H

Section H

habitual miscarriage

huá täi

Miscarriage successively occurring three times or more. Habitual miscarriage is attributable to qi vacuity, kidney vacuity, blood heat, blood vacuity, or external injury.

Medication:  Treat with pills of ground Eucommiae Cortex ( zhòng), Dipsaci Radix ( duàn), Dioscoreae Rhizoma (shän yào), and Oryzae Glutinosae Semen (nuò ) blended with Ziziphi Fructus Pasta (zâo ). This formula can be taken as soon as pregnancy is suspected, and may be discontinued when the danger period is over. See blood heat habitual miscarriage; blood vacuity habitual miscarriage; kidney vacuity habitual miscarriage; qi vacuity habitual miscarriage.

hacking of blood

 xuè

Expectoration of blood in short frequent coughs. Compare expectoration of blood.

hair

The filamentous outgrowth from the scalp. The hair of the head is the external bloom of the kidney and is the surplus of the blood. Elementary Questions ( wèn) states `` When kidney qi is replete, the hair grows and the teeth change'' `` When kidney qi is debilitated, the hair falls and the teeth desiccate.'' Diseases of the hair include dry hair; graying of the hair; hair loss.

hair loss

 luò

Falling out of the hair. The hair of the head is the external bloom of the kidney and is the surplus of the blood. Hair loss is attributed to kidney vacuity or blood vacuity depriving the hair of nourishment. It commonly is commonly the result of illness, childbirth, or malnutrition. The hair becomes sparse and sheenless, and may lighten in color (turning yellowish brown in Chinese people). In severe cases, the loss of hair may be complete.

Medication:  Enrich the kidney and nourish the blood using Four Agents Decoction (  täng), Six-Ingredient Rehmannia Pill (lìu wèi  huáng wán), or Flowery Knotweed Life-Extending Elixir (shôu  yán shòu dän).

hair needling

máo 

One of the nine needling methods; shallow needling of the skin with a short fine filiform needle.

hair of the head is the surplus of the blood

 wéi xuè zhï 

The hair is related to liver blood. The ancient Chinese observed that (Chinese) hair is black and bears a sheen when qi and blood are exuberant in youth, and loses its color and sheen with increasing kidney qi vacuity of advancing years, for which reason it is said that the kidney, its bloom is in the hair of the head. Since ``the liver and kidney are of the same source,'' and ``the liver stores the blood,'' the health of the hair is understood to be related not only to the kidney but also to the liver. The skin and body hair are governed by the lung.

half-body numbness

bàn shën  

Numbness of half of the body, either the left or right side or upper or lower part. is due to vacuity of the blood in qi.

Medication:  Spleen-Returning Decoction (guï  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points and CV. Select BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) ; needle with supplementation. is due to vacuity of the qi in blood.

Medication:  Use Astragalus Center-Fortifying Decoction (huáng  jiàn zhöng täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points and CV. Select BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , BL-43 (gäo huäng shü, Gao-Huang Transport) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-3 (tài bái, Supreme White) , LU-9 (tài yuän, Great Abyss) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa. is caused by clear yang failing to bear upward, and is treated with Center-Supplementing Qi-Boosting Decoction ( zhöng   täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GV and CV. Select GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa. is caused by stomach damp phlegm and dead blood obstruction.

Medication:  Use Four Agents Decoction (  täng) plus Ginseng Radix (rén shën), Cyathulae Radix (chuän níu ), and Coicis Semen (  rén).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV, ST, SP, and LR. Select CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage. For selection of points according to specific affected areas, see hemiplegia.

half exterior half interior pattern

bàn biâo bàn  zhèng

midstage pattern.

hall of impression

yìn táng

The region between the eyebrows.

Western Medical Concept:  glabella* glabella.

Han

hàn

Name of a dynasty (206 -- 220).

hand greater yang small intestine channel

shôu tài yáng xiâo châng jïng

SI. One of the twelve channels; the channel that homes to the small intestine, nets the heart, and links with the stomach and nose, and whose external pathway runs from the end of the little finger up the posterior extensor aspect of the upper limb, over the should blade, up the neck, over the face, to terminate in the ear. The small intestine channel starts on the outside edge of the little finger tip and travels along the ulnar side of the hand to the wrist, emerging at the ulnar styloid process. Continuing up the posterior aspect of the ulna, it passes between the olecranon of the ulna and the medial epicondyle of the humerus on the medial side of the elbow. It then runs up the posteromedial side of the upper arm, emerging behind the shoulder joint and circling around the superior and inferior fossae of the scapula. At the top of the shoulder, it intersects the foot greater yang bladder channel at BL-36 (chéng , Support) and BL-11 ( zhù, Great Shuttle) , connecting with the governing vessel at GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) before turning downward into the supraclavicular fossa. Here it submerges at ST-12 (quë pén, Empty Basin) , nets the the heart, and follows the esophagus down through the diaphragm to the stomach. It then intersects with the controlling vessel internally at CV-13 (shàng wân, Upper Stomach Duct) and CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) before homing to the small intestine. A branch separates from the channel at ST-12 (quë pén, Empty Basin) and runs up the neck to the cheek. The channel then travels to the outer canthus of the eye where it meets the foot lesser yang gallbladder channel at GB-1 (tóng  liáo, Pupil Bone-Hole) , and then turns back across the temple to enter the ear at SI-1 (shào , Lesser Marsh) . Another branch breaks off from the former branch on the mandible, rises to the infraorbital region, and continues to the inner canthus where it meets the foot greater yang bladder channel at BL-1, then crosses horizontally to the zygomatic region. The Magic Pivot (líng shü) claims that another branch descends internally from the small intestine to emerge at SI-9, the lower uniting point of the small intestine. Signs associated with the external course of the channel are: erosion of the glossal and oral mucosa, pain in the cheeks, sore pharynx, tearing, stiffness of the neck, pain on the lateral aspect of the shoulder and upper arm. Signs associated with the internal course of the channel are: lower abdominal pain and distention with the pain stretching around to the lumbus; lower abdominal pain radiating into the testicles; diarrhea; stomach pain with dry feces, and constipation.

hand greater yin lung channel

shôu tài yïn fèi jïng

LU. One of the twelve channels; the channel that homes to the lung, nets the large intestine, links with the stomach and throat, and whole external pathways runs from the superorlateral aspect of the chest down the anterior flexor aspect of the upper limb, to the end of the the thumb. The lung channel starts in the region of the stomach in the center burner and descends to connect with the large intestine. It then returns upward through the cardiac orifice, passes through the diaphragm, and homes to the lung. Continuing its ascendant path, it passes through the respiratory tract into the throat, then veers downward, following the clavicle to enter the axilla. From here, the channel runs down the anterior aspect of the upper arm, lateral to the heart and pericardium channels, traverses the cubital fossa, and continues along the anterior aspect of the forearm to the radial styloid process of the wrist. It crosses the radial pulse, traverses the thenar eminence, and travels along the radial side of the thumb to its tip. A branch leaves the main pathway proximal to the wrist, passes round to the dorsum of the hand, and then runs down the inside of the index finger to its tip. Signs associated with the external course of the channel are: heat~effusion and aversion to cold (with or without sweating), nasal congestion, headache, pain in the supraclavicular fossa, chest, shoulders, and back, and cold pain along the channel on the arm. Signs associated with the internal course of the channel are: cough, wheezing and panting, rapid breathing, fullness and oppression in the chest, expectoration of phlegm-drool, dry throat, change in urine color, heart vexation, spitting of blood, and heat in the palms. Other possible signs include fullness and distention in the abdomen and sloppy stool diarrhea.

hand lesser yang triple burner channel

shôu shào yáng sän jiäo jïng

TB. One of the twelve channels; the channel that homes to the triple burner, nets the pericardiac network, and links with the ear and eye, and whose external pathway starts at the end of the ring finger, ascends the medial line of the extensor aspect line of the upper limb, across the shoulder, up the side of the neck, across the region of the ear to the eye. The triple burner channel starts at the ulnar side of the tip of the fourth finger and travels up between the fourth and fifth metacarpal bones on the dorsum of the hand to the outside of the wrist. Proceeding up the posterior midline of the forearm between the radius and the ulna, it runs over the olecranon process of the elbow, and then travels up the posterior midline of the upper arm to the shoulder. Here, the channel meets the hand greater yang small intestine channel at SI-12 (bîng fëng, Grasping the Wind) and then runs over to the back to meet the governing vessel at GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) . It crosses back over the shoulder to intersect the foot lesser yang gallbladder channel at GB-21 (jiän jîng, Shoulder Well) before running into the supraclavicular fossa, penetrating internally at ST-12 (quë pén, Empty Basin) and traveling into the mid-chest region to meet the controlling vessel at CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) , where it links with the pericardium. It then descends internally, homing through each of the three burners successively. A branch breaks off from the mid-chest region at CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) , rises to emerge in the supraclavicular fossa, then runs up the neck and behind the ear to intersect with the foot lesser yang gallbladder channel at GB-6 (xuán , Suspended Tuft) and GB-14 (yáng bái, Yang White) on the forehead, before winding down around the cheek to return to the infraorbital region where it meets the hand greater yang small intestine channel at SI-18 (quán liáo, Cheek Bone-Hole) . Another branch separates behind the ear, enters the ear to reemerge in front of it, and intersects with the hand greater yang small intestine channel at SI-19 (tïng göng, Auditory Palace) . It then crosses in front of the foot lesser yang gallbladder channel at GB-3 (shàng guän, Upper Gate) and runs along the zygoma to terminate at the outer canthus at TB-23 ( zhú köng, Silk Bamboo Hole) . The Magic Pivot (líng shü) adds that an internal branch descends from the triple burner to emerge at its lower uniting point, BL-53 (bäo huäng, Bladder Huang) . Signs associated with the external course of the channel are: sore throat, pain in the cheeks, red eyes and pain, deafness; pain behind the ears and on the posterior aspect of the shoulder and upper arm. Signs associated with the internal course of the channel are: abdominal distention and fullness, or hardness and fullness in the lower abdomen; urinary frequency and distress, vacuity edema of the skin, water swelling, and enuresis.

hand lesser yin heart channel

shôu shào yïn xïn jïng

HT. One of the twelve channels; the channel that homes to the heart, nets the small intestine, and links with the throat and eyes, and whose external pathway runs from the the armpit, down the posterior flexor aspect of the upper limb, to the end of the little finger. The heart channel starts in the heart, and emerges through the blood vessels surrounding this organ. Traveling downward, it passes through the diaphragm to connect to the small intestine. Another branch separates from the heart, traveling upward along the side of the esophagus to meet the tissues surrounding the eye. A further channel separates from the heart and travels directly up into the lung, and then veers downward to emerge below the axilla. It travels down the medial aspect of the upper arm, medial to the hand greater yin lung and hand reverting yin pericardium channels, and passes over the antecubital fossa. It continues down the anteromedial margin of the forearm to the capitate bone on the wrist, traveling along the radial side of the fifth metacarpal bone to terminate at the tip of the little finger. Signs associated with the external course of the channel are: effusion generalized heat~, headache, eye pain, pain in the chest and back muscles, dry throat, thirst with the urge to drink, and hot or painful palms; reversal coldof the limbs; or pain in the scapular region and/or the medial aspect of the forearm. Signs associated with the internal course of the channel are: heart pain, fullness and pain in the chest and rib-side, pain in the hypochondriac region; heart vexation; rapid breathing, discomfort in lying posture, dizziness with fainting spells; and mental diseases.

hand reverting yin pericardium channel

shôu jué yïn xïn bäo jïng

PC. One of the twelve channels; the channel that homes to the pericardiac network, nets the triple burner, and links with the diaphragm, and whose external pathway starts on the lateral aspect of the chest, runs through the armpit, down the midline of the extensor aspect of the upper limb, to the tip of the middle finger. The foot reverting yin pericardium channel starts in the chest, where it homes to the pericardium. Descending through the diaphragm into the abdomen, it connects successively to the upper, middle, and lower burners. A branch runs out horizontally from the center of the chest, emerges at the rib-side three body-inches below the anterior axillary fold, and then skirts around the axilla to the upper arm. The channel runs down the midline of the ventral aspect of u Prof Ha} the upper arm between the hand greater yin lung channel and the hand lesser yin heart channel, crosses the center of the cubital fossa and then proceeds down the forearm between the tendons of the palmaris longus and flexor carpi radialis muscles. It travels through the palm and along the ulnar aspect of the middle finger until it reaches the tip. Another branch separates in the palm and proceeds along the lateral aspect of the fourth finger to its tip. Signs associated with the external course of the channel are: stiffness of the neck, spasm in the limbs, red facial complexion, pain in the eyes, subaxillary swelling, hypertonicity of the elbow and arm inhibiting movement, and hot palms. Signs associated with the internal course of the channel are: delirious speech, clouding reversal, heart vexation, fullness and oppression in the chest and rib-side, heart palpitations, heart pain, constant laughing.

hand standard

  

From A Thousand Gold Pieces Prescriptions (qiän jïn yào fäng) The breadth of the hand at the creases of the middle joints when the fingers rest together, taken as a standard for calculating three body-inches. See body-inch.

hand yang brightness large intestine channel

shôu yáng míng  cháng jïng <

hand yang brightness> LI. One of the twelve channels. The hand yang brightness large intestine channel begins at the radial side of the tip of the index finger and proceeds upward between the first and second metacarpal bones of the hand and between the tendons of the extensor pollicis longus and brevis muscles at the wrist. It continues along the radial margin of the forearm to the radial margin of the lateral aspect of the elbow, then up the lateral aspect of the upper arm and over the shoulder joint. After intersecting the hand greater yang channel at SI-12 (bîng fëng, Grasping the Wind) , the channel rises to just below the spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra, and intersects with the governing vessel at GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) , where all six yang regular channels meet. It then travels straight into the supraclavicular fossa to ST-12, from where it connects through to the lung, passes through the diaphragm, and homes to the large intestine. A branch separates from the main channel at ST-12 (quë pén, Empty Basin) in the supraclavicular fossa, passes up the neck, and traverses the cheek before entering the lower gum. From here it skirts around the lips, passes the foot yang brightness channel at ST-4 ( cäng, Earth Granary) , and then meets the same channel coming from the other side of the body at the philtrum. It then continues around the nostril of the opposite side to terminate at the side of the nose. In other words, right and left channels cross over at the philtrum and run for the last short stretch on the opposite side of the body from which they originated. The Magic Pivot (líng shü) describes yet another branch that separates from the main channel at ST-12 (quë pén, Empty Basin) , descends past ST-13 ( , Qi Door) and penetrates the lung, passes through the diaphragm, homes to the large intestine, and descends to the lower limb to emerge at ST-37 (shàng  , Upper Great Hollow) , which is the lower uniting point of the large intestine. Signs associated with the external course of the channel are: heat~effusion, parched dry mouth and thirst, sore throat, nosebleed, toothache, red sore eyes, swelling of the neck, palpable red swelling and inhibited bending and stretching of the fingers. There may also be pain, sensation of cold, or painful and palpably hot, red swelling in the region of the shoulder and upper arm. Signs associated with the internal course of the channel are: lower abdominal pain, wandering abdominal pain, rumbling intestines, sloppy stool, and excretion of thick, slimy yellow matter. There may also be rapid panting respiration.

harass

râo

Trouble, worry, torment (as by phlegm and phlegm fire). ``Harass'' occurs in the terms phlegm-fire harassing the heart and phlegm turbidity harassing the upper body. See exuberance and debilitation.

hard glomus below the heart

xïn xià  yìng

Blockage and fullness below the heart (i.e., the pit of the stomach) with palpable hardness. Hard glomus between the stomach arises when evil heat causes obstruction in the stomach duct.

