K

Section K

kampo

hàn fäng

The form of Chinese medicine practiced in Japan.

KI

shèn

The kidney or foot lesser yin kidney channel.

kidney

shèn

Either of the two viscera located in the small of the back, on either side of the spine; the two kidneys as a single functional unit. The kidney is in the interior, and its exterior correspondence is the bladder, with which it is connected by channels. In the five phases, it belongs to water. The kidney governs water, stores essence, governs reproduction, is the root of early heaven, governs the bone and engenders the marrow, has its blood in the hair of the head, opens at the ears and at the two yin. A principal function of the kidney is to turn fluids into urine for discharge by the bladder. Hence, The Inner Canon (nèi jïng) states that the kidney governs water. Another major function is expressed in the phrase the kidney stores essence. In a narrow sense, essence is equivalent to the modern notions of male and female gametes that come together in reproduction. In a broader sense, the essential qi of the kidney is responsible not only for reproductive capacity but also for the growth, development, and aging of the body. For this reason, it is also said that the kidney is the root of earlier heaven, i.e., the basis of the congenital constitution. The statement ``the kidney governs the bones and engenders marrow'' can also be seen to describe a manifestation of kidney essential qi whose health is reflected in the development of firm, strong bones in youth and whose degeneration is reflected in the increasing brittleness in age. See also the teeth are the surplus of the bone. The statement ``the kidney, its bloom is in the hair of the head'' reflects the observation that the hair is an indicator of age. The kidney's governing of water corresponds to its role in water metabolism recognized in modern medicine; its role of storing essence corresponds to genetic functions, which modern medicine does not ascribe to the kidney. A partial explanation for why the reproductive as well as the urination functions were ascribed to the kidney may be seen in the observation that the external organs of reproduction are combined with those or urination, as reflected in the phrase ``the kidney opens at the two yin'' (the anus and genitals). The statement ``the kidney opens at the ears'' reflects the observation that tinnitus and deafness are intimately related to the state of the kidney. The kidney relates to the other organs as follows. The heart and kidney interact. The heart is located in the upper burner and the kidney in the lower burner. Physiologically, the heart connects with the lower burner through the kidney and the kidney connects with the upper burner through the heart. The two viscera are interdependent and counterbalance each other. If this relationship is upset, the resulting condition is known as noninteraction of the heart and kidney, characterized by insomnia, profuse dreaming, lumbar pain, and dream emissions. The lung is the governor of qi and kidney is the root of qi. The lung controls breathing and governs the qi of the whole body. However, lung qi must combine with the essential qi of the kidney to produce true qi. Thus, it is said in Jing-Yue's Complete Compendium (jîng yuè quán shü) ``The lung is the governor of qi and the kidney is the root of qi.'' Although breathing is the function of the lung, it is nevertheless in one aspect dependent on the kidney. Only when kidney qi is sufficient can respiratory qi be constrained. Hence it is said, ``The kidney governs the absorption of qi.'' If kidney essential qi is insufficient, it is incapable of ensuring the absorption of qi through the lung. This results in respiratory insufficiency characterized by shortness of breath and rapid breathing at the slightest exertion. Such conditions are termed ``kidney failing to absorb qi'' (qi absorption failure) and ``qi not descending to the root.'' Sun Si-Miao's A Thousand Gold Pieces Prescriptions (qiän jïn yào fäng) states, ``Kidney disease will result in qi vacuity and diminished respiratory qi.'' The only effective treatment for such cases is the method of supplementing the kidney to improve qi absorption. The liver stores the blood and the kidney stores essence; the liver governs free coursing; the kidney governs storage. The liver and the kidney are intimately related. The two viscera have manifold connections through the channels, and physiologically they are mutually engendering and counterbalancing. In clinical practice, the kidney and the liver are often treated together. The relationship between them may be divided into two broad aspects: the liver stores blood and the kidney stores essence. Kidney essence and liver blood are mutually engendering, for which reason it is said, ``The liver and kidney are of the same source.'' Depletion of kidney essence and insufficiency of liver blood may both lead to what is known as dual vacuity of liver and kidney yin. Conversely, hyperactivity of liver yang and liver fire are not only detrimental to liver blood, but may also, at a further stage of development, damage kidney essence. Hence, therapy often involves both nourishing the liver and enriching the kidney. The liver's governing of free coursing and the kidney's governing of storage are interdependent, mutually counterbalancing functions of the liver and kidney. Disturbance of these functions may bring on such diseases as advanced menstruation, profuse menstruation, menstrual block, and seminal emission, which are frequently eliminated by combined treatment of the two. The kidney's relationship to the spleen is seen in its influence of kidney yang over spleen-stomach movement and transformation. Kidney yang, also known as ``life gate fire,'' represents a motive force in the digestive process. Insufficiency of kidney yang (debilitation of life gate fire) leads to impairment of the digestive function. This is known as spleen-kidney yang vacuity and is characterized by cold and pain in the abdomen, persistent diarrhea, early morning diarrhea, nontransformation of food, and water swelling.

kidney accumulation

shèn 

running piglet.

kidney channel

shèn jïng

foot lesser yin kidney channel.

kidney channel cough

shèn jïng  sòu

kidney cough.

kidney channel malaria

shèn jïng nüè

warm malaria.

kidney cough

shèn 

Synonym:  kidney channel cough .

occurring in bouts that cause lumbar pain, and, in severe cases, coughing of spittle and drool. If caused by contraction of cold evil, it can be treated with Ephedra, Aconite, and Asarum Decoction ( huáng    xïn täng). If due to desiccation of kidney yin, it can be treated with Root-Securing Pill ( bên wán) or Metropolis Qi Pill (  wán) plus Ginseng Radix (rén shën) and Ophiopogonis Tuber (mài mén döng).

kidney depletion

shèn kuï

See kidney vacuity.

kidney diarrhea

shèn xiè

Persistent diarrhea that occurs in the early morning and is heralded by rumbling intestines. It may be characterized by throughflux diarrhea with clear watery stool, nontransformation of food, or ungratifying defecation that resembles dysentery, but is not dysentery. Other signs include fear of cold in the abdomen, periodic cold of the lumbus and knees, soot-black complexion, pale tongue with white fur, and a fine sunken pulse. The main cause is kidney yang vacuity and insufficiency of the life gate fire, causing a reduction in the supply of warmth and nourishment to spleen and stomach.

Medication:  Warm and supplement the life gate. Swallow Kidney-Quieting Pill (än shèn wán), Rousing Spirit Elixir (zhèn líng dän), or Four Spirits Pill ( shén wán) with Major Seven Qi Decoction (   täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, CV, GV, and ST. Select BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , LR-13 (zhäng mén, Camphorwood Gate) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa. See fifth-watch diarrhea.

kidney disease

shèn bìng

Any disease of the kidney. Kidney disease usually takes the form of vacuity, and even repletion patterns are mostly root vacuity and tip repletion patterns. Kidney disease is manifests in a)~disturbances in sexual functions (infertility, sterility, impotence, seminal emission) b)~developmental deficiencies and early aging, c)~urinary disturbances, d)~deafness, e)~limp aching lumbus and knees. Kidney disease patterns include the following:

Kidney Disease Patterns
The main basic patterns are kidney qi vacuity, kidney yang vacuity, insecurity of kidney qi, kidney failing to absorb qi, kidney vacuity water flood, and kidney yin vacuity.

Kidney qi vacuity  (shèn  ) is due to insufficiency of earlier heaven, taxation damage, or enduring illness affecting the kidney, and is characterized by limp aching lumbus and knees and devitalized essence-spirit exacerbated by overexertion. Other signs include dizziness, deafness, and tinnitus. Kidney yang vacuity and kidney failing to absorb qi share with insecurity of kidney qi such signs as limp aching lumbus and knees, dizziness, deafness, and tinnitus.

