprivation of light and during resuscitation after drowning, is observed in some eye diseases. In wind-cold fettering the exterior, aversion is associated with red sore eyes, copious thick discharge, distention in the brow, and nasal congestion and runny nose. In qi vacuity with wind-heat, it is associated with soreness of the eyes, and tension in the canthi, tearing on exposure to wind, and flowery vision. In dual vacuity of qi and yin, it is associated with flowery vision, tendency to close the eyes, slight redness of the whites of the eyes, dizziness and tinnitus, dry throat, sloppy stool, and fear of cold in the lower limbs. In this context, it is specifically observed, for example, in gan of the liver.

aversion to lights and fire

 jiàn dëng huô

See aversion to light.

aversion to wind


Synonym:  fear of wind .

Sensation of cold on exposure to a wind or draft; mild aversion to cold. Aversion to wind is usually a sign of external evils assailing the fleshy exterior. Compare aversion to cold.