Western Medical Concept:  gastroenteritis*!acute Hard glomus below the heart is commonly observed in acute gastroenteritis with indigestion. See glomus.

hard glomus in the chest

xiöng zhöng  yìng

From On Cold Damage (shäng hán lùn) Hard fullness and sense of blockage in the chest. Hard glomus in the chest is attributable to phlegm-drool obstructing the diaphragm and cold evil congesting the upper body. If there are signs of qi surging up into the throat and labored breathing, it can be treated by ejection with Melon Stalk Powder (guä  sân) according to the principle of ``what is high is brought up.'' See glomus. ETERM??WHAT IS HIGH IS BROUGHT UP.}

hardness

jiän

Any hard swelling or mass, treated by the method of softening.

hard tetany

gäng jìng gang=

1 ci=4 A tetany pattern characterized by heat~effusion, absence of sweating, aversion to cold, rigidity of the neck, shaking heat, clenched jaw, and hypertonicity or convulsions of the extremities (in severe cases, arched-back rigidity), and a tight stringlike pulse.

Medication:  Use Duhuo and Pueraria Decoction ( huó  gën täng). Compare soft tetany; yang tetany.

harelip

 chún

A congenitally cleft lip. Surgical treatment of this deformity was recorded in the Jin dynasty ( 265--420).

harmonious flow of qi and blood

 xuè chöng 

Coordinated action and free movement of qi and the blood. Qi and blood are mutually dependent. Qi relies on the blood for nourishment, and the blood relies on qi for propulsion. Hence, it is traditionally said that qi is the commander of the blood and blood is the mother of qi. Harmonious flow of qi and blood is the maintenance of balance and harmony in this relationship.

harmonization

 

One of the eight methods. A method of adjusting functions within the human body, that is used when an evil is at midstage penetration or there is disharmony between qi and blood or between the organs, and such methods as sweating (diaphoresis), ejection, precipitation, warming, clearing, dispersion, and supplementation cannot be applied. The main forms of harmonization are listed below.

Harmonization

harmonize

To coordinate one element of the body with the rest of the body, e.g., harmonizing the stomach and harmonizing the liver, or coordinate two elements of the body, e.g., harmonizing the liver and stomach; harmonizing the liver and spleen; harmonizing the spleen and stomach; harmonizing the stomach and intestines; harmonizing the exterior and interior (usually called harmonizing lesser yang); harmonizing construction and defense. All of these fall within the range of harmonization, with the exception of harmonizing construction and defense, which falls in the category of exterior resolution. See harmonization.

harmonizing construction and defense

tiáo  yíng wèi

A method of treatment used to address construction-defense disharmony characterized by heat~effusion, sweating, aversion to cold, noise in the nose, dry retching, and a weak floating pulse.

Medication:  The major formula for harmonizing construction-defense disharmony is Cinnamon Twig Decoction (guì zhï täng), in which Cinnamomi Ramulus (guì zhï) resolves the flesh and dispels wind, whereas Paeoniae Radix (sháo yào) constrains yin, thereby bringing construction into harmony.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GB, BL, SI, and ST. Needle with drainage at GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , GV-16 (fëng , Wind Mansion) , GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) , and BL-64 (jïng , Capital Bone) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage at BL-62 (shën mài, Extending Vessel) , SI-3 (hòu , Back Ravine) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) . See construction-defense disharmony.

harmonizing lesser yang

 jiê shào yáng

Synonym:  harmonizing the exterior and interior ;

Synonym:  harmonizing midstage patterns .

A method of treatment used to resolve the exterior and harmonize the interior to treat lesser yang midstage patterns in externally contracted heat (febrile) diseases, which are characterized by effusion alternating heat~ and aversion to cold, oppression and fullness in the chest and rib-side region, bitter taste in the mouth and dry pharynx, and nausea and vomiting.

Medication:  The main medicinals used to harmonize lesser yang are Bupleuri Radix (chái ) or Artemisiae Apiaceae seu Annuae Herba (qïng häo), which outthrust exterior evils, combined with Scutellariae Radix (huáng qín), which clears interior heat. These are further combined with center-harmonizing medicinals such as Pinelliae Tuber (bàn xià), Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens (shëng jiäng), Glycyrrhizae Radix (gän câo), and Ziziphi Fructus ( zâo). Vacuity of right qi may justify the judicious addition of medicinals such as Codonopsitis Radix (dâng shën). Minor Bupleurum Decoction (xiâo chái  täng), which in modern clinical practice is usually prescribed without Ginseng Radix (rén shën), Glycyrrhizae Radix (gän câo), and Ziziphi Fructus ( zâo), is the standard decoction for clearing lesser yang liver-gallbladder heat. Midstage patterns involving abdominal pain and distention and other yang brightness bowel repletion signs may be treated with Major Bupleurum Decoction ( chái  täng) or other formulas that contain draining precipitants such as Rhei Rhizoma ( huáng), Mirabilitum (máng xiäo), and Aurantii Fructus Immaturus (zhî shí).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GB, TB, LR, and PC. Select GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , TB-5 (wài guän, Outer Pass) , TB-4 (yáng chí, Yang Pool) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , GB-40 (qïu , Hill Ruins) , and LR-5 ( göu, Woodworm Canal) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage.

harmonizing midstage patterns

 jiê bàn biâo bàn 

harmonizing lesser yang.

harmonizing the blood and extinguishing wind

 xuè  fëng <

harmonizing the blood> A method of treatment used to treat liver wind stirring internally in patients with blood vacuity from damage to yin-blood in febrile disease characterized by parched lips and dry tongue, hypertonicity of the sinews, wriggling of the extremities, dizziness, and a rapid fine pulse.

Medication:  Commonly used blood-harmonizing wind-extinguishing medicinals include Asini Corii Gelatinum (ë jiäo), Rehmanniae Radix Exsiccata seu Recens (shëng  huáng), Paeoniae Radix Alba Cruda (shëng bái sháo yào), Galli Vitellus (  huáng), Ostreae Concha Cruda (shëng  ), mix-fried Glycyrrhizae Radix (gän câo), Poria cum Pini Radice ( shén), and Trachelospermi Caulis (luò shí téng). See extinguishing wind.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, and points of the three yin channels of the foot and GB. Needle with supplementation at BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , and LR-8 ( quán, Spring at the Bend) , and with drainage at GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , and KI-1 (yông quán, Gushing Spring) . See extinguishing wind.

harmonizing the center

 zhöng

harmonizing the stomach.

harmonizing the exterior and interior

 jiê biâo 

harmonizing lesser yang.

harmonizing the liver

 gän

Synonym:  enriching yin and coursing the liver .

A method of treatment used to free the movement of liver qi using yin-enriching and liver-coursing medicinals in the treatment of liver-kidney yin vacuity with qi stagnation characterized by scurrying pain in the chest and rib-side, abdominal distention, no fluid on the tongue, dry throat, thin weak or vacuous stringlike pulse.

Medication:  A representative liver-harmonizing formula is All-the-Way-Through Brew ( guàn jiän), comprising Glehniae Radix (bêi shä shën), Ophiopogonis Tuber (mài mén döng), Angelicae Sinensis Radicis Corpus (däng guï shën), Rehmanniae Radix Exsiccata (gän  huáng), Lycii Fructus (gôu  ), and Toosendan Fructus (chuän liàn ), adding Coptidis Rhizoma (huáng lián) stir-fried in wine for dry mouth and bitter taste in the mouth.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, KI, and LR. Select BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) ; needle with supplementation.

harmonizing the liver and spleen

tiáo  gän 

Synonym:  liver-

spleen harmonization .

A method of treatment used to address liver-spleen disharmony attributed to liver qi depression and impaired spleen movement and transformation and marked by such as abdominal distention, abdominal pain, rumbling intestines, and diarrhea, which occur in episodes association with emotional depression.

Medication:  Liver-coursing medicinals such as Bupleuri Radix (chái ) and Paeoniae Radix Alba (bái sháo yào) are combined with spleen-fortifying medicinals such as Atractylodis Ovatae Rhizoma (bái zhú), Poria ( líng), and Citri Exocarpium (chén ). Formulas include Pain and Diarrhea Formula (tòng xiè yào fäng) and Free Wanderer Powder (xiäo yáo sân).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, SP, and ST. Needle with supplementation at BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , LR-13 (zhäng mén, Camphorwood Gate) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-3 (tài bái, Supreme White) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and with drainage or with even supplementation and drainage at BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , LR-14 ( mén, Cycle Gate) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , and GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) .

harmonizing the liver and stomach

tiáo  gän wèi

A method of treatment used to address disharmony between the liver and stomach from impaired liver free coursing and stomach qi downbearing, characterized by the classic liver sign of distending pain in the chest and rib-side, and by stomach signs such as pain, fullness, and distention in the stomach duct, poor appetite, belching, vomiting of sour matter, or retching and nausea.

Medication:  Liver-coursing medicinals such as Evodiae Fructus ( zhü ) and Perillae Folium, Caulis et Calyx ( ) are used in combination with stomach-harmonizing medicinals such as Pinelliae Tuber (bàn xià) or Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens (shëng jiäng), or with stomach heat-clearing medicinals such as Coptidis Rhizoma (huáng lián) and Bambusae Caulis in Taeniam (zhú ). The emphasis may be variously placed on coursing the liver, harmonizing the stomach, or clearing the stomach, depending on the nature of the pattern. Four-Seven Decoction (  täng) is prescribed for conditions with prominent depression of liver qi, whereas Left-Restoring Kidney Yin Pill (zuô guï wán) are used to treat patterns in which impaired harmonious downflow of stomach qi is prominent.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on ST, LR, and PC. Needle with supplementation at BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and with drainage or with even supplementation and drainage at BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , LR-14 ( mén, Cycle Gate) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , and GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) .

harmonizing the spleen and stomach

tiáo   wèi

fortifying the spleen and harmonizing the stomach.

harmonizing the stomach

 wèi

Synonym:  harmonizing the center .

A method of treatment used to address stomach qi disharmony characterized by distention and oppression in the stomach duct, belching, vomiting of sour fluid, and pale tongue with white fur.

Medication:  Stomach-harmonizing medicinals include Citri Exocarpium (chén ), Pinelliae Tuber cum Zingibere Praeparatum (jiäng bàn xià), Saussureae (seu Vladimiriae) Radix ( xiäng), and Amomi Semen seu Fructus (shä rén). Use formulas such as Stomach-Calming Powder (píng wèi sân).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on ST and PC. Select ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , and CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) . Needle with even supplementation and drainage.

harmonizing the stomach and checking vomiting

 wèi zhî ôu <

harmonizing the stomach> See checking vomiting; harmonizing the stomach.

harmonizing the stomach and downbearing qi

 wèi jiàng  <

harmonizing the stomach> See harmonizing the stomach.

harmonizing the stomach and intestines

tiáo  cháng wèi <

harmonizing the stomach> A method of treatment used to address gastrointestinal disharmony with disrupted upbearing and downbearing and cold-heat complexes presenting with glomus and fullness below the heart, vomiting, rumbling intestines, and diarrhea.

Medication:  Cold bitter medicinals such as Coptidis Rhizoma (huáng lián) and Scutellariae Radix (huáng qín) are used with warm acrid medicinals such as Zingiberis Rhizoma Exsiccatum (gän jiäng) and Pinelliae Tuber (bàn xià). The cold bitter medicinals drain heat, while the acrid medicinals dissipate glomus, and together have the effect of harmonizing the center burner and restoring normal upbearing and downbearing. A representative formula for harmonizing the stomach and intestines is Pinellia Heart-Draining Decoction (bàn xià xiè xïn täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on CV and ST. Select CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) . Needle with even supplementation and drainage.

harmonizing the stomach and rectifying qi

 wèi   <

harmonizing the stomach>

Synonym:  rectifying qi and harmonizing the stomach .

A method of treatment used to address qi and phlegm-damp stagnating in the stomach duct, characterized by distention and oppression in the stomach duct, swallowing of upflowing acid, vomiting of sour fluid, and belching.