Kidney yang vacuity  (shèn yáng ) is a development of kidney qi vacuity, characterized by additional cold signs such as fear of cold and cold limbs. Other possible manifestations are impotence and fifth-watch diarrhea.

Insecurity of kidney qi  (shèn ) is specific form of kidney vacuity, in which failure of the storage function gives rise to seminal emission and/or premature ejaculation, profuse urination at night and/or enuresis, clear thin vaginal discharge, or stirring fetus, in addition to basic kidney vacuity signs. is usually a complex pattern of kidney-lung qi vacuity that arises when lung vacuity affects the kidney and that is characterized by vacuity panting.

Kidney vacuity water flood  (shèn  shuî fàn) is characterized by generalized swelling and scant urine with general kidney qi vacuity signs such as aching lumbus and physical cold.

Insufficiency of kidney essence  (shèn jïng  ) in infants and children manifests in retarded closure of the fontanels and poor development; in adult life, it manifests in the regression of sexual function (loss of libido, sterility in men and infertility in women), and mental faculties (forgetfulness, dementia), hair loss, loosening of the teeth, and weakness of the bone. These signs are combined with others that suggest an emphasis on kidney yin or kidney yang vacuity.

Kidney yin vacuity  (shèn yïn ) is characterized by reddening of the cheeks, tidal heat~effusion, dry mouth, and sore throat. Since kidney yin and kidney yang are the root of the yin and yang of all the viscera, dual patterns are commonly encountered. See dual vacuity of kidney yin and yang. See the entries listed below.

kidney dispersion

shèn xiäo

Definition: 

lower dispersion.

Definition:  Thirst without large fluid intake, swelling of the legs, impotence, and frequent urination.

kidney distention

shèn zhàng stretching to the back with hip and lumbar pain.

Medication:  Warm the channels and dissipate cold using Channel-Warming (Menses-Warming) Decoction (wën jïng täng). In distention disease, these signs can be treated by adding kidney channel medicinals such as Angelicae Duhuo Radix ( huó), Anemarrhenae Rhizoma (zhï ), Asiasari Herba cum Radice ( xïn), and Cinnamomi Cortex (ròu guì) to the formula treating the main pattern.

kidney engenders bone and marrow

shèn shëng  suî The Inner Canon (nèi jïng) says that `

`the kidney engenders bone and marrow,'' ``governs the bones,'' and ``its fullness is in the bone.'' The growth, development, and healing of the bones depends on the nourishment and activation provided by kidney essential qi. Insufficiency of kidney essential qi may result in retarded closure of the fontanels and soft bones in infants. It may also lead to marrow vacuity characterized by wilting legs that prevent the patient from walking, or pain or stiffness of the lower lumbar spine preventing the patient from lying either prone or supine. Furthermore, the teeth are the surplus of the bones. In clinical practice, slow growth of teeth in children and the premature loosening and loss of teeth in adults are found to be due to insufficiency of kidney essential qi. Hence, some tooth diseases are vacuity patterns that can be treated through the kidney. Because the kidney governs the bones and engenders marrow, and the brain is known as the ``sea of marrow,'' a close link can be seen between the kidney and the brain. Insufficiency of kidney essential qi may lead to emptiness of the sea of marrow, manifesting as dizziness, slowness of thought, or forgetfulness, all of which can be treated as kidney complaints.

kidney essence

shèn jïng

The reproductive essence of the kidney; falls within the scope of kidney yin.

kidney failing to absorb qi

shèn   

Synonym:  vacuous kidney failing to absorb qi .

Kidney qi vacuity preventing the absorption of lung qi (air breathed in). The kidney failing to absorb qi is characterized by shortness of breath, panting, rapid breathing at the slightest movement, spontaneous sweating, and a forceless fine pulse or a vacuous floating pulse without root.

Western Medical Concept:  cardiopulumonary failure*!chronic chronic cardiopulumonary failure. See supplementing the kidney to promote qi absorption for treatment.

kidney fixity

shèn zhuó

Cold pain and heaviness in the lumbar region that prevents normal turning and exacerbated by yin-type (dull wet) weather; it is attributable to kidney vacuity cold-damp becoming ``fixed'' in the inner body.

Medication:  Use Kidney Fixity Decoction (shèn zhuó täng) or Lumbus-Lightening Decoction (qïng yäo täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GV, KI, BL, and SP. Select BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , GV-3 (yäo yáng guän, Lumbar Yang Pass) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , BL-40 (wêi zhöng, Bend Center) , , GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , and SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) ; needle with drainage and use large amounts of moxa.

kidney forms spittle

shèn wéi tuò

From Elementary Questions ( wèn) Same in meaning as spittle is the humor of the kidney.

kidney gan

shèn gän

Definition: 

A gan pattern characterized by marked emaciation, bleeding gums or ulcerated gums, periodic heat~effusion and aversion to cold, copious sweating, and a lack of strength in the limbs; it is attributed to deep-lying heat in the bowels and viscera that results from excessive consumption of sweet fatty foods or intemperate eating and that damages the fluids and in time causes desiccation of kidney yin. It is commonly observed in children suffering from insufficiency of earlier heaven and poor constitution and may accompany ununited skull, crane's-knee wind, and the five slowness.

Medication:  Enrich the kidney and supplement the spleen. Use Six-Ingredient Rehmannia Pill (lìu wèi  huáng wán).

Definition:  purulent ear.

kidney governs agility

shèn zhû  qiâo

Mental and physical agility are dependent upon kidney qi being abundant, and marrow and essence being plentiful. See kidney holds the office of labor, whence agility emanates.

kidney governs earlier heaven

shèn zhû xiän tiän

The kidney is associated with congenital matters (earlier heaven meaning prior to birth). Nonclosure of the fontanels and the five slownesses (slowness to stand, slowness to walk, slowness to speak, slowness to grow hair, and slowness to teethe) are treated by supplementing the kidney.

kidney governs fear

shèn zhû kông

The kidney is related to fear. In regard to the correspondences between the five phases and five minds (five mental states or emotion), Elementary Questions ( wèn) says that water ``is fear among the five minds.'' In the traditional understand, the essential qi of all five viscera is dependent on the kidney, and that insufficiency of kidney channel qi or kidney water could cause liver, heart, and stomach disease with fear figuring among the signs. More importantly, when kidney water is ample, liver blood is sufficient and the gallbladder (which governs decision) is vigorous; insufficiency of kidney water can cause insufficiency of liver blood and weakness of the gallbladder, which can manifest in the tendency to experience fear. Fear is not only the result of illness, but may cause it: ``fear causes qi to precipitate'' and damages kidney essence. Fear can damage kidney qi, causing urinary incontinence, seminal emission, and efflux diarrhea. The terms fear and fright denote distinct concepts. Compare fright. See five minds.

kidney governs hibernation

shèn zhû zhé

From Elementary Questions ( wèn) ``The kidney governs hibernation, is the root of storage, and the place of essence.'' In the doctrine of the five phases, the kidney is associated with water phase, and in turn with winter. Winter is the time when animals hibernate and the forces of nature become dormant.

kidney governs opening and closing

Kidney qi governing the storage and release of urine in the bladder. See kidney governs water.

kidney governs qi absorption

shèn zhû  

The lung's ability to absorb qi partly depends on the kidney. If kidney essential qi is insufficient, it is incapable of ensuring the absorption of qi through the lung. This results in respiratory insufficiency characterized by shortness of breath and rapid breathing at the slightest exertion. Such conditions are termed kidney failing to absorb qi, or qi not homing to the root. See supplementing the kidney to promote qi absorption for treatment. ``The kidney governs qi absorption'' means essentially the same as the kidney is the root of qi``.''