Medication:  Commonly used stomach-harmonizing qi-rectifying medicinals include Aurantii Fructus Immaturus (zhî shí), Citri Exocarpium (chén ), Pinelliae Tuber cum Zingibere Praeparatum (jiäng bàn xià), Bambusae Caulis in Taeniam (zhú ), and Arcae Concha Calcinata (duàn  léng ).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on ST, PC, CV, and SP. Main points: ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , and ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage. For qi stagnation, drain CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) and LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) . For phlegm evil, add CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) , and LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , adding moxa. For dampness evil, add SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) and LI-4 ( , Union Valley) and moxa.

harmonizing the stomach and resolving liquor

 wèi jiê chéng <

harmonizing the stomach> harmonizing the stomach and restoring soberness.

harmonizing the stomach and restoring soberness

 wèi xîng jîu <

harmonizing the stomach> A method of treatment used to dispel the effects of liquor and relieve the nausea, vomiting, and retching that it causes.

Medication:  A representative stomach-harmonizing soberness-restoring formula is Pueraria Flower Liquor-Resolving Decoction ( huä jiê chéng täng).

harmonizing the stomach and transforming phlegm

 wèi huà tán <

harmonizing the stomach> A method of treatment used to address cough with copious phlegm, oppression in the chest, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, insomnia, and heart palpitations.

Medication:  Use phlegm-transforming medicinals such as Pinelliae Tuber (bàn xià), Citri Exocarpium (chén ), and Poria ( líng). Damp turbidity harassing the upper body, characterized by dizziness and headache, is treated with Atractylodis Ovatae Rhizoma (bái zhú) and Gastrodiae Rhizoma (tiän ). When manifesting as insomnia and heart palpitations, Aurantii Fructus Immaturus (zhî shí) and Bambusae Caulis in Taeniam (zhú ) are often added. A representative formula is Two Matured Ingredients Decoction (èr chén täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LU, ST, CV, and back transport points. Select BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , LU-9 (tài yuän, Great Abyss) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) and ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) . Needle with even supplementation and drainage. See drying dampness and transforming phlegm.

harmony of mouth

kôu zhöng 

A normal taste in the mouth and absence of dryness and thirst or sliminess. Harmony of mouth is observed in healthy individuals, and in patients suffering from mild disease. See taste in the mouth.

hasty breathing

 

Rapid breathing with short breaths. See shortness of breath; panting.

hasty panting

chuân 

See panting.

hauling the boat upstream

 líu wân zhöu

A method of treatment used to address dysentery due to externally contracted evil complicated by dampness, which, in addition to the main signs of dysentery (tenesmus and the passing of blood and stool), is marked by exterior signs such as aversion to cold, heat~effusion, headache, generalized pain, and absence of sweating. The method of hauling the boat upstream is so named because it treats conditions of inward fall from the exterior by bringing the evil back out of the interior like hauling a boat upstream.

Medication:  Use Ginseng Toxin-Vanquishing Powder (rén shën bài  sân). This formula courses the exterior and eliminates dampness. It combines a dissipating action with a freeing action so that it resolves the exterior and eliminates the interior stagnation. This formula is very dry and acrid, and should only be used when the classic signs present.

head

tóu

The uppermost part of the body that contains the brain, and houses the five offices (nose, eyes, lips, tongue, and ears), which partly overlap with the seven orifices, the two eyes, two ears, two nostrils, and the mouth. The head is the confluence of the yang channels and the dwelling place of bright essence. See face; facial complexion; ear; nose; mouth; hair; spirit; tongue; throat; teeth. Diseases affecting the head are listed under disease.

headache

tóu tòng

Pain in the head. The head is the confluence of yang, and the brain is the house of clear essence. Distinction is also made between medial headache and hemilateral headache, although the term headache usually refers to medial headache. The qi and blood of the five viscera and six bowels ascend to the head. Headache may be attributable to the six excesses or to internal damage, and arises by pathomechanisms such as obstruction of yang qi, lodging of turbid evil in the upper body, ascendant liver yang, and essence-marrow or qi-blood depletion, etc. The nature, severity, and duration of headaches are all important factors in diagnosis. New headaches (headaches of recent onset) often indicate external disease. Distinction is also made according to the exact location of the pain. The location of the headache can show which channel is affected, and hence which channel should be treated.

Greater yang tai4 yang2 headache:  (tài yáng tóu tòng) Pain reaches from the head down the neck and back.

Yang brightness yang2 ming2 headache:  (yáng míng tóu tòng) Pain in the anterior forehead, sometimes stretching down to the eyebrow bone (superciliary arch).

Lesser yang shao4 yang2 headache:  (shào yáng tóu tòng) Pain on the sides of the head or in the temporal region.

Greater yin tai4 yin1 headache:  (tài yïn tóu tòng) Pain and heaviness in the head accompanied by abdominal fullness and spontaneous sweating.

Lesser yin shao4 yin1 headache:  (shào yïn tóu tòng) Pain stretching into the teeth and deep into the brain.

Reverting yin jue2 yin1 headache:  (jué yïn tóu tòng) Pain at the vertex stretching to the corners of the forehead, accompanied by a subjective feeling of counterflow qi ascent with retching in severe cases.

Headache

Acupuncture:  Select points given under individual types and add the following points according to the location of pain. For frontal headache, add GV-23 (shàng xïng, Upper Star) , GB-14 (yáng bái, Yang White) , and ST-41 (jiê , Ravine Divide) . For hemilateral headache, add , GB-8 (shuài , Valley Lead) , and TB-5 (wài guän, Outer Pass) . For posterior headache, add BL-10 (tiän zhù, Celestial Pillar) , BL-9 ( zhên, Jade Pillow) , and BL-65 (shù , Bundle Bone) . For vertex headache, add GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , , and LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) . For eyebrow pain, add BL-2 (zân zhú, Bamboo Gathering) . and .

headache and stiff painful nape

tóu xiàng qiáng tòng

A condition usually caused by obstruction of the channels by an externally contracted evils (the six excesses), usually forming exterior patterns. Occurring in enduring disease, it is a sign of wind-damp impediment .

Medication:  Treat exterior patterns by effusing and dissipating exterior resolution. Treat wind-damp impediment by dispelling wind-damp and freeing the channels and network vessels.

Acupuncture:  Select GV-16 (fëng , Wind Mansion) , GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LU-7 (liè quë, Broken Sequence) , and ST-8 (tóu wéi, Head Corner) . Needle with drainage.

headache with pulling sensation

tóu tòng  chè

Synonym:  iron-

band headache .

characterized by pressure or tension as though the head were squeezed by a tight iron band. Headache with pulling sensation is observed in liver wind stirring internally.

headed flat-abscess

yôu tóu 

Synonym:  flat-

abscess .

A yang-type sore on the surface of the body. A headed flat-abscess is characterized in the initial stage by single or multiple white sores the size of millet seeds. Headed flat-abscesses may be named according to its location, e.g., effusion of the brain or effusion of the back. They are caused by external contraction of wind-damp fire toxin, or damp-heat fire toxin brewing in the interior causing accumulation of heat in the viscera, construction-defense disharmony, and evil causing blockage in the flesh and skin. Distinction is made between vacuity and repletion. Repletion patterns are characterized by local redness and heat, a large swelling with one or several white heads, pain that in severe cases is acute, generalized heat~effusion, thirst, constipation, reddish urine, a surging rapid pulse, and a red tongue with yellow fur.

Medication:  Clear heat and course wind; resolve toxin and quicken the blood. Immortal Formula Life-Giving Beverage (xiän fäng huó mìng yîn) or Coptis Toxin-Resolving Decoction (huáng lián jiê  täng) can be taken as oral medication; Golden Yellow Powder (jïn huáng sân) can be applied topically. If, after bursting, the putrid flesh does not disappear, Five-to-Five Elixir (  dän) can be used. If, after elimination of the putrid flesh, a bright red wound is left, Flesh-Engendering Powder (shëng  sân) or Flesh-Engendering Jade and Red Paste (shëng   hóng gäo) can be prescribed. The sore is flat with a diffuse root, dark and dull in color, only mildly painful at onset; it is slow to suppurate and exudes clear thin pus, and is associated with lassitude of spirit and reduced food intake, lusterless complexion, a forceless rapid pulse, and crimson or pale tongue.

Medication:  Treatment differs depending on whether yin vacuity or dual vacuity of qi and blood is more pronounced. For yin vacuity, use Bamboo Leaf and Astragalus Decoction (zhú  huáng  täng) from The Golden Mirror of Medicine ( zöng jïn jiàn) which consists of Ginseng Radix (rén shën), Astragali (seu Hedysari) Radix Cruda (shëng huáng ), Gypsum (shí gäo), Pinelliae Tuber (bàn xià), Ophiopogonis Tuber (mài mén döng), Paeoniae Radix Alba (bái sháo yào), Glycyrrhizae Radix (gän câo), Ligustici Rhizoma (chuän xiöng), Angelicae Sinensis Radix (däng guï), Scutellariae Radix (huáng qín), Rehmanniae Radix Exsiccata seu Recens (shëng  huáng), and Pleioblasti Folium ( zhú ). For qi-blood vacuity, use Internal Expression Toxin-Dispersing Powder (tuö  xiäo  sân). If a headed flat-abscess is not treated or is mistreated, the toxic evil may fall inward to form a fall pattern.

head fire cinnabar

bào tóu huô dän

Cinnabar toxin affecting the head. See cinnabar toxin.

head heavy as if swathed

tóu zhòng  guô

Heavy-headedness characterized by a feeling of encumbrance, as though the head were swathed in cloth or bandages. See heavy-headedness.

headless flat-abscess

 tóu 

A yin sore growing between sinew and bone or deep in the flesh. A headless flat-abscesses are attributed to the inward fall of toxin, congealing cold and stagnant qi, and are characterized by diffuse swelling and dull skin coloring. They are persistent, take a long time to burst and a long time to heal, and can cause rotting of the sinew and flesh.

Medication:  Warm the channels and dissipate cold; quicken the blood and transform stasis. Take Harmonious Yang Decoction (yáng  täng), Awake to Dispersion Pill (xîng xiäo wán), or Minor Golden Elixir (xiâo jïn dän) orally and apply Harmonious Yang Decongealing Plaster (yáng  jiê níng gäo) topically. The headless flat-abscess includes bone flat-abscess and flowing phlegm. See also flat-abscess; sore.

head marrow

tóu suî

brain.

head wind

tóu fëng

Definition: 

Persistent remittent, usually intense headache attributed to wind-cold or wind-heat invasion and obstruction of the channels by phlegm or static blood. Head wind may be accompanied by various other signs such as eye pain and loss of vision, runny nose, nausea, or dizziness, numbness of the head, or stiffness of the neck.

Medication:  Treat mainly by dispelling wind and freeing the network vessels, adding cold-dispelling, fire-clearing, phlegm-transforming, and stasis-expelling action as needed. Formulas used include Wind-Dispersing Powder (xiäo fëng sân), Ligusticum and Asarum Phlegm-Abducting Decoction (xiöng xïn dâo tán täng) and House of Blood Stasis-Expelling Decoction (xuè  zhú  täng) and variations. Head wind on one side of the head is called hemilateral head wind, whereas head wind of the temples with pain penetrating into the brain is called brain-squeezing wind. Furthermore, phlegm reversal headache, kidney reversal headache, and damp-heat headache can also be considered as a head wind when they have persisted over prolonged periods.

Western Medical Concept:  glaucoma* migraine* headache*!vascular headache*!nervous rhinitis* sinusitis*!paranasal brain tumor* tumor*!brain Head wind is often observed in what modern medicine calls glaucoma, migraine, vascular headache, rhinitis, paranasal sinusitis, brain tumors, and nervous headache.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on points of the three yang channels, GV, and LU. Main points: GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LU-7 (liè quë, Broken Sequence) , and SI-3 (hòu , Back Ravine) . Selection of points according to causes: For wind-cold, add GV-16 (fëng , Wind Mansion) and TB-5 (wài guän, Outer Pass) , and needle with even supplementation and drainage and add moxa. For wind-heat, add GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) and LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , needling with even supplementation and drainage. For phlegm depression and blood stasis, add , ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , needling with drainage and, if appropriate, add moxa. Selection of points according to signs: For eye pain, add BL-2 (zân zhú, Bamboo Gathering) and GV-23 (shàng xïng, Upper Star) . For runny nose with malodorous snivel, add LI-20 (yíng xiäng, Welcome Fragrance) and GV-26 (shuî göu, Water Trough) . For nausea, add ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) and PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) . For tinnitus, add TB-17 ( fëng, Wind Screen) , TB-3 (zhöng zhû, Central Islet) , TB-21 (êr mén, Ear Gate) , and SI-19 (tïng göng, Auditory Palace) . For hemilateral head wind, add joining GB-8 (shuài , Valley Lead) . For brain-squeezing wind, add GV-22 (xìn huì, Fontanel Meeting) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and GV-23 (shàng xïng, Upper Star) . For selection of points according to affected area, see headache.

Definition:  Any condition characterized by the contraction of wind evil in the head and that causes headache, dizziness, deviated eyes and mouth, itching and scaling of the scalp, etc.

head-wind white scaling

tóu fëng bái xiè

white scaling wind.

hearing impairment

zhòng tïng

Poor hearing with incorrect perception of sounds. See deafness.

heart

xïn

Definition: 

HT. The organ located in the chest, and surrounded by the pericardium. The heart governs the blood and vessels, stores the spirit, and opens at the tongue. Its associated channel connects with the small intestine, which is its corresponding exterior organ. It belongs to fire in the five phases. The heart's principal functions are summed up in the phrases the heart governs the blood and vessels and the heart stores the spirit, i.e., the heart is responsible for moving the blood around the body and is the seat of consciousness and mental vitality. The importance of the heart and spirit is emphasized in The Magic Pivot (líng shü) where it states, ``The heart is governor of the five viscera and the six bowels, and is the abode of the spirit,'' and in Elementary Questions ( wèn) which states, ``heart holds the office of monarch, whence the spirit light emanates.'' The heart governs the tongue, (or the heart is the sprout of the tongue) i.e., some diseases are reflected in reddening of the tip of the tongue. The heart governs speech, i.e., clear speech is only possible when the heart spirit is unclouded. Finally, the heart governs sweat and heart, its bloom is in the face. For the main disease patterns of the heart, see heart disease.

Definition:  The heart region, i.e., the upper stomach duct (the upper part of the stomach and lower section of the esophagus).

heart accumulation

xïn 

deep-lying beam.

heart and kidney interact

xïn shèn xiäng jiäo

The heart and kidney balance and complement each other. The heart is in the upper burner, and belongs to fire. The kidney is in the lower burner and belongs to water. The yang in the heart descends to the kidney to warm and nourish kidney yang. The yin of the kidney ascends to the heart, and nourishes heart yin. Under normal circumstances, heart fire and kidney water interact in this way and maintain a balance. This is referred to as the heart and kidney interacting, or fire and water aiding each other. Kidney yin depletion or intense heart fire can upset this balance, causing signs such as heart vexation, fearful throbbing, and insomnia, a pattern referred to as noninteraction of the heart and kidney.

heart and small intestine stand in interior-exterior relationship

xïn  xiâo cháng xiäng biâo  <

heart and small intestine> See heart is connected with the small intestine.

heart blood

xïn xuè

See heart qi and heart blood.

heart blood vacuity

xïn xuè 

The manifestation of insufficiency of heart blood; a disease pattern characterized by disquieting of the heart spirit and yin-blood insufficiency. It may occur when fire forming as a result of excess among the five minds (emotions) damages yin, or when enduring illness causes damaging wear on yin-blood. Heart blood vacuity is often accompanied by signs of spleen vacuity, and the combined pattern is known as heart-spleen blood vacuity. The chief signs of heart blood vacuity are heart palpitations or fearful throbbing, insomnia, profuse dreaming, and forgetfulness. Other signs include dizziness, a lusterless withered-yellow or pale white complexion, pale lips, and night sweating. The tongue is pale white. The pulse is fine and weak or fine and rapid.

Analysis:  The heart stores the spirit and governs the blood and vessels. When heart blood is insufficient, it fails to nourish the heart, hence the heart palpitations or fearful throbbing. When blood fails to nourish the heart, the spirit does not keep to its abode, hence the insomnia and profuse dreaming. When blood fails to nourish the brain, there is dizziness and forgetfulness. When blood does not ascend to nourish to the face, lips, and tongue, there is a lusterless withered-yellow or pale white facial complexion, and pale lips and tongue. When heart blood is insufficient, the vessels are not full, and the pulse is fine and weak. Blood vacuity means that the whole body is improperly nourished. Through the body's self-regulating action, the heart can try to compensate for this by speeding up, hence the forceless fine rapid pulse. Blood failing to nourish the heart causes spirit qi to float astray, giving rise to night sweating.

Western Medical Concept:  nutritional disturbance* neurosis* tachycardia* arrhythmia* anemia* hyperthyroidism* nutritional disturbance, neurosis, tachycardia, arrhythmia, anemia, and hyperthyroidism.

Medication:  Nourish the blood and quiet the spirit. Use Four Agents Decoction (  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, HT, PC, and CV. Select BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , CV-14 ( què, Great Tower Gate) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , and PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) ; needle with supplementation and moxa.

heart blood vacuity sleeplessness

xïn xuè    

Internal damage sleeplessness resulting from wear on heart blood by excessive thinking. Heart blood vacuity insomnia is characterized by awakening with fright during the night and is associated with vexing heat in the five hearts, dry mouth and tongue, and rapid fine pulse.

Medication:  Use formulas such as Celestial Emperor Heart-Supplementing Elixir (tiän wáng  xïn dän).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on HT, back transport points, and the three yin channels of the foot. Select , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , and LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) . Needle with supplementation. See sleeplessness.

heart channel

xïn jïng

hand lesser yin heart channel.

heart channel cough

xïn jïng  sòu

heart cough.

heart construction

xïn yíng

heart yin. See excessive wearing of heart construction.

heart cough

xïn 

Synonym:  heart channel cough .

accompanied by pain in the heart, swollen throat.

Medication:  Use Platycodon Decoction (jié gêng täng) or Diaphragm-Cooling Powder (liáng  sân) minus Rhei Rhizoma ( huáng) and Mirabilitum (máng xiäo) and plus Coptidis Rhizoma (huáng lián) and Lophatheri Folium (dàn zhú ).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LU, PC, CV, and HT. Select BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) CV-14 ( què, Great Tower Gate) , LU-1 (zhöng , Central Treasury) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , and PC-8 (láo göng, Palace of Toil) ; needle with drainage, and prick LU-11 (shào shäng, Lesser Shang) and HT-8 (shào , Lesser Mansion) to bleed.

heart-covering bone

 xïn 

The bone that covers the heart (see heart), i.e., turtle-dove's tail (xiphoid process) or the breastbone (sternum) as a whole.

heart disease

xïn bìng

A disease of the heart. The main functions of the heart are to govern the blood and vessels and to govern the spirit; hence heart disease manifests primarily in signs such as heart palpitations or fearful throbbing, heart pain, oppression in the chest and shortness of breath on the one hand, and signs such as forgetfulness, abstraction (absence of mind), flusteredness, insomnia, and susceptibility to fright on the other. Heart disease patterns are listed below.

Heart disease patterns
Of these, the most important basic patterns are heart blood vacuity, heart yin vacuity, heart qi vacuity, heart yang vacuity, heart fire, and phlegm confounding the orifices of the heart.

Heart blood vacuity  (xïn xuè ) manifests general signs of heart disease such as heart palpitations or fearful throbbing, insomnia, and profuse dreaming, together with signs of blood vacuity including a lusterless white or withered-yellow facial complexion, pale lips, and a fine weak pulse.

Heart yin vacuity  (xïn yïn ) shares with heart blood vacuity the same general signs of heart disease (heart palpitations or fearful throbbing, insomnia, profuse dreaming), but is marked by yin vacuity signs such as vexing heat in the five hearts, tidal heat~effusion, night sweating, red tongue with scant fur, and a fine rapid pulse.

Heart qi vacuity  (xïn  ) in addition general heart signs heart palpitations or fearful throbbing, manifests in signs of insufficiency of heart qi such as oppression in the chest and shortness of breath exacerbated by exercise, together with general qi vacuity signs such as lassitude of spirit and lack of strength, a white face, and spontaneous sweating. In some cases, there may be pain in the chest.

Heart yang vacuity  (xïn yáng ) is like heart qi vacuity in that it manifests in heart palpitations or fearful throbbing, oppression in the chest and shortness of breath, as well as lassitude of spirit and lack of strength, but is marked by pronounced cold signs such as physical cold and cold limbs. In severe cases, critical heart yang vacuity gives way to desertion, manifesting in dripping sweat, reversal cold of the limbs, stupor, and faint pulse on the verge of expiration.

Heart fire  (xïn huô) includes principally two patterns: hyperactive heart fire characterized by heart vexation, or, in severe cases, manic agitation and delirious speech or incessant laughing, and heart fire flaming upward characterized by tongue sores.

Phlegm confounding the orifices of the heart  (tán  xïn qiào) occurs in several different diseases, and manifests in a)~mental depression and dementia (withdrawal disease); b)~clouded spirit-mind seeming both conscious and unconscious (damp warmth); c)~sudden clouding collapse, unconsciousness, phlegm-drool foaming at the mouth, and convulsions of the limbs (epilepsy).

Western Medical Concept:  cardiovascular disease* nervous disorders* cardiovascular diseases, nervous and mental disorders, and conditions involving erosion of the tip of the tongue.

heart dispersion

xiäo xïn

center dispersion.

heart distention

xïn zhàng

A condition attributable to insufficiency of heart yang or cold evil invading the heart, characterized by heart vexation, shortness of breath, and unquiet sleep.

Medication:  Heart distention can be treated with medicinals such as Succinum ( ), Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix (dän shën), Cinnabaris (zhü shä), Poria cum Pini Radice ( shén), Biotae Semen (bâi  rén), Aquilariae Lignum (chén xiäng), Citri Exocarpium Immaturum (qïng ), Curcumae Tuber ( jïn), Junci Medulla (dëng xïn câo), and Zingiberis Rhizomatis Cortex (jiäng ). If heart distention occurs in combination with distention disease, heart channel medicinals such as Coptidis Rhizoma (huáng lián) and Asiasari Herba cum Radice ( xïn) can be added to the formula addressing the distention.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points and CV. Select BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , CV-14 ( què, Great Tower Gate) , CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , and GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage and moxa.

heart fire

xïn huô

Definition: 

Synonym:  sovereign fire .

The heart as an active force.

Definition:  Pathological fire in the heart forming either vacuity or repletion patterns. See heart fire flaming upward; intense heart fire; hyperactive heart fire.

heart-fire

xïn huô

The heart viewed as belonging to fire in the doctrine of the five phases.

heart fire deflagrating internally

xïn huô nèi fén

intense internal heart fire.

heart fire flaming upward

xïn huô shàng yán

Synonym:  upflaming heart fire .

A vacuity or repletion pattern of the heart characterized by upper body signs. Signs mainly associated with heart fire flaming upward include reddening of the tip of the tongue, vexation, cracking of the tongue, and erosion of the oral and glossal mucosa. The pulse is rapid. Heart fire flaming upward is the result of hyperactive heart fire or heart yin vacuity. It may occur with liver fire in effulgent heart-liver fire, which is a repletion pattern, or with kidney yin vacuity in noninteraction between the heart and kidney, which is an effulgent yin vacuity fire pattern. Sometimes, heart fire may spread to the small intestine. Signs associated with effulgent heart-liver fire include headache, reddening of the eyes, agitation, and irascibility, in addition to the general signs of heart fire flaming upward. Noninteraction between the heart and kidney is characterized by vexation, insomnia, and occasionally by dryness of the pharynx and mouth, upbearing fire flush, a red, mirror tongue, and a fine, rapid pulse. Heart fire spreading to the small intestine is characterized by painful dribbling urination with reddish urine.

Medication:  Clear heat and drain fire. Use Coptidis Rhizoma (huáng lián), Nelumbinis Embryo (lián  xïn), Forsythiae Fructus (lián qiào), Glycyrrhizae Radix (gän câo), Glycyrrhizae Radix Cruda (shëng gän câo), Lophatheri Folium (dàn zhú ), Mutong Caulis ( töng), and Junci Medulla (dëng xïn câo). Formulas that treat heart fire flaming upward include variations of Heart-Draining Decoction (xiè xïn täng) combined with Red-Abducting Powder (dâo chì sân) to abduct heart fire downward. Noninteraction of the heart and kidney can be treated with Coptis and Ass Hide Glue Decoction (huáng lián ë jiäo täng) supplemented with medicinals that quiet heart and spirit. Where signs of effulgent heart-liver fire are pronounced, heart-clearing fire-draining can be used with the judicious addition of liver-clearing medicinals such as Moutan Radicis Cortex ( dän ), Gardeniae Fructus (shän zhï ), Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix (qín jiäo), and Mori Ramulus (säng zhï). Heat spreading from the heart to the small intestine can be treated with Red-Abducting Powder (dâo chì sân), which abducts the heat downward and out through the bowels.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on HT, PC, and GV. PC-8 (láo göng, Palace of Toil) , HT-8 (shào , Lesser Mansion) , PC-9 (zhöng chöng, Central Hub) , HT-9 (shào chöng, Lesser Surge) , and GV-26 (shuî göu, Water Trough) can all be used to treat heart fire flaming upward. Select two or three of these points and needle with drainage or prick to bleed with a three-edged needle. Selection of points according to concurrent patterns: For effulgent heart-liver fire, add LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , GB-43 (xiá , Pinched Ravine) , and GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , needling with drainage. For noninteraction of the heart and kidney, add BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , needling with supplementation. For heart fire spreading to the small intestine, add CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , ST-39 (xià  , Lower Great Hollow) , and SI-2 (qián , Front Valley) , needling with drainage. Compare exuberant heart fire; heart heat; stirring of the ministerial fire.

heart fire spreading heat to the small intestine

xïn huô    xiâo cháng <

heart spreading to SI> Effulgent heart fire affecting the small intestine's function of separating the clear and the turbid. The heart and small intestine stand in interior-exterior relationship to each other. When there is effulgent heart fire, the heart can pass on the heat to the small intestine, causing short voidings of reddish urine, burning pain on urination, or blood in the urine, urinary diseases often being associated with the small intestine (see small intestine). This pattern is the principal manifestation of the interior-exterior relationship between the heart and the small intestine (see heart connects with the small intestine).