kidney governs reproduction

shèn zhû shëng zhí

Reproduction is a function of the kidney. Growth, development, and reproduction rely on the essential qi stored by the kidney. Kidney essential qi is derived from the reproductive essence of the parents (congenital essence), out of which the fetus develops. After birth, kidney essential qi is gradually nurtured by the essence of food (acquired essence) and reaches fullness in puberty; women menstruate (and ovulate) according to the monthly cycle, and men are able to produce semen.

kidney governs storage

shèn zhû  cáng

The kidney ensures the retention of urine and semen (essence). Breakdown of this function manifests as seminal emission, premature ejaculation, enuresis, and long voidings of clear urine.

kidney governs the bones and engenders marrow

shèn zhû gu3, shëng suî

See kidney engenders bone and marrow.

kidney governs the ears

shèn zhû êr

See kidney opens at the ears.

kidney governs water

shèn zhû shuî

The kidney ``distills fluids,'' regulates their distribution, and discharges waste water, thereby maintaining normal water metabolism in the body. For this reason, the kidney is said to govern water. Body fluids are derived from fluids taken in by the stomach. Through the spleen's movement and transformation and the lung's regulation of the waterways, they are distributed throughout the body, and waste water is carried down to the bladder before being discharged. The qi transformation of the kidney plays a vital role in this. This is why it is said that the kidney governs water. Impairment of this action due to kidney yang vacuity can either cause disorders of fluid metabolism such as scant urine or water swelling or water containment failure, characterized by long voidings of clear urine or profuse urination at night. The function of the bladder is to store and discharge urine and is closely related to the kidney. Storage relies on the retentive power of kidney qi, while discharge relies on the power of the kidney to permit flow. This is known as the ``opening and closing'' function of the kidney that controls the flow of urine down to the bladder, and enables the bladder to store up to a certain amount of urine before permitting its discharge. Elementary Questions ( wèn) says, ``The bladder stores fluid, and by qi transformation discharges it.'' In reality, ``qi transformation'' referred to here is a function of the kidney. According to Elementary Questions ( wèn) ``Inhibition of the bladder manifests as dribbling urinary block, and its failure to ensure containment, as enuresis.'' Pathologies associated with the bladder include dribbling urinary block, dribble after voiding, frequent urination, urinary urgency, painful urination, enuresis, or urinary incontinence, which in the absence of disease of the bladder itself are generally attributed to disease of the kidney.

kidney holds the office of labor, whence agility emanates

shèn zhe3, zuò qiáng zhï guan1,  qiâo chü yän <

kidney holds office of labor> From Elementary Questions ( wèn) See kidney governs agility.

kidney impediment

shèn 

An impediment pattern arising from persistent bone impediment that fails to heal with subsequent contraction of external evil, from bone damage due to long walking, or from sexual taxation. Kidney impediment is characterized by the inability to straighten the lumbus and back; this produces a stoop, lumbar pain, hypertonicity of the lower limbs, and seminal emission.

Medication:  Boost the kidney and dispel evils using Five Impediments Decoction (  täng) plus Angelicae Duhuo Radix ( huó), Cinnamomi Cortex Tubiformis (guän guì), Eucommiae Cortex ( zhòng), Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix (níu ), Astragali (seu Hedysari) Radix (huáng ), and Dioscoreae Hypoglaucae Rhizoma ( xiè).

Acupuncture:  See bone impediment.

kidney is averse to dryness

shèn  zào

The kidney is vulnerable to dryness. The kidney governs water, stores essence, and engenders bone and marrow. Dryness damages the fluids of the body and wears kidney essence, and severe depletion of kidney yin can lead to desiccation of bone and marrow. See bone wilting .

kidney is connected with the bladder

shèn  páng guäng

The kidney stands in interior-exterior relationship with the bladder. The kidney channel connects with the bladder and the bladder channel connects with the kidney. The kidney governs water within the body, and the bladder (essentially by the action of kidney qi) governs the ``opening and closing,'' i.e., the release and temporary storage of urine.

kidney is on the left and the life gate is on right

zuô shèn yòu mìng <

kidney on the left> See life gate.

kidney is the gate of the stomach

shèn zhê wèi zhï guän

The kidney opens at the two yin (anus and genitals), and controls the discharge of urine and to some extent the stool through its function of governing water. Hence it is the lower gate through which grain and water entering the stomach must pass to leave the body. According to one modern interpretation, is understood to be , making the phrase read as ``the kidney is the so-called gate.''

kidney is the root of earlier heaven

shèn wéi xiän tiän zhï bên

The kidney is the basis of the congenital constitution. Reproduction, growth, development, and aging in which the congenital constitution (``earlier heaven'') are reflected are related to the state of kidney qi.

kidney is the root of qi

shèn wéi  zhï bên

The root of qi is an epithet given to the kidney because it governs qi absorption. See kidney governs qi absorption.

kidney is the water viscus; it governs fluids

shèn zhê shuî zang4, zhû jïn 

The kidney is ascribed to water in the five phases and plays a major role in fluid metabolism. See kidney governs water; viscus of fire and water.

kidney, its bloom is in the hair of the head

shen4,  huá zài 

This line, from Elementary Questions ( wèn) is interpreted to mean that the general condition of the hair, hair growth, and hair loss are all associated with the strength of the kidney essential qi. Loss of hair in old age is one sign of debilitation of essential qi. However, the hair also relies on the nourishing action of the blood, so it is also said, ``the hair of the head is the surplus of the blood.''

kidney, its fullness is in the bone

shen4,  chöng zài 

See kidney engenders bone and marrow.

kidney opens at the ears

Synonym:  kidney governs the ears .

From Elementary Questions ( wèn) The kidney determines hearing ability. The kidney is said to open at the ears since only when kidney qi is abundant is hearing acute. The Magic Pivot (líng shü) states, ``The kidney qi reaches the ears, and if the kidney is in harmony, the ears perceive the five sounds.'' The ears are connected with the brain, the ``sea of marrow,'' which is dependent upon the kidney for nourishment. Insufficiency of kidney essential qi causes tinnitus (ringing in the ears) and hearing impairment. Debilitation of essential qi in old age often leads to deafness. The Magic Pivot (líng shü) states, ``When the sea of marrow is insufficient, the brain spins and the ears ring.''

kidney opens at the two yin

The kidney opens at the ``two yin,'' i.e., the ``posterior yin,'' which refers to the anus, and the ``anterior yin,'' which refers to the genital organs. These organs are located in the lower burner, and their function is associated with kidney qi, so that they are referred to as the outer orifices of the kidney. This relationship is also reflected in various diseases. For example, kidney vacuity may lead to changes in urination and defecation such as scant urine, long voidings of clear urine, incontinence and enduring diarrhea, or fecal incontinence. The reproductive system may also be affected, causing impotence, premature ejaculation, or seminal emission. HOW DO WE DEFINE THIS TERM} ¬G}

kidney panting

shèn chuân caused by kidney evil interfering with the lung,

occurring when water gathers in the kidney channel, ascends counterflow and seizes the lung. Kidney panting takes the form of qi counterflow and rapid panting, inability to lie flat, cough, and vomiting.

Medication:  Depurate the lung and downbear qi; warm the kidney and disinhibit water. Use White-Draining Powder (xiè bái sân) or True Warrior Decoction (zhën  täng).

kidney pulse is sunken

shèn mài chén

The sunken pulse is associated with the kidney and the season winter. Elementary Questions ( wèn) says, ``The kidney pulse is stonelike.'' The Classic of Difficult Issues (nàn jïng)``The winter pulse is stonelike.'' A stonelike pulse is now usually referred to as a sunken pulse. See floating pulse.

kidney qi

shèn 

The qi engendered by kidney essence; the functional activity of the kidney. Elementary Questions ( wèn) states, ``In the male at the age of two eights i.e., sixteen, kidney qi is exuberant, the reproductive function matures, essential qi flows forth, yin and yang are in harmony, and he can beget offspring'' The Magic Pivot (líng shü) states, ``Kidney qi flows through to the ears; when the kidney is in harmony, the ears can hear the five sounds.'' The term kidney qi often specifically denotes the kidney's governing of storage. Thus insecurity of kidney qi denotes insufficiency of kidney qi manifesting in urinary disturbances such as frequent and long voidings of clear urine, or incontinence, enuresis, and dribbling, and disturbances of the reproductive function such as seminal emission, seminal efflux, and premature ejaculation.

kidney qi flows to the ears

shèn  töng  êr

From The Magic Pivot (líng shü) ``Kidney qi flows to the ears, and if the kidney is in harmony, the ear perceives the five sounds.'' See kidney opens at the ears.

kidney qi vacuity

shèn  

Debilitation of of original qi in the kidney due to insufficiency of earlier heaven, taxation damage, or enduring illness affecting the kidney, and characterized by limp aching lumbus and knees and devitalized essence-spirit exacerbated by overexertion. Other signs include dizziness, lack of strength, deafness, tinnitus, heel pain, loose teeth and hair loss, seminal efflux, premature ejaculation, vaginal discharge, and flooding and spotting. The tongue is pale and enlarged; the pulse is fine and weak, especially at the cubit.

Medication:  Supplement and boost kidney qi. Use Left-Restoring Kidney Yin Pill (zuô guï wán). Treatment can be varied according to signs. Where continuous aching pain in the lumbus and knees is the main sign, accompanied by limpness of the legs and knees, exacerbated by exertion and relieved by rest, Left-Restoring Kidney Yin Pill (zuô guï wán) can be combined with Young Maid Pill (qïng é wán). Where deafness or tinnitus is the main sign, accompanied by dizziness, lack of strength, and aching lumbus, use Deafness Left-Benefiting Loadstone Pill (êr lóng zuô  wán). Where dizziness and lassitude of spirit are the main signs, accompanied by aching lumbus and tinnitus, use Left-Restoring Kidney Yin Pill (zuô guï wán) plus Codonopsitis Radix (dâng shën) and Astragali (seu Hedysari) Radix (huáng ).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on BL, KI, GV, CV. Select BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) ; needle with supplementation. Selection of points according to signs: For dizziness, add GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , GV-16 (fëng , Wind Mansion) , and GB-39 (xuán zhöng, Suspended Bell) . For deafness or tinnitus, add TB-17 ( fëng, Wind Screen) , GB-2 (tïng huì, Auditory Convergence) , SI-19 (tïng göng, Auditory Palace) , and TB-3 (zhöng zhû, Central Islet) . For limp aching lumbus and knees, add GV-3 (yäo yáng guän, Lumbar Yang Pass) , BL-40 (wêi zhöng, Bend Center) , GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , GB-39 (xuán zhöng, Suspended Bell) , and BL-60 (kün lún, Kunlun Mountains) . For seminal emission, add KI-12 ( , Great Manifestation) , and HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) . For heel pain, add PC-7 ( líng, Great Mound) , BL-62 (shën mài, Extending Vessel) , and BL-60 (kün lún, Kunlun Mountains) . For vaginal discharge, add GB-26 (dài mài, Girdling Vessel) , BL-30 (bái huán shü, White Ring Transport) , BL-32 ( liáo, Second Bone-Hole) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ,

kidney qi wandering wind

shèn  yóu fëng

Red swollen cloud-like patches on the lower limbs attributable to kidney fire brewing internally and externally contracted wind evil lying depressed in the skin. This is one form of red wandering cinnabar.

Medication:  Clear heat and course wind; drain fire and resolve toxin. Use Double Resolution Sage-Inspired Powder (shuäng jiê töng shèng sân) as oral medicinal and apply mixed with Phellodendri Cortex Pulveratus (huáng bâi ).

kidney reversal headache

shèn jué tóu tòng due to reverse flow of kidney qi in patterns of lower body vacuity and upper body repletion.

Kidney reversal headache is characterized by an unbearable vertex headache, accompanied by counterflow cold of the limbs, glomus and oppression in the chest and stomach duct, copious phlegm, and stringlike pulse.

Medication:  Warm the kidney to promote qi absorption. Use formulas such as True Jade Pill ( zhën wán), Return Again Elixir (lái  dän), or Galenite Elixir (hëi  dän).

kidney rock

shèn yán

A sore on or close to the yin head (glans penis) that begins either as a hard painful itchy node exuding watery fluid and subsequently rupturing to form a flat open sore, or grows into a cauliflower shape; in either case in advanced stage, it is accompanied by a stone-like hard swelling in the groin. General signs include lethargic body and torpid spirit. In severe cases, the penis rots away and the patient's life is threatened. It is attributed to binding depression of the fire that arises when liver-kidney depletion or excessive anxiety, thought, depression and anger give rise to exuberant ministerial fire and liver channel blood dryness.

Western Medical Concept:  carcinoma of the penis* carcinoma of the penis.

Medication:  In the initial stage, treat by enriching yin and downbearing fire, and supplementing the liver and kidney with formulas such as Anemarrhena and Phellodendron Eight-Ingredient Pill (zhï bâi  wèi wán) or Major Yin Supplementation Pill (  yïn wán). In advanced stages, characterized by dual depletion of qi and blood, treat by supplementing qi and nourishing the blood. Peach Blossom Powder (táo huä sân) may be applied topically. See rock.

kidney sac

shèn náng

scrotum.

kidney sac wind

shèn náng fëng

scrotal wind.

kidney stands in interior-exterior relationship with the bladder

shèn  páng guäng xiäng biâo  <

kidney stands> The kidney is in the interior, whereas the bladder is in the exterior. The two are closely related. The kidney drains waste fluids from the body, and passes them to the bladder, which regulates their passage out of the body. Storage relies on the retentive power of kidney qi, whereas discharge relies on the power of the kidney to permit flow. The ``opening and closing'' of the bladder is thus seen as a function of the kidney.

kidney stores essence

shèn cáng jïng

Growth, development, and reproduction rely on the essential qi stored by the kidney. Kidney essential qi is derived from the reproductive essence of the parents (congenital essence), out of which the embryo develops. After birth, it is gradually nurtured by the essence of food (acquired essence) and reaches fullness in puberty, when men are able to produce semen and women begin menstruating---important signs of the reproductive function coming to maturity. In old age, the kidney essential qi weakens, so that the reproductive function gradually fades away, and the body degenerates. Elementary Questions ( wèn) states, ``In the male at the age of two eights i.e., sixteen kidney qi is exuberant, the ``heavenly tenth'' arrives, essential qi flows forth, yin and yang are in harmony, and he can beget offspring At the age of seven eights i.e., fifty-six heavenly tenth is exhausted, essence diminishes, the kidney grows weak, and the body loses its tone; at eight eights, the teeth and hair fall out. In the female at the age of two sevens, heavenly tenth arrives, the controlling vessel flows, and the thoroughfare vessel fills, the menses come according to their times, and she can bear offspring At seven sevens, the controlling vessel empties, the thoroughfare vessel weakens, heavenly tenth is exhausted, the passages of the Earth are cut, the body deteriorates, and she can no longer bear children.'' In this quotation, is explained as meaning viability of the reproductive function. See heavenly tenth.

kidney stores mind

shèn cáng zhì

The kidney stores will, spirit, and/or memory. This phrase comes from Elementary Questions ( wèn) The character , meaning mind(-power), will, or emotion, was also used in the sense of memory or record (later distinguished as , but no longer in the PRC's modern simplified script). See mind.

kidney vacuity

shèn 

Any vacuity pattern of the kidney insufficiency of kidney essence(, kidney yin vacuity, kidney yang vacuity, insecurity of kidney qi) most commonly characterized by devitalized essence-spirit, dizzy head and tinnitus, forgetfulness and insomnia, aching lumbus and limp legs, seminal emission, premature ejaculation, and impotence. See also kidney disease.

kidney vacuity deafness

shèn  êr lóng due to kidney vacuity.