Medication:  Use Red-Abducting Powder (dâo chì sân).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on HT, and its alarm and lower uniting points. Select PC-8 (láo göng, Palace of Toil) , HT-8 (shào , Lesser Mansion) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , ST-39 (xià  , Lower Great Hollow) , and SI-2 (qián , Front Valley) ; needle with drainage.

heart forms sweat

xïn wéi hàn

From Elementary Questions ( wèn) Sweat comes from the blood, which is ruled by the heart; hence it is said that the heart forms sweat. Same in meaning as sweat is the humor of the heart. See heart governs sweat.

heart-gallbladder vacuity timidity

xïn dân  qiè

heart vacuity and gallbladder timidity.

heart governs speech

xïn zhû yán

The heart spirit determines the clarity of speech. When heat enters the pericardium, the outer protection of the heart, one sign is delirious speech. See heart governs the tongue.

heart governs sweat

xïn zhû hàn `

`Sweat is the humor of the heart,'' i.e., it is one of the five humors (sweat, snivel, tears, drool, spittle) and is associated with the heart. In clinical practice, sweating is often observed in heart patterns, e.g., in heart yin vacuity with heart fire harassing the inner body, in heart yang vacuity with insecurity of defense yang, and in heart qi heat. Oily sweat is associated with debilitation of heart qi. Conversely, sweating can affect the heart, since excessive sweating can damage heart qi and lead to yang collapse. The heart governs the blood, which is closely related to sweat. Excessive sweating can damage the blood, and blood vacuity reduces the source of sweat. Hence it is said, when blood is despoliated, there is no sweat; when sweat is despoliated, there is no blood``.''

heart governs the blood and vessels

xïn zhû xuè mài

All the blood and vessels of the body are subordinate to the heart. Elementary Questions ( wèn) states, ``All blood belongs to the heart.'' Elementary Questions ( wèn) says, ``The heart governs the blood and vessels of the whole body.'' In Wang Bing's annotations of Elementary Questions ( wèn) we find the statement ``The liver stores the blood, and the heart moves it; when a person moves, blood moves through all the channels, whereas when he rests, the blood returns to the liver.'' This statement shows with greater clarity than the original statements of The Inner Canon (nèi jïng) that the speed of the heartbeat was understood to be related to exertion. It would also appear to indicate that heart was understood to pump (move) the blood around the body, although the modern notion of blood circulation is not implicit here. Note that although the blood is ``governed'' by the heart, it is intimately related to the liver and the spleen.

heart governs the spirit light

xïn zhû shén míng

heart stores the spirit.

heart governs the tongue

xïn zhû shé The Magic Pivot (líng shü) states,

``Heart qi flows through to the tongue; when the heart is in harmony, the tongue can distinguish the five flavors.'' When the heart and spirit are healthy, the tongue can move normally and speech is fluent. When the heart spirit is unclear, as when the heart (or pericardium) is affected by an evil, the tongue becomes sluggish or develops a tremor and speech is impeded. Sufficiency of heart blood is reflected in a fresh vital appearance of the tongue, whereas heart blood vacuity is reflected in a pale dull tongue. In heart yin vacuity or effulgent heart fire, the tip (or the whole body) of the tongue is red, prickly, or eroded. Stagnation of the heart blood is characterized by a purple tongue with dark blood stasis speckles. For these reasons, it is also said that the ``tongue is the sprout of the heart'' and the ``heart opens at the tongue.'' Despite the special relationship between the heart and tongue, the condition of all the other organs, particularly the spleen, is reflected in the state of the tongue and its fur.

heart governs the vessels

xïn zhû mài

See heart governs the blood and vessels.

heart, its bloom is in the face

xin1,  huá zài miàn

The health of the heart is reflected in the face. The heart governs all the blood vessels of the body, ensuring that blood reaches all parts of the body. The face is particularly rich in blood vessels, and reflects the state of qi and blood, and the organs.

heart heat

xïn 

Synonym:  heart qi heat .

Any externally contracted heat (febrile) disease pattern of the heart, manifesting in a red facial complexion, heat vexation in the heart, unquiet sleep, and reddish urine. In some cases there may be manic delirious speech, blood ejection, or spontaneous external bleeding.

heart heat susceptibility to fright

xïn  duö jïng

A condition of dream talking, vexation, oppression and fright crying in infants and children that is attributable to depressed heat causing congestion and stagnation in the bowels and viscera and disharmony of qi and blood. Heart heat susceptibility to fright is characterized by dream talking, vexation and oppression, and crying from fright.

Medication:  Clear heat and settle fright using variations of Red-Abducting Powder (dâo chì sân) with Bovine Bezoar Heart-Clearing Pill (níu huáng qïng xïn wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on HT and PC. Select HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , PC-8 (láo göng, Palace of Toil) , HT-8 (shào , Lesser Mansion) , and HT-9 (shào chöng, Lesser Surge) . Needle with drainage or prick to bleed.

heart holds the office of monarch, whence the spirit light emanates

xïn zhe3, jün zhû zhï guän ye3, shén míng chü yän <

heart holds the office of monarch> From Elementary Questions ( wèn) The heart is to the body as the monarch is to the nation; it is the seat of the spirit. The Inner Canon (nèi jïng) describes the functions of the internal organs by analogy to government. Just as the monarch leads the nation and embodies its consciousness, so the heart is considered to be the seat of consciousness in the body. By a similar metaphor, it is sometimes referred to as the ``palace.'' See heart stores the spirit.

heart impediment

xïn 

A disease of the heart characterized by pain and suffocating oppression and caused by stasis obstruction of the heart vessels. Elementary Questions ( wèn) states, ``Heart impediment is stoppage in the vessels '' The stoppage may actually be due to either a)~an inadequate warming and propulsion of the blood as a result of insufficiency of yang qi or b)~an obstruction of the heart vessels by static blood forming when internal phlegm turbidity impedes blood flow. Signs of heart impediment include dull pain and oppression in the area anterior to the heart, which is attributed to impaired yang qi perfusion or obstruction of the network vessels by phlegm stasis (blood stasis resulting from the presence of phlegm). Attacks are characterized by gripping pain in the heart (angina pectoris), green-blue or purple complexion, cold limbs, and a faint fine pulse verging on expiration, indicating severe obstruction of heart qi and heart yang. Heart palpitations, fearful throbbing, fatigued spirit, and shortness of breath are general signs of heart qi vacuity between attacks.

Western Medical Concept:  heart disease* heart disease*!coronary coronary or other heart disease.

Medication:  Nourish the heart and dispel the evil, quicken the blood and free the vessels. Use Heart-Supplementing Elixir ( xïn dän) or a combination of Pulse-Engendering Powder (shëng mài sân) and Spleen-Returning Decoction (guï  täng). If obstruction is pronounced, use Coronary No.2 (guàn xïn èr hào) to quicken the blood, rectify qi, and transform stasis.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV, back transport points, HT, PC, and SP. Select BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , BL-14 (jué yïn shü, Reverting Yin Transport) , CV-14 ( què, Great Tower Gate) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , PC-4 ( mén, Cleft Gate) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) . Needle with even supplementation and drainage. Compare chest impediment.

heart is averse to heat

xïn  

The heart is vulnerable to heat. The heart is the fire viscus; it governs the blood and vessels. When heat is pronounced, heart blood is easily damaged. Also, the heart governs the spirit light; high fever is often accompanied by clouded spirit, delirious speech, and mania. This is why the heart is averse to heat.

heart is connected with the small intestine

xïn  xiâo cháng

The heart stands in exterior-interior relationship with the small intestine, the heart being interior and the small intestine exterior. The heart channel connects with the small intestine, and the small intestine channel connects with the heart. This relationship is manifest in heart heat spreading to the small intestine, which is characterized by bloody urine.

heart is connected with the vessels

xïn  mài

Phrase from Elementary Questions ( wèn) See heart governs the blood and vessels.

heart-kidney qi vacuity

xïn shèn  

A disease pattern characterized by signs of both heart qi vacuity and kidney qi vacuity. The chief signs of heart-kidney qi vacuity are heart palpitations, seminal efflux, and premature ejaculation. Other signs include shortness of breath, spontaneous sweating, limp aching lumbus, reduced visual acuity, bright white facial complexion, and fatigue and lack of strength. Urinary signs include incontinence, dribble after voiding, or frequent voidings of clear urine.

Analysis:  The heart governs the blood and vessels. Heart qi vacuity reduces the pumping action of the heart, causing heart palpitations. Sweat is the humor of the heart, and when heart qi is vacuous and fails to contain sweat, sweat flows out, hence spontaneous sweating. The kidney stores essence and controls the two yin. Kidney qi vacuity gives rise to ``insecurity of the essence gate'' (control over discharge of semen), hence there is seminal efflux and premature ejaculation. When kidney qi is vacuous, there is urinary incontinence, dribble after voiding, or frequent voidings of clear urine. Furthermore, the kidney opens at the ears, and when kidney qi is vacuous, hearing acuity is reduced. The lumbus is the house of the kidney; when kidney qi is vacuous, there is limp aching lumbus. When heart and qi is vacuous, there is a generalized weakening of functions that manifests as fatigue and lack of strength and a white facial complexion. The pale enlarged tongue with white fur, and the forceless vacuous pulse are also qi vacuity signs.

Medication:  Boost qi and nourish the heart; supplement the kidney and secure essence. Golden Coffer Kidney Qi Pill (jïn guì shèn  wán) with additions.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, HT, KI, and CV. Select BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , CV-14 ( què, Great Tower Gate) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , BL-52 (zhì shì, Will Chamber) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , and HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa.

heart-kidney yang vacuity

xïn shèn yáng 

A disease pattern characterized by signs of both heart yang vacuity and kidney yang vacuity. The chief signs are heart palpitations and scant urine. Others include stifling oppression in the heart and chest, green-blue or purple lips, fear of cold and cold limbs, inhibited urination, jerking sinews and twitching flesh, and puffy swelling of the limbs. The tongue is pale with a glossy white fur. The pulse is sunken and faint.

Analysis:  When heart yang is insufficient, its power to move the blood is weak, hence the heart palpitations and stifling oppression in the heart and chest. When kidney yang is insufficient, qi transformation is inhibited, hence the inhibited urination and puffy swelling of the limbs. When water is retained, clear yang fails to rise, hence there is dizziness. When the sinews are deprived of nourishment, there is jerking of the sinews and twitching of the flesh. ``When yang is vacuous, there is external cold,'' hence the aversion to cold and cold limbs. The pale tongue with glossy white tongue fur, and the sunken pulse also also yang vacuity signs.

Medication:  Warm yang and dissipate cold; disinhibit water and disperse yin. Use True Warrior Decoction (zhën  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, HT, KI, and CV. Select BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , CV-14 ( què, Great Tower Gate) , CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) , GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and KI-7 ( lïu, Recover Flow) ; needle with supplementation and amounts of moxa.

Comparison:  Heart-kidney qi vacuity: Heart-kidney yang vacuity is a development of heart-kidney qi vacuity. It shares the same signs, and differs by being more severe and by the additional presence of yang vacuity external cold. See heart yang vacuity and kidney yang vacuity.

heart-kidney yin vacuity

xïn shèn yïn 

A condition characterized by signs of heart yin vacuity and kidney yin vacuity. The main signs of heart-kidney yin vacuity are heart palpitations or fearful throbbing, and seminal emission. Other signs include insomnia, forgetfulness, heart vexation, aching lumbus, loosening of the teeth, yellow urine, dry stool, and night sweating. The tongue is red with scant fur. The pulse is fine and rapid.

Analysis:  The kidney stores essence; when yin-essence is vacuous it fails to restrain yang, hence there is night sweating and seminal emission. Insufficiency of kidney essence causes lumbar pain. Insufficiency of bone and marrow causes loosening of the teeth. The heart governs the vessels; when heart blood is vacuous, the heart spirit is not stored and nourished, hence the heart vexation, insomnia, and forgetfulness. When the blood fails to nourish the heart, there are palpitations. When heart and kidney yin are vacuous, fluids are insufficient, hence the yellow urine and dry stool. The red tongue with scant fur and the rapid fine pulse are signs of effulgent yin vacuity fire.

Medication:  Enrich the kidney and nourish the heart; downbear fire and quiet the spirit. Use Celestial Emperor Heart-Supplementing Elixir (tiän wáng  xïn dän).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, HT, KI, and CV. Select BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , CV-14 ( què, Great Tower Gate) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , BL-52 (zhì shì, Will Chamber) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with supplementation. See heart yin vacuity; kidney yin vacuity.

heart-level effusion

duì xïn 

An effusion of the back, at the level of the heart. See effusion.

heart-liver blood vacuity

xïn gän xuè 

A condition characterized by signs of liver blood vacuity and heart blood vacuity arising when a)~insufficient blood production, b)~excessive loss of blood, c)~construction-yin depletion in enduring disease, or d)~damage to yin in heat (febrile) disease causes the heart to have nothing to govern and the liver to have nothing store. The main signs are heart palpitations and fearful throbbing, forgetfulness, insomnia possibly with profuse dreaming, dizzy head and clouded vision, and numbness of the limbs. Other signs include pale white facial complexion, susceptibility to fright, hypertonicity of the sinews, night blindness, and lusterless nails. The tongue is pale, and the pulse is fine and forceless.

Medication:  Supplement heart blood and nourish liver blood. Use Four Agents Decoction (  täng) or Liver-Supplementing Decoction ( gän täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, HT, LR, SP, and CV. Select BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , and KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) ; needle with supplementation and moxa.

heart-lung qi vacuity

xïn fèi  

A disease pattern arising when enduring cough and panting causes lung vacuity that affects the heart, or when insufficiency of heart qi causes lung qi vacuity. The chief signs are heart palpitations, shortness of breath, cough, and panting on exertion. Other signs include pale white lusterless facial complexion, lassitude of spirit with lack of strength, coughing of thin clear phlegm, stifling oppression in the heart and chest, low timid voice, and spontaneous sweating. The tongue is pale with thin white fur. The pulse is fine and weak.

Medication:  Supplement the heart and lung. Four Gentlemen Decoction ( jün  täng) plus Astragali (seu Hedysari) Radix (huáng ) and Dioscoreae Rhizoma (shän yào), or use Origin-Preserving Decoction (bâo yuán täng) plus Mastodi Ossis Fossilia Calcinata (duàn lóng ), Asteris Radix et Rhizoma ( wân), and Tussilaginis Flos (kuân döng huä).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, CV, and LU. Select BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , CV-14 ( què, Great Tower Gate) , BL-43 (gäo huäng shü, Gao-Huang Transport) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , LU-9 (tài yuän, Great Abyss) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) ; needle with supplementation and moxa.

heart-lung yang vacuity

xïn fèi yáng 

A disease pattern characterized by signs of both heart yang vacuity and lung yang vacuity. The main signs are stifling oppression and pain in the heart and chest. Other signs include heart palpitations, forceless cough and panting, fear of cold, lack of warmth in the hands and feet, and dark purple lips. The tongue is dark in color and enlarged. The tongue fur is white and glossy. The pulse is sunken, slow, and forceless.

Analysis:  The lung inhabits the upper burner and governs the qi of the whole body. The heart governs the vessels. Hence, when the yang of the chest is devitalized, causing qi stagnation and blood stasis, there is stifling oppression and pain in the heart and chest. When heart yang is vacuous, its pumping power is reduced; hence there are heart palpitations. Lung qi vacuity gives rise to forceless cough and panting; insufficiency of yang qi causes fear of cold, cold limbs, and green-blue or purple lips. The dark, enlarged tongue with white glossy fur and the forceless slow sunken pulse are all indications of yang vacuity.