Medication:  Supplement kidney qi. Use Six-Ingredient Pill (lìu wèi wán) plus Phellodendri Cortex Pulveratus (huáng bâi ), Anemarrhenae Rhizoma (zhï ), Polygalae Radix (yuân zhì), and Acori Rhizoma (shí chäng ). See deafness.

kidney vacuity delayed menstruation

shèn  jïng xíng hòu  (

arrival of menstrual periods eight days or more later than the expected time) due to kidney vacuity arising when congenital insufficiency, early marriage, excessive childbirth, or sexual intemperance causes damage to kidney qi and lead to depletion of essence-blood and insufficiency of the thoroughfare and controlling vessels, preventing the uterus from filling on time. The flow is scant and is accompanied by a dizzy head and tinnitus, and limp aching lumbus and knees.

Medication:  Supplement the kidney and nourish yin. Use Yin-Securing Brew ( yïn jiän) plus Cinnamomi Cortex (ròu guì) or Six-Ingredient Rehmannia Pill (lìu wèi  huáng wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV and the three yin channels of the foot. Select CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , KI-13 ( xué, Qi Point) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) ; needle with supplementation.

kidney vacuity dizziness

shèn  xuàn yün due to insufficiency of kidney essence depriving the brain marrow of nourishment.

Kidney vacuity dizziness is dizzy head with tinnitus, lassitude of the spirit, forgetfulness, and aching lumbus and weak legs. If the condition is one of kidney yang vacuity, signs include cold limbs and fear of cold, pale tongue, and a weak fine pulse, and is treated by supplementing the kidney and warming yang with Right-Restoring Life Gate Pill (yòu guï wán) or Golden Coffer Kidney Qi Pill (jïn guì shèn  wán). If kidney yin vacuity is prominent, signs include heart vexation, red tongue, and rapid fine pulse, and is treated by enriching yin and supplementing the kidney using Left-Restoring Kidney Yin Pill (zuô guï wán) or Anemarrhena and Phellodendron Eight-Ingredient Pill (zhï bâi  wèi wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on KI, GV, and back transport points. Select GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , GV-16 (fëng , Wind Mansion) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , GB-39 (xuán zhöng, Suspended Bell) , and KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) . If yin vacuity is prominent, add KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , KI-1 (yông quán, Gushing Spring) , and HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) ; if yang vacuity is prominent, add GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) and CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , needling with supplementation and adding moxa.

kidney vacuity habitual miscarriage

shèn  huá täi due to kidney vacuity.

Kidney vacuity habitual miscarriage is accompanied by aching lumbus, sagging in the smaller abdomen, dizzy head and tinnitus, limp aching knees, and in some cases vaginal bleeding.

Medication:  Supplement the kidney and quiet the fetus using Fetal Longevity Pill (shòu täi wán), to which Artemisiae Argyi Folium Carbonisatum (ài  tàn) and Eucommiae Cortex Carbonisatus ( zhòng tàn) may be added for pronounced bleeding.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV and KI. Select BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , KI-12 ( , Great Manifestation) , and KI-13 ( xué, Qi Point) ; moxa every point 15--20 minutes twice a day. See habitual miscarriage.

kidney vacuity headache

shèn  tóu tòng attributed to kidney vacuity and insufficiency of the sea of marrow.

Kidney vacuity headache may be due to kidney yang or kidney yin vacuity.

Kidney yang vacuity  (shèn yáng ) patterns are marked by aversion to cold, lack of warmth in the limbs, white facial complexion, pale tongue and a fine sunken pulse.

Medication:  Warm and supplement kidney yang using variations of Right-Restoring Life Gate Pill (yòu guï wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment for both kidney yang vacuity and kidney yin vacuity mainly on back transport points and KI. Main points: GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , GB-19 (nâo köng, Brain Hollow) , BL-2 (zân zhú, Bamboo Gathering) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and GB-39 (jué , Severed Bone) . Supplement GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , and KI-7 ( lïu, Recover Flow) to address kidney yang vacuity, and apply moxa.

Kidney yin vacuity  (shèn yïn ) is marked by an empty feeling in the head, dizziness, tinnitus, lack of strength in the lumbus and knees, red tongue, and fine pulse.

Medication:  Enrich kidney yin using formulas such as Six-Ingredient Rehmannia Pill (lìu wèi  huáng wán) or Major Origin-Supplementing Brew (  yuán jiän) and variations.

Acupuncture:  Use the main points given above, and add BL-52 (zhì shì, Will Chamber) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with supplementation. For selection of points according to affected area, see headache.

kidney vacuity infertility

shèn   yùn

Female infertility arising when insufficiency of kidney qi or damage to kidney qi by enduring sickness or sexual taxation causes depletion of essence-blood that deprives the thoroughfare and controlling vessels of nourishment and reduces receptivity to male essence (sperm). Kidney vacuity infertility is associated with lassitude of essence-spirit, dizzy head and tinnitus, aching lumbus and limp legs, and menstrual irregularities.

Medication:  Warm the kidney and regulate menstruation; regulate the thoroughfare and controlling vessels. Use Unicorn-Rearing Pill ( lín zhü). If insufficiency of kidney yang (physical cold and cold limbs, cold feeling in the smaller abdomen) is prominent, Psoraleae Semen (  zhï), Morindae Radix (  tiän), Cinnamomi Cortex (ròu guì), and Aconiti Tuber Laterale ( ) can be added. If the emphasis is on insufficiency of kidney yin (reddening of the cheeks and lips, tidal heat~effusion, and night sweating), this formula can be combined with Six-Ingredient Rehmannia Decoction (lìu wèi  huáng täng).

Acupuncture:  For kidney yang vacuity, base treatment on back transport points, GV, CV, KI, and ST. Select BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , CV-7 (yïn jiäo, Yin Intersection) , CV-2 ( , Curved Bone) , ST-29 (guï lái, Return) , and KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) ; needle with supplementation and large amounts of moxa. For kidney yin vacuity, base treatment on back transport point, CV, and KI. Select BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , KI-2 (rán , Blazing Valley) KI-5 (shuî quán, Water Spring) , ST-13 ( , Qi Door) , and ; needle with supplementation.

kidney vacuity lumbar pain

shèn  yäo tòng due to kidney vacuity.

Limp aching lumbus and knees and lack of strength in the legs exacerbated by exercise and from which rest brings little relief, accompanied by a forceless fine pulse, qi timidity and lack of strength, and clear uninhibited urine together indicate insufficiency of kidney yang. A forceless surging pulse with yellow or reddish urine, and periodic flaming of vacuity fire indicate insufficiency of kidney yin.

Medication:  Supplement the kidney. Mild cases can be treated with Young Maid Pill (qïng é wán). More severe cases with signs of essence-blood depletion can be treated with Tangkuei and Rehmannia Beverage (däng guï  huáng yîn), Left-Restoring Kidney Yin Pill (zuô guï wán), or Right-Restoring Life Gate Pill (yòu guï wán).

Acupuncture:  For insufficiency of kidney yang, base treatment mainly on BL and GV. Select BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , GV-3 (yäo yáng guän, Lumbar Yang Pass) , BL-40 (wêi zhöng, Bend Center) , , and CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa. For kidney yin vacuity, base treatment mainly on BL and KI. Select BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , BL-52 (zhì shì, Will Chamber) , BL-40 (wêi zhöng, Bend Center) , , and BL-60 (kün lún, Kunlun Mountains) ; needle with supplementation. For effulgent yin vacuity fire, add KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , KI-2 (rán , Blazing Valley) , and HT-8 (shào , Lesser Mansion) , needling with drainage.

kidney vacuity menstrual block

shèn  jïng  (

abnormal absence of menses) due to kidney vacuity arising when insufficiency of earlier heaven (congenital deficiencies), early marriage, excessive childbirths, or sexual intemperance cause damage to kidney qi, thereby causing insufficiency of the thoroughfare and controlling vessels and uterine blood vacuity. Kidney vacuity menstrual block is associated with dizzy head and tinnitus, limp aching lumbus and knees, and frequent urination.