Medication:  Boost qi and assist yang; loosen the chest and relieve pain. Use Origin-Preserving Decoction (bâo yuán täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, CV, GV, and LU. Select BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , CV-14 ( què, Great Tower Gate) , LU-9 (tài yuän, Great Abyss) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) ; needle with supplementation and large amounts of moxa.

heart-lung yin vacuity

xïn fèi yïn 

A disease pattern characterized by signs of both heart yin vacuity and lung yin vacuity. The chief signs are dry cough, heart palpitations, and tidal heat~effusion. Other signs include cough with scant sticky phlegm that is not easy to expectorate, heart vexation, reduced sleep, profuse dreaming, dry lips, dry throat, scant urine, postmeridian tidal heat~effusion, vexing heat in the five hearts, and night sweating. The tongue is red and dry with scant fur. The pulse is fine and rapid. Lung yin vacuity with fire that scorches the liquid causes counterflow qi and dry cough or cough with scant sticky phlegm that is difficult to expectorate. Heart yin vacuity with blood failing to nourish the heart and depriving the spirit of nourishment explains the reduced sleep and sleeplessness. The dry lips, dry throat, scant urine, postmeridian tidal heat~effusion, vexing heat in the five hearts, and night sweating are all signs of effulgent yin vacuity fire. Yin vacuity explains the dry scant tongue fur and fine pulse; vacuity fire flaming upward explains the red tongue and rapid pulse.

Medication:  Enrich vacuity and downbear fire; moisten the lung and quiet the spirit. Use variations of Aster Decoction ( wân täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, HT, LU, and KI. Select BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , BL-43 (gäo huäng shü, Gao-Huang Transport) , LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) ; needle with supplementation.

heart mounting

xïn shàn

A mounting pattern of abdominal pain with a bulge in the abdomen and a subjective sensation of qi surging up from the umbilicus to the heart. Heart mounting is attributed to cold affecting the heart channel.

Medication:  Warm the channels and dissipate cold; harmonize the blood and relieve pain.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on back transport points, HT, PC, and ST. Select BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa.

heart opens at the tongue

Synonym:  tongue is the sprout of the heart .

See heart governs the tongue.

heart pain

xïn tòng

Definition: 

Pain in the heart itself.

Western Medical Concept:  cardiodynia* angina pectoris* cardiodynia; angina pectoris. Heart pain includes the true heart pain spoken of in The Magic Pivot (líng shü) the coming and going heart pain and influx heart pain spoken of in A Thousand Gold Pieces Prescriptions (qiän jïn yào fäng)

Definition:  Pain in the pit of the stomach or heart region.

Western Medical Concept:  cardialgia* cardialgia.

heart pain stretching to the back

xïn tòng chè bèi with pain also felt in the back;

a sign of heart impediment.

heart palpitations

xïn 

Rapid throbbing of the heart. Distinction is made between fright palpitations (`heart palpitations' in the narrow sense) and fearful throbbing. Fright palpitations are brought on by fright or emotional stimulus, and are therefore clearly paroxysmal in nature. They occurs in both vacuity and repletion patterns. In Western medicine, they are often found to be a nervous disorder. Fearful throbbing occurs continually, and although it is associated with a feeling of fear, it is not brought on by emotional stimulus. It is more severe than fright palpitations, and is experienced as a violent throbbing felt not only in the chest, but even as low as the umbilical region. It is observed in patients in a poor state of health and always forms part of vacuity patterns. From the Western medical perspective, it is usually the manifestation of organic rather than nervous disease. In some older books the terms ``fright palpitations'' and ``fearful throbbing'' were used interchangeably. Heart palpitations occur in a wide variety of patterns and combinations of patterns. The basic patterns include heart-gallbladder vacuity timidity; dual vacuity of the heart and spleen; effulgent yin vacuity fire; insufficiency of heart qi; insufficiency of heart yang; dual vacuity of qi and yin; water-rheum intimidating the heart; blood stasis obstruction; phlegm-fire harassing the heart.

Heart-gallbladder vacuity timidity  (xïn dân  què) arises when the heart fails to store the spirit and the gallbladder lacks decisiveness. There is a tendency to fear and fright which brings on heart palpitations. Other signs include reduced sleep and profuse dreaming, thin white tongue fur, and a stirred rapid pulse or a vacuous stringlike pulse.

Medication:  Calm fright and stabilize the mind; nourish the heart and quiet the spirit. Spirit-Quieting Mind-Stabilizing Pill (än shén dìng zhì wán) is an appropriate formula.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on HT, PC, GB, and back transport points. Select HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-19 (dân shü, Gallbladder Transport) , GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) ; needle with supplementation.

Dual vacuity of the heart and spleen  (xïn  liâng ) manifests in heart palpitations or fearful throbbing by causing insufficiency of heart blood that deprives the heart of nourishment. Other signs include lassitude of spirit and shortness of breath, forgetfulness, insomnia, dizzy head and vision, lusterless complexion, spontaneous sweating, pale red tongue, and a fine weak pulse.

Medication:  Supplement the blood and nourish the heart; boost qi and quiet the spirit. Use Spleen-Returning Decoction (guï  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on HT, SP, ST, and back transport points. Main points: HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , and BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) . Add HT-5 (töng , Connecting Li) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , to engender heart blood. Add BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , and CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) for dual vacuity of heart and spleen. Needle with supplementation and use moxa on the back transport points. For insomnia, add ST-45 ( duì, Severe Mouth) . For shortness of breath, add BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) .

Effulgent yin vacuity fire  (yïn  huô wàng) arises in kidney yin vacuity when ``water fails to help fire'' and prevents the stirring of heart fire (noninteraction of the heart and kidney), or when ``water fails to restrain fire'' and the ministerial fire becomes hyperactive and harasses the heart spirit. This condition occurs in patients who do a great deal of mental work. Heart palpitations are accompanied by vexation, heat in the hearts of the palms and soles, reduced sleep and profuse dreaming, dizzy head and vision, tinnitus, upbearing fire flush, lumbar pain, red tongue with thin yellow fur, and a fine rapid pulse.

Medication:  Enrich yin and clear fire; nourish the heart and quiet the spirit. Use formulas like Coptis and Ass Hide Glue Decoction (huáng lián ë jiäo täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on HT, PC, KI, and back transport points. Select HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , PC-4 ( mén, Cleft Gate) , BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , BL-14 (jué yïn shü, Reverting Yin Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) . Needle with even supplementation and drainage.

Insufficiency of heart qi  (xïn   ) is the result of constitutional vacuity, degeneration of health with old age, or enduring illness. It gives rise to heart palpitations by causing feeble movement of blood that deprives the heart of nourishment. In such cases, heart palpitations or fearful throbbing is accompanied by lassitude of spirit and lack of strength, lusterless complexion, spontaneous sweating, laziness to speak, clouded or dizzy head, pale tongue with white fur, and a fine weak or moderate sunken pulse.

Medication:  Nourish the heart and boost qi; quiet the spirit and stabilize mind. A representative formula is Four Gentlemen Panting Decoction (chuân  jün  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on HT, PC, CV, and back transport points. Select HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) . Needle with supplementation and use moxa.

Insufficiency of heart yang  (xïn yáng  ) shares the same causes as insufficiency of heart qi and differs by the further presence of cold signs. Heart palpitations are exacerbated by physical movement and is accompanied by physical cold and cold limbs, a somber white facial complexion, oppression in the chest and shortness of breath, a pale tongue with white fur, a forceless sunken fine or vacuous weak pulse.

Medication:  Warm and supplement heart yang; quiet the spirit and stabilize mind. A representative formula is Cinnamon Twig, Licorice, Dragon Bone, and Oyster Shell Decoction (guì zhï gän câo lóng    täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on HT, PC, CV, and back transport points. Select HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , CV-14 ( què, Great Tower Gate) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , and GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa.

Dual vacuity of qi and yin  ( yïn liâng ) causes heart palpitations or fearful throbbing accompanied by reddening of the cheeks, coughing of blood-flecked phlegm, oppression in the chest, shortness of breath, lusterless complexion, spontaneous or night sweating, red tongue with little fur, and a rapid fine pulse that may be irregular.

Medication:  Treat by boosting qi and nourishing the heart and by enriching yin blood. A representative formula is Honey-Fried Licorice Decoction (zhì gän câo täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on HT, PC, CV, and back transport points. Select HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , CV-14 ( què, Great Tower Gate) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) . Needle with supplementation. If vacuity fire signs are not pronounced, moxa can also be used. For spontaneous or night sweating, add LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , SI-3 (hòu , Back Ravine) , and HT-6 (yïn , Yin Cleft) . For coughing of blood and oppression in the chest, add LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) and BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) . For pronounced vacuity fire, add HT-8 (shào , Lesser Mansion) , needling with drainage.

Water-rheum (water qi) intimidating the heart  (shuî  líng xïn) has its root in spleen-kidney yang vacuity and is associated with signs of impaired movement of water such as short voidings of scant urine and swelling of the lower limbs. In addition to these signs, heart palpitations are accompanied by glomus and fullness in the chest and stomach duct, thirst with no desire to drink, physical cold and cold limbs, dizziness, vomiting and ejection of drool, pale tongue with glossy fur, and a slippery stringlike pulse or a slippery fine sunken pulse.

Medication:  Supplement yang, promote qi transformation, and move water. A representative formula is Poria (Hoelen), Cinnamon Twig, Ovate Atractylodes, and Licorice Decoction (líng guì zhú gän täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on ST, HT, PC, CV, and back transport points. Select HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-22 (sän jiäo shü, Triple Burner Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) . Needle with supplementation.

Heart blood stasis obstruction  (xïn xuè  ) is traceable to binding depression of liver qi and lung qi congestion, and spleen, kidney, and lung vacuity. In such patterns, heart palpitations are accompanied by periodic heart pain like the stabbing of a needle. Other signs include oppression in the chest, green-blue or purple nails, a tongue that is purple in color or bears stasis speckles, and a rough or interrupted pulse.

Medication:  Quicken the blood and transform stasis; rectify qi and free the network vessels. A representative formula is Peach Kernel and Carthamus Brew (táo rén hóng huä jiän).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on HT, PC, SP, LR, and back transport points. Select BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , and LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage.

Phlegm-fire harassing the heart  (tán huô râo xïn) causes heart palpitations induced by fright, accompanied by oppression in the chest, vexation and agitation, profuse nightmares, and dry mouth with bitter taste. Other signs include insomnia, constipation, yellow or reddish urine, slimy yellow tongue fur, and a slippery stringlike pulse.

Medication:  Clear heat and transform phlegm; quiet the heart spirit. A representative formula is Coptis Gallbladder-Warming Decoction (huáng lián wën dân täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on ST, HT, PC, GB, and back transport points. Select HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) , GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , and LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) ; needle with drainage. For oppression in the chest, add CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) . For vexation, add PC-5 (jiän shî, Intermediary Courier) . For insomnia, nightmares, and profuse dreaming, add ST-45 ( duì, Severe Mouth) . See also blood vacuity heart palpitations; qi vacuity heart palpitations; collecting rheum heart palpitations; qi stagnation blood stasis heart palpitations; stirring heart palpitations.

heart pulse is surging

xïn mài hóng

A surging pulse is associated with heart disease and the season summer. Elementary Questions ( wèn) states, ``The heart pulse is hook-like.'' The Classic of Difficult Issues (nàn jïng) states, ``The summer pulse is hook-like.'' The hook-like pulse is now usually referred to as the surging pulse. See surging pulse.

heart qi

xïn 

See heart qi and heart blood.

heart qi and heart blood

xïn  xïn xuè

Heart qi and heart blood form part of the blood and qi of the whole body, and are the basis for the physiological activity of the heart. When heart qi and heart blood are abundant, the heartbeat is regular, the pulse is moderate and forceful, and the complexion is healthy and lustrous. Insufficiency of heart qi and depletion of heart blood are characterized by a lusterless complexion, heart palpitations, and a slow, rapid or interrupted ( jie2 dai4) pulse. Heart blood and heart qi are greatly interdependent. Insufficiency of heart qi may lead to blood stagnation characterized by a green-blue or purple complexion and lack of warmth in the extremities. Heart blood depletion leads to impairment of the blood's nourishing function. It may also deprive heart qi of support, causing dizziness, fatigued spirit, shortness of breath, and copious sweat.

heart qi heat

xïn  

heart heat.

heart qi repletion

xïn  shí

exuberant heart qi.

heart qi vacuity

xïn  

The manifestation of insufficiency of heart qi; a disease pattern characterized by heart palpitations, shortness of breath, fatigue, and lack of strength, reflecting general qi vacuity and inhibited movement of blood. Heart qi vacuity usually appears in gradually developing, enduring illness. Pathomechanisms include: insufficiency of ancestral qi preventing it from adequately penetrating the heart and vessels and driving respiration; water qi intimidating the heart, which results from kidney yang vacuity; wind-cold-damp impediment settling in the heart; damp turbidity or static blood obstructing the heart and vessels; acute forms of heart qi vacuity resulting from fulminant desertion of yang qi. Heart qi vacuity may occur with lung qi vacuity, the resulting condition being referred to as heart-lung qi vacuity. Heart qi vacuity may also present with cold-damp, damp turbidity, and static blood complications. The chief signs of heart qi vacuity are heart palpitations or fearful throbbing and shortness of breath exacerbated by exertion, and fatigue and lack of strength. Other signs include oppression in the chest, white face, and spontaneous sweating. In some cases, there may be sleeplessness or profuse sleep, forgetfulness, chest pain, tendency to sorrow and weepiness, abstraction, convulsions, and susceptibility to fright. The pulse is weak and fine, or interrupted (bound, skipping, or intermittent).

Western Medical Concept:  heart failure* cardiac failure* angina pectoris* arrhythmia* neurosis* cardiac failure, angina pectoris, arrhythmia, general asthenia, and neurosis.