Medication:  Supplement the kidney and nourish the blood using Yin-Securing Brew ( yïn jiän) plus Cervi Gelatinum Cornu ( jiâo jiäo), Psoraleae Semen (  zhï), and Cistanches Caulis (ròu cöng róng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, CV, KI, ST, and SP. Select BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , KI-2 (rán , Blazing Valley) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with supplementation. For pronounced kidney yang vacuity, use moxa at GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) and CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) .

kidney vacuity scant menstruation

shèn  yuè jïng guò shâo due to kidney vacuity arising when congenital insufficiency,

early marriage, excessive childbirth, excessive breast feeding, or sexual intemperance leads to damage to kidney qi, essence-blood depletion, and insufficiency of blood in the thoroughfare and controlling vessels and the vessels of the uterus. The flow is scant, thin, and dull red, and is accompanied by dizzy head and tinnitus, and aching lumbus and limp legs.

Medication:  Supplement the kidney and nourish the blood with Tangkuei and Rehmannia Beverage (däng guï  huáng yîn) plus Astragali (seu Hedysari) Radix (huáng ).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on KI, SP, LR, and back transport points. Select BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , KI-5 (shuî quán, Water Spring) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) . Needle with supplementation. For insufficiency of kidney qi, add CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , and GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , and apply moxa.

kidney vacuity seminal emission

shèn   jïng due to kidney vacuity exacerbated by hyperactivity of heart yang (

noninteraction of the heart and kidney) due to excessive thought and preoccupation or by sexual intemperance. This pattern is mainly caused by excessive thought and preoccupation and is characterized by frequent seminal emission accompanied by dry mouth and tongue, red face and cheeks, and fatigue. In severe cases, the patient can suffer an emission as soon as he closes his eyes, and may have several emissions in one night.

Medication:  Clear the heart and contain essence with formulas such as Heart-Supplementing Elixir ( xïn dän) or Six-Ingredient Rehmannia Pill (lìu wèi  huáng wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, KI, SP, HT, and PC. Needle with supplementation at BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) with drainage at BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , PC-8 (láo göng, Palace of Toil) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , and PC-7 ( líng, Great Mound) . Selection of points according to signs: For insomnia, add and . For profuse dreaming, add GB-44 ( qiào yïn, Foot Orifice Yin) and ST-45 ( duì, Severe Mouth) . The signs are weak wilting lumbus and legs, aching pain in the bones, effusion night heat~ and spontaneous sweating, frequent erection, frequent seminal emission, red tongue and rapid fine pulse.

Medication:  Enrich yin and downbear fire; replenish essence with medicinals of strong flavor. Use astringent yin-nourishing medicinals such as Rehmanniae Radix Conquita (shú  huáng), Piscis Vesica Aeris ( biào), Lycii Fructus (gôu  ), Caprae seu Ovis Renes (yáng shèn), Suis Spinae Medulla (zhü  suî), and Schisandrae Fructus ( wèi ).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV, KI, and back transport points. Needle with supplementation at CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , BL-52 (zhì shì, Will Chamber) , and KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and with drainage at KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , KI-1 (yông quán, Gushing Spring) , and HT-8 (shào , Lesser Mansion) . This is characterized by seminal efflux, aching lumbus and limp legs, pale tongue, and fine sunken pulse, combined with kidney yang vacuity signs such as fear of cold and cold limbs.

Medication:  It can be treated by dual supplementation of yin and water and by warming and containing the life gate, using formulas such as Deerhorn Major Supplementation Decoction ( róng   täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV, KI, GV, and back transport points. Select CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , KI-7 ( lïu, Recover Flow) , BL-52 (zhì shì, Will Chamber) , KI-12 ( , Great Manifestation) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa.

kidney vacuity tinnitus

shèn  êr míng attributable to kidney vacuity and insufficiency of essential qi and characterized by continuous tinnitus like the sound of the tide or cicadas,

or at night like the sound of a battle drum. The patient may also have the sensation of someone blowing in his or her ear producing a peculiar itch. It is treated by supplementing the kidney and boosting qi. tinnitus.

kidney vacuity toothache

shèn   tòng attributable to insufficiency of kidney yin with vacuity fire flaming upward.

See toothache.

kidney vacuity vaginal discharge

shèn  dài xià due to kidney vacuity arising when early marriage or excessive childbirth damages kidney qi and causes insufficiency of kidney yang,

cold-damp pouring downward, and consequent damage to the thoroughfare vessel and girdling vessel vessel. The discharge is copious, thin, clear, and persistent. Other signs include somber facial complexion, severe lumbar pain, cold sensation in the smaller abdomen, sloppy stool, and long clear voidings of urine.

Medication:  Warm yang and supplement the kidney using Internal Supplementation Pill (nèi  wán). If the condition persists and forms an efflux desertion pattern, medicinals such as Mastodi Ossis Fossilia Calcinata (duàn lóng ), Sepiae seu Sepiellae Os Calcinatum (duàn  zéi ), Ostreae Concha Calcinata (duàn  ), Euryales Semen (qiàn shí), and Toosendan Fructus (chuän liàn ) can be added for extra astringent discharge-checking action. For older patients in a weak state of health and with a severe pouring discharge, Ginseng Radix (rén shën) and Cimicifugae Rhizoma (shëng ) can be added to supplement and upraise qi and promote astriction.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV, GIV, SP, BL, and KI. Select GB-26 (dài mài, Girdling Vessel) , BL-30 (bái huán shü, White Ring Transport) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) and BL-32 ( liáo, Second Bone-Hole) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa.

kidney vacuity water flood

shèn  shuî fàn

Synonym:  kidney yang vacuity water flood .

due to kidney yang depletion that prevents the normal transformation of water-damp. The kidney governs water and stands in interior-exterior relationship with the bladder. If kidney yang is vacuous, it cannot govern water, bladder qi transformation (opening and closing action of the bladder) is inhibited, and urine decreases. At the same time, splenic movement and transformation is deprived of the warming action of kidney yang, so that water gathers to create water swelling that is most pronounced in the lower body and characterized by failure of the flesh to rebound swiftly after pressure is released. Other signs include heavy aching lumbus, cold limbs and fear of cold, pale enlarged tongue, white glossy tongue fur, and a fine sunken pulse.

Western Medical Concept:  nephritis*!chronic chronic nephritis* chronic nephritis.

Medication:  Use Golden Coffer Kidney Qi Pill (jïn guì shèn  wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV, back transport points, and KI. Select CV-9 (shuî fën, Water Divide) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , BL-22 (sän jiäo shü, Triple Burner Transport) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and KI-7 ( lïu, Recover Flow) ; needle with supplementation and moxa. Compare heart-kidney yang vacuity.

kidney water

shèn shuî

Kidney yin.

kidney-water

shèn shuî

The kidney viewed as corresponding to water in the five phases.

kidney water

shèn shuî

One of the five waters described in Essential Prescriptions of the Golden Coffer (jïn guì yào lüè) in kidney vacuity; characterized by lumbar pain, difficult urination, abdominal distention and swelling around the umbilicus, water-damp seeping out of the lower yin, cold lower extremities, and facial and general emaciation. Essential Prescriptions of the Golden Coffer (jïn guì yào lüè) states, ``In kidney water, there is enlarged abdomen, lumbar pain, the inability to urinate, dampness of the genitals like the sweaty nose of an ox, counterflow cold of the legs, and thin face.''

kidney wheezing

shèn xiäo attributed to kidney water intimidating the lung.