Analysis:  When heart qi is insufficient, its propelling action is weakened, hence heart palpitations or fearful throbbing. When heart qi is vacuous, the circulation of ancestral qi is weak, hence oppression in the chest and shortness of breath. Exertion causes wear on qi and therefore exacerbates these signs. When qi is vacuous, external defense is insecure, hence the shortage of qi, laziness to speak, fatigue, and spontaneous sweating. When heart qi is vacuous, either the heart spirit is deprived of nourishment and there is profuse sleeping, or there is nothing to quiet the spirit and stabilize the mind, so that there is sleeplessness, forgetfulness, susceptibility to fright, abstraction, or tendency to sorrow and weepiness. Qi vacuity engenders phlegm, deprives the sinews of nourishment, hence convulsions. When heart qi is insufficient and fails to commend the blood, the blood stagnates in the heart vessels, giving rise to pain; failing to make blood ascend to the face, it gives rise to white face and pale tongue; failing to propel the blood, it gives rise to an intermittent or bound pulse. When heart qi is vacuous, it cannot move the blood to nourish the whole body, and through the body's self-regulation function, it may attempt to compensate by speeding up propulsion, causing a rapid pulse, or if vessel qi is discontinuous, a skipping pulse (rapid irregularly interrupted pulse).

Medication:  Heart qi vacuity is treated by supplementing heart qi with medicinals such as mix-fried Glycyrrhizae Radix (zhì gän câo), Astragali (seu Hedysari) Radix (huáng ), Codonopsitis Radix (dâng shën), and Ginseng Radix (rén shën). Appropriate formulas include Honey-Fried Licorice Decoction (zhì gän câo täng) and Heart-Nourishing Decoction (yâng xïn täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on HT, back transport points, and CV. Select BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , CV-14 ( què, Great Tower Gate) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa.

heart qi vacuity sleeplessness

xïn     

An internal damage sleeplessness pattern attributed to heart qi vacuity and the heart spirit failing to contain itself and characterized by unquiet sleep, sudden waking from sleep, heart palpitations, lassitude of spirit and lack of strength, desire for heat and aversion to cold, and a forceless pulse that may be slow.

Medication:  Boost qi and nourish the heart using formulas like Ginseng Construction-Nourishing Decoction (rén shën yâng róng täng) and Spleen-Returning Decoction (guï  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on HT and back transport points. Select , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) . Needle with supplementation. See sleeplessness.

heart region and abdomen

xïn 

The heart region (the pit of the stomach, and the abdomen as a whole).

heart spirit

xïn shén

The spirit that is governed by the heart. See heart stores the spirit.

heart spirit failing to contain itself

xïn shén shï shôu

spirit failing to keep to its abode.

heart-spleen blood vacuity

xïn  xuè 

A disease pattern of heart blood vacuity and spleen vacuity (splenic transformation failure and the spleen failing to manage the blood). The main signs are heart palpitations and insomnia. Other signs may include fearful throbbing, forgetfulness, profuse dreaming, lusterless complexion, pale lips, and pale scant menstrual flow. The tongue is pale with scant fur. The pulse is fine, bound or intermittent.

Analysis:  The heart governs the blood and stores the spirit. The spleen is the source of qi and blood formation and stores reflection. Heart-spleen blood vacuity deprives the spirit of nourishment, hence there is heart palpitations, insomnia, fearful throbbing, and forgetfulness. Blood vacuity deprives the face of nourishment, hence the complexion is lusterless. Insufficiency of the blood means less blood for menstruation, hence the menstrual flow is scant and pale.

Medication:  Boost qi and supplement the blood; fortify the spleen and quiet the heart. Use Spleen-Returning Decoction (guï  täng). Compare dual vacuity of the heart and spleen; heart-spleen qi vacuity.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, HT, SP, and CV. Select BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with supplementation and moxa.

heart-spleen qi vacuity

xïn   

A disease pattern of spleen qi vacuity and heart qi vacuity. The main signs are heart palpitations, reduced eating, and abdominal distention. Other signs include white facial complexion, spontaneous sweating, fatigue and lack of strength, and shortness of breath with rapid breathing on exertion. The tongue is pale with a white fur. The pulse is forceless and vacuous.

Analysis:  When heart qi is vacuous, the heart's pumping action is weak, hence there are heart palpitations. When spleen qi is vacuous, movement and transformation breaks down, hence there is reduced eating and abdominal distention. In heart-spleen qi vacuity physiological functions are lowered, hence there is spontaneous sweating and shortness of breath with rapid breathing on exertion. When the source of qi and blood is reduced, the patient becomes improperly nourished, hence fatigue and lack of strength.

Medication:  Supplement the heart and spleen. Use Ginseng Spleen-Returning Pill (rén shën guï  wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, HT, SP, and CV. Select BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , CV-14 ( què, Great Tower Gate) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-3 (tài bái, Supreme White) , and LR-13 (zhäng mén, Camphorwood Gate) ; needle with supplementation and moxa. Compare dual vacuity of the heart and spleen.

heart-spleen vacuity

xïn  liâng 

dual vacuity of the heart and spleen.

heart-spleen yang vacuity

xïn  yáng 

A disease pattern characterized by heart yang vacuity and spleen yang vacuity signs. The chief signs are stifling oppression and pain in the heart and chest and thin sloppy stool. Other signs include heart palpitations, reduced eating, rumbling intestines, somber white facial complexion, shortage of qi and laziness to speak, spontaneous sweating, lassitude of spirit, somnolence, and physical cold and cold limbs. The tongue is pale or dark and purple; the tongue fur is white; and the pulse is weak.

Analysis:  When heart yang is insufficient, heart qi is depleted, hence the heart palpitations, spontaneous sweating, lassitude of spirit, and somnolence. When yang qi is too weak to move the blood, stasis obstruction of the heart vessels develops and qi dynamic stagnates, hence the stifling oppression and pain in the heart and chest. Spleen yang vacuity develops from spleen qi vacuity. Spleen qi vacuity causing impaired movement and transformation of grain and water accounts for the reduced eating and for the internal collection of water-damp that manifests in rumbling intestines and sloppy stool diarrhea. Yang vacuity deprives the limbs of warmth, hence the physical cold and cold limbs. The somber white facial complexion, shortage of qi and laziness to speak, spontaneous sweating, pale or dark purple tongue with white fur, and the weak pulse, are all indications of heart-spleen yang vacuity.

Medication:  Assist yang and boost qi; fortify the spleen and nourish the heart. Use Origin-Preserving Decoction (bâo yuán täng) plus Angelicae Sinensis Radix (däng guï), Atractylodis Ovatae Rhizoma (bái zhú), Citri Exocarpium (chén ), and Schisandrae Fructus ( wèi ). For pronounced yang vacuity, add Aconiti Tuber Laterale ( ) and Zingiberis Rhizoma Exsiccatum (gän jiäng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, HT, SP, and CV. Select BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and LR-13 (zhäng mén, Camphorwood Gate) ; needle with supplementation and large amounts of moxa. Compare dual vacuity of the heart and spleen.

heart-stomach repletion fire

xïn wèi shí huô

exuberant heart-stomach fire.

heart stores the spirit

xïn cáng shén

Synonym:  heart governs the spirit light .

This phrase comes from Elementary Questions ( wèn) The heart is the seat of consciousness and mental function. If the heart fulfills its functions normally and blood and qi are abundant, the mind is lucid, alert, and responsive to the environment. If, however, the heart is diseased, the heart spirit may be disquieted, causing signs such as heart vexation, susceptibility to fright palpitations (heart palpitations due to emotional stimulus), diminished sleep, or profuse dreaming. In severe cases, there may be signs either of loss of sensibility, such as clouding sleep (hypersomnia) or coma, or of mental diseases, delirious speech, or manic agitation.

heart sweating

xïn hàn in the heart region,

i.e., in the pit of the stomach (scrobiculus cordis). Heart sweating is associated with damage to the heart and spleen by anxiety, thought, fright, or fear.

Medication:  Supplement the heart and spleen; constrain the spirit and boost qi. Use formulas such as Pulse-Engendering Powder (shëng mài sân), Spleen-Returning Decoction (guï  täng), or Heart-Supplementing Elixir ( xïn dän).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on back transport points, HT, LI, and SI. Select BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , SI-3 (hòu , Back Ravine) , and HT-6 (yïn , Yin Cleft) . Needle with supplementation.

heart tie

xïn 

The large blood vessels communicating directly with the heart.

Western Medical Concept:  vena cava*!inferior vena cava*!superior aorta* includes the aorta, pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, superior vena cava, and inferior vena cava.

heart vacuity

xïn  ,

heart yang vacuity, heart blood vacuity, or heart yin vacuity; characterized by heart palpitations or fearful throbbing, insomnia, and dizziness. Heart qi vacuity is characterized by general qi vacuity signs such as fatigue, shortness of breath, spontaneous sweating, a pale enlarged tongue, and heart-specific qi vacuity signs such as interrupted pulses ( jie2 dai4), and pain in the heart itself. Heart yang vacuity is the same as heart qi vacuity, but is differentiated by the addition of pronounced cold signs such as somber white complexion and blue lips, reversal cold of the limbs, and, in severe cases, vacuity desertion signs such as clouded spirit, fine pulse on the verge of expiration, and great sweating. Heart blood vacuity is characterized by general blood vacuity signs such as pale lusterless complexion, pale tongue, and fine pulse, together with general heart vacuity signs. See heart qi vacuity; heart blood vacuity; heart yin vacuity; heart yang vacuity.

heart vacuity and gallbladder timidity

xïn  dân qiè

Synonym:  heart-

gallbladder vacuity timidity .

A feeling of emptiness in the heart and susceptibility to fright and fear. Vacuous heart and timid gallbladder usually occurs in insufficiency of heart blood and heart qi debilitation, and is partly related to mental factors.

Western Medical Concept:  anemia* neurosis* observed in anemia and neurosis.

Medication:  Nourish the heart and quiet the spirit, or warm the gallbladder and quiet the spirit. Compare gallbladder vacuity.

heart vessel obstruction

xïn mài  

A disease pattern characterized by stifling oppression and pain in the heart and chest that arises when heart qi vacuity or heart yang vacuity allow phlegm and blood stasis to cause obstruction of the heart vessels. The chief signs are stifling oppression and pain (sometimes stabbing) in the heart and chest that may stretch to the shoulder, back, or inner arm, as well as heart palpitations and fearful throbbing, and panting. There may be attacks of cutting or stabbing pain, in severe cases with clouding reversal. Other signs include dark, stagnant green-blue or purple facial complexion, green-blue or purple lips, lassitude of spirit and lack of strength, shortage of qi and laziness to speak, fear of cold and cold limbs, glomus lump under the rib-side, water swelling, drum distention (ascites), and expectoration of blood. The tongue is pale green-blue sometimes with stasis speckles or macules. The pulse is sunken and slow or sunken and rough. It may also be skipping, bound, or intermittent.

Analysis:  When the yang qi of the heart is debilitated, its propelling action is weak, so that blood stasis develops (heart blood stasis obstruction); hence heart palpitations or fearful throbbing. The lung faces the hundred vessels, and when blood becomes stagnant in the lung, lung qi is inhibited and ascends counterflow, causing oppression in the chest and panting with inability to lie down. Static blood damaging the network vessels of the lung causes expectoration of blood. The liver stores blood, and when blood stagnates in the liver, a glomus lump develops. When blood flow is inhibited, the facial complexion and lips become green-blue or purple. Inhibited blood flow can also cause water disease such as drum distention (ascites) and water swelling. Yang vacuity is reflected in lassitude of spirit and lack of strength, shortage of qi, and laziness to speak. When fluids are not distributed normally, they can gather to form phlegm. When phlegm turbidity and static blood obstruct the vessels of the heart and the whole body, the principle that ``when there is stoppage, there is pain'' comes into play, hence periodic stifling oppression and pain in the heart and chest. The pain can travel along the hand lesser yin heart channel to the shoulder or inner arm. Blood stasis is classically reflected in stabbing pain, while phlegm turbidity obstruction is characterized by oppression and pain. When stasis and phlegm occur together, there is oppression and pain in the anterior chest, with periodic stabbing pain. Qi stagnation is reflected in distending pain. When cold evil suddenly enters the body and settles in the vessels of the heart, the vessels become hypertonic, thus exacerbating the stasis obstruction. When this happens, there is sudden excruciating pain. The pulses all reflect the inhibitive action of blood stasis on vessel qi.

Medication:  Warm yang and boost qi; dispel phlegm and expel stasis. Use Peach Kernel and Carthamus Brew (táo rén hóng huä jiän), House of Blood Stasis-Expelling Decoction (xuè  zhú  täng), or Trichosanthes, Chinese Chive, and White Liquor Decoction (guä lóu xiè bái bái jîu täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, CV, SP, and LR. Select BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , CV-14 ( què, Great Tower Gate) , CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) ; needle with drainage and add moxa.

heart vexation

fán 

Synonym:  heart vexation .

A feeling of unrest or irritability that focuses in the heart region. Vexation is commonly observed in either vacuity or repletion heat. In severe cases, it is associated with agitation, i.e., increased physical movement. See vexation and agitation; heat vexation; heat vexation in the chest; anguish; vacuity vexation.

heart water

xïn shuî

One of the five waters spoken of in Essential Prescriptions of the Golden Coffer (jïn guì yào lüè) characterized by generalized swelling and shortage of qi, vexation and agitation with inability to rest, and swelling of the lower yin.

heart wilting

xïn wêi

vessel wilting.

heart worm disease

xïn chóng bìng

See roundworm.

heart yang

xïn yáng

See heart yin and heart yang.

heart yang vacuity

xïn yáng 

Synonym:  devitalization of heart yang .

with pronounced cold signs and blood stasis signs. The chief signs are heart palpitations, shortness of breath, stifling oppression and possibly pain in the chest exacerbated by exertion, as well as aversion to cold and cold limbs. Other signs include lassitude of spirit and lack of strength, shortage of qi and laziness to speak, spontaneous sweating, and bright white or dark stagnant complexion. In some cases, there may be profuse sleeping. The tongue is pale and soft, or pale green-blue. The pulse is slow, possibly faint, or rapid and forceless. It may be skipping, bound, or intermittent. Heart yang vacuity often occurs in conjunction with kidney yang vacuity, the combined pattern being referred to as heart-kidney yang vacuity, in which physical cold and cold limbs are more pronounced, and are accompanied by kidney yang vacuity signs such as scant urine or water swelling.