See wheezing.

kidney wilting

shèn wêi

bone wilting.

kidney worm

shèn chóng

pinworm.

kidney worm disease

shèn chóng bìng

pinworm disease.

kidney yang

shèn yáng

See kidney yin and kidney yang.

kidney yang vacuity

shèn yáng 

The manifestation of debilitation of kidney yang (variously referred to as insufficiency of true yang, insufficiency of the true origin, exhaustion of the lower origin, or debilitation of the life gate fire). Kidney yang is the root of the yang of the entire body, and is related most closely to the yang qi of the spleen, lung, and heart. Kidney yang vacuity may cause, or be caused by, vacuity of the yang qi of these three related viscera. Kidney yang vacuity is characterized by both vacuity and cold signs, such as bright white facial complexion, torpor of essence-spirit, aversion to cold, lack of warmth in the extremities, dizziness, tinnitus, limp aching lumbus and knees, and an enlarged pale tongue. Where the reproductive function is affected, seminal efflux, impotence, sterility or infertility, and menstrual irregularities may be observed. Where the transformative function of kidney qi is impaired, signs include long voidings of copious clear urine, profuse urination at night, or scant urine, urinary block, and water swelling. In severe cases, water-rheum may flood upward, intimidating the heart and shooting into the lung. Such cases are characterized by heart palpitations, rapid panting, and inability to assume a lying posture. Spleen-kidney yang vacuity is characterized by pronounced water swelling or enduring diarrhea, clear-food diarrhea, or by early morning diarrhea. Qi absorption failure, which generally stems from lung qi vacuity, is characterized by rapid breathing at the slightest exertion. Heart-kidney yang debilitation is identified by the presence of heart palpitations, panting, water swelling, and, in severe cases, by reversal cold of the limbs, putting forth of oily sweat, and other critical signs.

Western Medical Concept:  nephritis*!chronic chronic nephritis* neurasthenia sexualis* diarrhea*!chronic chronic diarrhea* emphysema*!pulmonary Simple kidney yang vacuity may be seen in chronic nephritis, general asthenia, and neurasthenia sexualis. Spleen-kidney yang vacuity is associated with chronic nephritis and chronic diarrhea. Qi absorption failure is seen in pulmonary emphysema. Heart-kidney yang debilitation is observed in heart failure.

Medication:  ``Boosting the source of fire to eliminate the entrenched surfeit of yin'' is the method used to treat kidney yang vacuity. Commonly used are medicinals that warm and supplement kidney yang, such as Aconiti Tuber Laterale ( ), Cinnamomi Cortex (ròu guì), Foeni-Graeci Semen (  ), Psoraleae Semen (  zhï), Alpiniae Oxyphyllae Fructus ( zhì rén), Curculiginis Rhizoma (xiän máo), and Epimedii Herba (yín yáng huò). Formulas include Cinnamon Bark and Aconite Eight-Ingredient Pill (guì   wèi wán), which warms the lower burner and is used for general kidney yang vacuity. Spleen-kidney yang vacuity presenting with enduring, clear-food, or early morning diarrhea may be treated with Four Spirits Pill ( shén wán) and variations, which warm and supplement the spleen and kidney. Where water swelling is pronounced, True Warrior Decoction (zhën  täng) or Life Saver Kidney Qi Pill ( shëng shèn  wán) may be used to warm yang and disinhibit water. Qi absorption failure may be treated with combinations including such formulas as Ginseng with Gecko Powder (shën jiè sân) or Galenite Elixir (hëi  dän), which warm the kidney and promote qi absorption. Impending desertion due to heart-kidney yang debilitation should be treated with such yang-returning desertion-stemming formulas as Ginseng and Aconite Decoction (shën  täng). Kidney yang vacuity occurring in combination with insufficiency of essence-blood may be treated according to the principle that the ``essence promotes qi formation''; use formulas that replenish essence and supplement the kidney, such as Right-Restoring Life Gate Pill (yòu guï wán).

Medication:  Moxibustion at GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) helps supplement kidney yang. At SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) and CV-9 (shuî fën, Water Divide) it will disinhibit water, where severe water swelling is present. Spleen-kidney yang vacuity with cold diarrhea calls for the addition of points such as BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-25 ( cháng shü, Large Intestine Transport) , and ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) to supplement the spleen and large intestine. Heart-kidney yang vacuity may be treated with the back transport point of the heart, BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , which will supplement the heart, and points such as HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) and PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , which quiet the spirit and heart respectively.

kidney yang vacuity water flood

shèn yáng  shuî fàn

kidney vacuity water flood.

kidney yin

shèn yïn

See kidney yin and kidney yang.

kidney yin and kidney yang

shèn yin1, shèn yáng

The two opposing, yet complementary aspects of kidney essential qi. Kidney yin and kidney yang are interdependent and mutually counterbalancing. Imbalance between the two is fundamentally attributable to insufficiency of kidney essential qi. When kidney yin or yang vacuity reaches a certain point, it may affect its complement, so that the condition becomes one of dual vacuity of kidney yin and yang (detriment of yin or yang affecting its complement). Kidney yin has a moistening and nourishing effect on all the organs of the body, and when it is vacuous, general signs such as interior heat, dizziness, tinnitus, limpness of the knees and lower back, seminal emission, red tongue, and dry mouth are likely to appear. Owing to the loss of the nourishing effect of the kidney yin, a whole variety of diseases, such as noninteraction of the heart and kidney, ascendant liver yang, liver wind stirring internally, or heart fire flaming upward may develop. If the lung is affected, such signs as dry cough, tidal heat~effusion, upbearing fire, and dry pharynx are observed. Kidney yang warms and activates the other organs. Insufficiency of kidney yang may therefore lead to disturbances of water metabolism and the reproductive function, and may also diminish the activity of the other organs. If kidney yang fails to perform its activating function, signs of heart-kidney yang vacuity such as heart palpitations, a slow pulse, sweating, shortness of breath, and cold of the limbs may be observed. Impaired absorption of qi by the kidney affects the lung, provoking rapid breathing at the slightest exertion. If the spleen is deprived of the warming action of kidney yang, there may be early morning diarrhea or nontransformation of food. Conversely, yin or yang vacuity in other organs may affect kidney yin or yang. For example, liver yin vacuity, ascendant hyperactivity of liver yang, heart yin vacuity, or effulgent heart fire may eventually ``sap kidney yin,'' creating kidney yin vacuity. Often, lung yin vacuity also affects kidney yin, and diarrhea caused by spleen yang vacuity may eventually affect kidney yang, this condition being known as spleen-kidney yang vacuity. Since kidney yin and kidney yang are the root of the yin and yang of all the organs of the body, they may also be referred to as ``true yin'' or ``original yin,'' and ``true yang'' or ``original yang.''

kidney yin depletion

shèn yïn kuï 

See kidney yin vacuity.

kidney yin vacuity

shèn yïn 

Synonym:  insufficiency of kidney water ;

Synonym:  insufficiency of true yin ;

Synonym:  depletion of the lower origin .

The manifestation of insufficiency of kidney yin. Kidney yin is the root of all yin of the body. It is most closely related to the heart, liver, and lung. Thus, kidney yin depletion frequently leads to vacuity of heart, liver, or lung yin. Conversely, persistent yin vacuity in the three related viscera may culminate in depletion of kidney yin. Hence in clinical practice, kidney yin vacuity most commonly occurs in dual vacuity patterns. Kidney yin vacuity is characterized by vacuity and heat signs, and varies greatly in severity. Mild cases are characterized by dizziness, tinnitus, dry pharynx, dry mouth, tidal heat~effusion, lumbar pain, seminal emission, night sweating, and in some cases bleeding gums. The pulse is fine and rapid, and the tongue is distinctly red in color. Severe cases are marked by shedding of flesh and loss of bulk (severe emaciation) and a red mirror tongue. The dual patterns are identified by additional signs. Liver-kidney yin vacuity is characterized by headache, blurred or flowery vision, and loss of visual acuity, as well as irregular menses and sterility. Heart-kidney yin vacuity is characterized by such signs as insomnia, heart palpitations, forgetfulness, and profuse dreaming. Cough, expectoration of blood, and steaming bone tidal heat~effusion are observed in lung-kidney yin vacuity.

Western Medical Concept:  hypertension* neurosis* menstrual disorders* tachycardia* hyperthyroidism* tuberculosis*!pulmonary Liver-kidney yin vacuity is seen in some forms of hypertension, neurosis, and menstrual disorders, whereas heart-kidney yin vacuity may occur in tachycardia, hyperthyroidism, and neurosis. Lung-kidney yin vacuity is seen in pulmonary tuberculosis.

Medication:  Treat by the principle of ``invigorating the governor of water to restrain the brilliance of yang.'' Commonly used medicinals that enrich kidney yin include: Rehmanniae Radix ( huáng), Testudinis Plastrum (guï bân), Asparagi Tuber (tiän mén döng), Amydae Carapax (bië jiâ), Scrophulariae Radix (xuán shën), Polygoni Multiflori Radix ( shôu ), Corni Fructus (shän zhü ), Ligustri Fructus (nüê zhën ), and Ecliptae Herba ( hàn lián). Six-Ingredient Rehmannia Pill (lìu wèi  huáng wán) is the basic formula prescribed. For mild cases, Double Supreme Pill (èr zhì wán) may be used. Where effulgent fire signs are prominent, use Anemarrhena, Phellodendron, and Rehmannia Pill (zhï bâi  huáng wán). For liver-kidney yin vacuity, use Lycium Berry, Chrysanthemum, and Rehmannia Pill (   huáng wán). For heart-kidney yin vacuity, use Celestial Emperor Heart-Supplementing Elixir (tiän wáng  xïn dän). For lung-kidney yin vacuity, use Lily Bulb Metal-Securing Decoction (bâi   jïn täng). Where signs of essence-blood depletion are present, kidney essential qi must also be supplemented.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points and KI. Select BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , BL-52 (zhì shì, Will Chamber) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , KI-1 (yông quán, Gushing Spring) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with supplementation. Selection of points according to signs: For dizziness, add GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , GV-16 (fëng , Wind Mansion) , and GB-39 (xuán zhöng, Suspended Bell) . For tinnitus, add TB-17 ( fëng, Wind Screen) , GB-2 (tïng huì, Auditory Convergence) , and TB-3 (zhöng zhû, Central Islet) . For dry pharynx and mouth, add KI-2 (rán , Blazing Valley) , TB-2 ( mén, Humor Gate) , and . For tidal heat~effusion, add KI-2 (rán , Blazing Valley) , HT-8 (shào , Lesser Mansion) , LU-10 ( , Fish Border) , and PC-5 (jiän shî, Intermediary Courier) . For lumbar pain, add GV-3 (yäo yáng guän, Lumbar Yang Pass) , BL-40 (wêi zhöng, Bend Center) , and BL-60 (kün lún, Kunlun Mountains) . For seminal emission, add KI-12 ( , Great Manifestation) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) . For night sweating, add SI-3 (hòu , Back Ravine) and HT-6 (yïn , Yin Cleft) . Selection of points according to concurrent pattern: For liver-kidney yin vacuity, add BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) and LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) . For heart-kidney yin vacuity, add BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , CV-14 ( què, Great Tower Gate) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , and HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) . For lung-kidney yin vacuity, add BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , BL-43 (gäo huäng shü, Gao-Huang Transport) , and LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) ; needle all points with supplementation.

killing

xiäng shä

See seven relations.

killing worms

shä chóng

expelling worms.

king of face

miàn wáng

The bulb or tip of the nose.

king's palace

wáng göng

mountain root.

knee

The joint between the upper and lower leg, whose anterior aspect is protected by the knee-cap and whose dorsal surface is called the back of the knee (popliteal fossa). fossa*!popliteal The knee is the place at which important sinews converge; hence Elementary Questions ( wèn) states, ``The knees are the house of the sinew.'' Limpness of the knees is associated with insufficiency of the liver and kidney, and knee pain is associated with the same and/or with the presence of wind-cold-damp. See house of the sinews; limp lumbus and knees; knee pain; crane's-knee wind.

knee joint

hái guän

See knee.

knee pain

 tòng

Pain in the knee joint, and the channels and sinews that pass through. Zhang's Clear View of Medicine (zhäng shì  töng) states, ``The knees are the house of the sinews there is no knee pain that is not due to liver-kidney vacuity allowing wind-damp qi to invade.'' Knee pain is treated primarily by supplementing the liver and boosting the kidney, dispelling evils and freeing the network vessels. Knee pain with ability to bend but not stretch and with swelling usually involves wind-heat. This can be treated with Supplemented Mysterious Two Powder (jiä wèi èr miào sân) or Mysterious Two Powder (èr miào sân). If there is yin vacuity, there is heat and pain without swelling. This is treated with Hidden Tiger Pill ( qián wán). When dampness flows into the legs and knees, there is impediment and weakness with pain and heaviness. This can be treated with Duhuo and Mistletoe Decoction ( huó  shëng täng). For vacuity cold with wind-damp, use Tiger Bone Four Jin Pill (   jïn wán). For liver-kidney vacuity heat with limp wilting sinews and bones with tremor and shaking, use Velvet Deerhorn Four Jin Pill ( róng  jïn wán). The literature states that if there is pain at BL-40 (wêi zhöng, Bend Center) , the foot greater yang bladder channel is affected; if the pain is on the outer face of the knee, the foot lesser yang gallbladder channel is affected; if the pain is on the inner face, the foot triple yin is affected. See channel conductor for medicinals that can be added in such cases.

Acupuncture:  Select as main points , ST-35 ( , Calf's Nose) , ST-34 (liáng qïu, Beam Hill) , BL-40 (wêi zhöng, Bend Center) , and GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) . For wind-heat, add GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , TB-5 (wài guän, Outer Pass) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , and LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , needling with drainage. For yin vacuity, supplement BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , and KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and drain KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , and KI-1 (yông quán, Gushing Spring) . For pronounced dampness, ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , and SP-5 (shäng qïu, Shang Hill) , needling with drainage. For vacuity cold with wind-damp, add GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , needling with drainage. For pain on the inner face, add LR-8 ( quán, Spring at the Bend) , LR-7 ( guän, Knee Joint) , and LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) . For pain on the outer face, add GB-33 ( yáng guän, Knee Yang Joint) , and GB-43 (xiá , Pinched Ravine) . For pain on the upper part of the knee, add ST-33 (yïn shì, Yin Market) . See also crane's-knee wind.

knee's eye wind

 yân fëng

See crane's-knee wind.

knocks and falls

dié 

Definition: 

Blows, collisions, collapses, or falls from heights, especially when resulting in injury.

Definition:  Any injury resulting from knocks and falls. Injuries from knocks and falls include stasis swelling (bruises), cuts and grazes, sprains, bone fractures, dislocations, and damage to the bowels and viscera.

Medication:  Dispel stasis, move qi, relieve pain, stanch bleeding, soothe the sinews, and strengthen the bones. Commonly used formulas include Seven Pinches Powder (  sân), Origin-Restorative Blood-Quickening Decoction ( yuán huó xuè täng), Sinew-Strengthening Blood-Nourishing Decoction (zhuàng jïn yâng xuè täng), and Bone-Righting Purple Gold Elixir (zhèng   jïn dän), etc. Fractures and dislocations also require bone righting treatment. See also incised wound; blood stasis; sprain; bone fracture; dislocation; internal injury.