Analysis:  Heart yang vacuity is a development of heart qi vacuity. When heart yang is depleted, its propelling action is weak, hence the heart palpitations or fearful throbbing. When blood moves sluggishly, it stagnates and obstructs the heart vessels, hence there is heart pain. When heart yang is insufficient, the yang of the chest is devitalized and does not circulate properly, hence there is oppression in the chest and shortness of breath. Exertion causes wear on qi and hence exacerbates the heart palpitations and oppression in the chest. When yang qi is vacuous, the spirit is deprived of nourishment, hence the lassitude of spirit and profuse sleeping; at the same time, the body is deprived of warmth, hence the physical cold and cold limbs. Yang vacuity makes external defense insecure, hence spontaneous sweating, shortage of qi, and laziness to speak. Failure to make the blood ascend to the head and face and to transform water-damp gives rise to a bright white facial complexion and a pale soft enlarged tongue. If the movement of blood is sluggish, the facial complexion may be dark and stagnant, and the tongue pale green-blue. Inability to propel the blood also accounts for the slow, faint, bound, and intermittent pulses. If vacuous yang ``gallops outward'' (makes an outward show of force), the pulse may be rapid, and if vessel qi is discontinuous, it can be skipping (rapid and irregularly interrupted).

Medication:  Warm and supplement heart yang. Use Origin-Preserving Decoction (bâo yuán täng) or Cinnamon Twig, Licorice, Dragon Bone, and Oyster Shell Decoction (guì zhï gän câo lóng    täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, HT, and CV. Select BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , CV-14 ( què, Great Tower Gate) , CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , and HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , needle with supplementation and moxa. For blood stasis signs, add BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage.

Comparison:  Heart qi vacuity: Heart yang vacuity is similar to heart qi vacuity. Both share heart palpitations or fearful throbbing, oppression in the chest and shortness of breath exacerbated by exertion, and lassitude of spirit and lack of strength. Either may be associated with heart pain. Heart yang vacuity is associated with cold signs such as fear of cold and cold limbs, which are not observed in heart qi vacuity. Furthermore, because heart yang vacuity is more severe than heart qi vacuity, the propelling action of qi is weaker, and blood stasis signs are more pronounced. Thus the heart palpitations, fearful throbbing, oppression in the chest, shortness of breath, and heart pain are more marked. The dark stagnant complexion and pale green-blue tongue are not observed in qi vacuity. Fulminant desertion of heart yang: Heart yang qi vacuity must also be distinguished from fulminant desertion of heart yang. Heart yang qi vacuity is a chronic condition of heart palpitations or fearful throbbing, oppression in the chest, shortness of breath, aversion to cold, and cold limbs. Fulminant desertion of heart yang is a critical development of heart yang vacuity, characterized by a somber white complexion, dripping cold sweat, reversal cold of the limbs, a faint pulse on the verge of expiration, and, in severe cases, coma. Dual vacuity of heart yin and yang shares the cold signs of heart yang vacuity, and is further marked by yin vacuity signs such as emaciation, heart vexation, tidal heat~effusion, night sweating, dry throat lacking liquid, heat~effusion and spontaneous sweating at the slightest exertion, peeling tongue fur, and faint fine rapid pulse.

heart yin

xïn yïn

Synonym:  heart construction .

See heart yin and heart yang.

heart yin and heart yang

xïn yin1, xïn yáng

Heart yin and heart yang refer to the complementary aspects of the heart's functions. Heart yang refers to a strong heartbeat, smooth blood flow, and the lively, expansive aspect of mental activity. Heart yin refers to a regular, moderate heartbeat and the calm, passive aspect of mental activity. Yin and yang complement and counterbalance each other, ensuring that the heart beats forcefully and regularly, and performs all its normal functions. An essential prerequisite of normal function is an abundance of heart blood and exuberance of heart qi. Insufficiency of heart blood or heart qi may debilitate heart yin or yang. Since ``when yang is vacuous, there is cold,'' and ``when yin is vacuous, there is heat,'' such cases present with signs not only of qi or blood vacuity, but also of vacuity cold and vacuity heat.

heart yin vacuity

xïn yïn 

The manifestation of insufficiency of heart yin, characterized chiefly by heart palpitations, heart vexation, insomnia, and profuse dreaming. Other signs include vexing heat in the five hearts, postmeridian tidal heat~effusion, reddening of the cheeks, night sweating, dry mouth and throat, and forgetfulness. The tongue is red with little liquid and little or no fur. The pulse is fine and rapid. Heart yin vacuity regularly occurs in conjunction with kidney yin, the combined pattern being called heart-kidney yin vacuity.

Analysis:  When heart yin is depleted, the heart is deprived of nourishment, hence the heart palpitations. At the same time, there is effulgent yin vacuity fire, which harasses the spirit, causing heart vexation, insomnia, and profuse dreaming. Vacuity fire also causes tidal heat~effusion, night sweating, vexing heat in the five hearts, and reddening of the cheeks. It also accounts for the red tongue with little liquid, and the fine rapid pulse. When yin liquid is depleted, the mouth and throat are dry.

Medication:  Enrich yin and quiet the spirit. Use Heart-Supplementing Elixir ( xïn dän) or Cinnabar Spirit-Quieting Pill (zhü shä än shén wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, HT, PC, and CV. Select BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , needling with supplementation. For night sweating add HT-6 (yïn , Yin Cleft) , and SI-3 (hòu , Back Ravine) .

Comparison:  Heart blood vacuity: Both heart yin vacuity and heart blood vacuity share heart palpitations or fearful throbbing, insomnia, and profuse dreaming. Heart blood vacuity is marked by a lusterless white or withered-yellow facial complexion, pale lips, and a fine weak pulse. There are no heat signs. Heart yin vacuity arises from insufficiency of yin humor and vacuity fire. Hence in addition to heart palpitations and insomnia, there are pronounced heat signs such as heart vexation, vexing heat in the five hearts, tidal heat~effusion, night sweating, red tongue with scant fur, and a fine rapid pulse. Dual vacuity of heart qi and yin: Heart yin vacuity shares with dual vacuity of heart qi and yin signs of insufficiency of heart yin such as heart palpitations, insomnia, vexing heat in the five hearts, tidal heat~effusion, and night sweating. In addition to these signs, dual vacuity of heart qi and yin is marked by signs of insufficiency of heart qi such as oppression in the chest and shortness of breath exacerbated by exertion, shortage of qi and laziness to speak, lassitude of spirit, and lack of strength. These latter signs are absent in heart yin vacuity. Dual vacuity of heart yin and yang: Heart yin vacuity and and dual vacuity of heart yin and yang are both marked by heart palpitations, heart vexation, insomnia, profuse dreaming, and heat in the heart of the palms and soles. Dual vacuity of heart yin and yang is marked by signs of yang vacuity such as listlessness of essence-spirit, oppression in the chest, shortness of breath, physical cold and cold limbs, shortage of qi and laziness to speak, fatigue, and lack of strength. These latter signs are absent in kidney yin vacuity. Heart-lung yin vacuity: Heart yin vacuity shares with heart-lung yin vacuity signs of insufficiency of heart yin and effulgent yin vacuity fire, such as heart palpitations, heart vexation, insomnia, profuse dreaming, vexing heat in the five hearts, tidal heat~effusion, night sweating, reddening of the cheeks, a red tongue with scant fur, and a rapid fine pulse. Heart-lung yin vacuity is marked by the addition of signs of of lung yin vacuity and impaired depurative downbearing, such as dry cough without phlegm or with scant sticky phlegm, in severe cases with pain in the chest and expectoration of blood. These latter signs are absent in heart yin vacuity. Heart-kidney yin vacuity: Heart yin vacuity and heart-kidney yin vacuity both share heart palpitations, insomnia, vexing heat in the five hearts, tidal heat~effusion, night sweating, red tongue with little fur, and a rapid fine pulse. Heart-kidney vacuity in addition to these signs is marked by signs of frenetic stirring of the ministerial fire such as limp aching lumbus and knees, excessive libido, persistent erection, seminal emission, and in women, dreaming of intercourse.

heat

Definition: 

The opposite of cold. Heat is the manifestation of the sun and fire. Hot weather (and artificially heated environments) cause sweating, and without an adequate increase in fluid intake, thirst. There may be vexation and other discomforts naturally attributed to heat by the individual. In the healthy individual, these natural responses abate on exposure to cooler temperatures.

Definition:  The external evils fire and summerheat manifesting in the body in pathological signs such as high fever, fear of heat, desire for coolness, thirst, red face, red eyes, reddish urine, red tongue with yellow fire, and rapid pulse. Fire and summerheat are two of the six excesses. They result from exposure to heat in the environment or to spells of weather that are abnormally hot for the season.

Definition:  Any condition manifesting in signs similar to those of fire and summerheat that are the result of a)~yin vacuity or b)~the transformation of either external evils passing into the interior or of the transformation of yang qi as a result of affect damage (physiologically disruptive effects of emotional and mental states). See fire.

Definition:  One of eight parameters under which any of the above pathological conditions are classified. The terms that describe the action of heat in the body that produces heat patterns include:

blaze  (fán) ( fan2), to burn vigorously (e.g., qi and construction both ablaze);

deflagrate  (fén) ( fen2), to burn intensely (e.g., heart fire deflagrating internally);

effulgent  (wàng) ( wang4), burning brightly (e.g., effulgent yin vacuity fire);

steam  (steam) ( zheng1), to rise gently upward or out to the surface (e.g., steaming bones);

flame upward  (shàng yán) ( shang4 yan2), (of fire) to rise like a flame to produce upper body signs. (e.g., liver fire flaming upward);

scorch  (zhuó) ( zhuo2), to damage slightly by burning (e.g., evil heat scorching the network vessels);

condense  (liàn) ( lian4), reduce fluids (producing phlegm).

Definition:  Heat~effusion or subjective sensations of heat that may or may not be classified as heat among the eight principles.

Definition:  One of the four natures (heat, cold, warmth, coolness) of medicinals, used in the treatment of cold patterns. The term `heat' is distinguished from `fire',' `summerheat', and `warmth' as follows. `Fire' in the context of the six excesses means heat in the broad sense, but may also denote intense heat as opposed to the milder form, warmth. Heat occurring between the summer solstice and the autumn equinox is called `summerheat', in contrast to `fire' and `heat', which usually denote heat occurring at other times of the year. `Heat' and `fire' may also denote states arising within the body as a result of transformation of other evils or of yang qi. In this context, `fire' denotes more intense forms of heat, as in `extreme heat transforming into fire' and `damp depression transforming into fire', and specifically denotes heat that manifests in upper body signs, e.g., `liver fire flaming upward' and `heart fire'.

heat bind

 jié

Synonym:  yang bind .

gathering and binding in a particular location. When heat binds in the stomach and intestines, there is dry bound stool, and a sunken replete pulse; in severe cases, there may be tidal heat~effusion and delirious speech. See yang brightness disease. When heat binds in the blood aspect, a blood amassment pattern emerges. Systematized Identification of Warm Diseases (wën bìng tiáo biàn) states, ``Heat bind with circumfluence is not a stoppage of qi. There is no need for Aurantii Fructus Immaturus (zhî shí) and Magnoliae Cortex (hòu ); simply use Mirabilitum (máng xiäo) to enter yin and resolve the heat bind.'' According to On Cold Damage (shäng hán lùn) in greater yang heat that fails to resolve, heat binds in the bladder, and the patient becomes manic, and passes blood. If blood is passed, the patient will recover.

Acupuncture:  For gastrointestinal heat bind, see heat constipation. See yang brightness bowel pattern; qi-aspect pattern; heat constipation; cold damage blood amassment pattern.

heat binding in the bladder

 jié páng guäng

Synonym:  bladder heat bind .

A repletion pattern of contention between blood and heat. Heat binding in the bladder develops when greater yang disease fails to resolve, transforms into heat, and enters the interior. The heat then binds in the bladder causing hard fullness of the lower abdomen, uninhibited urination, heat~effusion without aversion to cold, and manic mental states.

heat binding in the stomach and intestines

 jié cháng wèi

Synonym:  gastrointestinal heat bind .

See heat bind.

heat bind with circumfluence

 jié páng líu

Hard stool in the intestines, allowing looser stool to pass around it, manifesting in constipation followed by foul-smelling diarrhea. It is associated with abdominal fullness and distention with pain that refuses pressure, a red tongue with thick dry yellow, possibly gray fur with prickles, a sunken replete rapid pulse. In some cases, there may be vexation and agitation, clouded spirit, and delirious raving. On Warm Epidemics (wën  lùn) states: ``Heat bind with circumfluence, is due to stomach domain repletion with internal heat congestion. There is first constipation, and then diarrhea that is pure fetid water completely without feces, three or four, or up to ten times a day. The appropriate treatment is Major Qi-Coordinating Decoction ( chéng  täng). When bound stool appears, the diarrhea will stop. If taking the decoction fails to produce bound stool, and there is diarrhea with fetid water and the ingested decoction, this is because the evil in the large intestinal is exuberant, causing it to fail to perform the office of conveyance. Thus, one knows that the evil is still present, and the illness will not be alleviated. [In such cases,] it is appropriate to precipitate again.'' See yang brightness bowel patterns.

heat block

 

A pathology in which heat evil congests in the bowels and viscera and in the channels and network vessels, blocking normal movement out of the body. When in measles, for example, the heat toxin is not thrust outward to produce a maculopapular eruption but instead falls inward to block the lung and cause cough and hasty panting, the resulting condition is described as an internal heat toxin block. When in strangury patterns heat hampers bladder function causing painful rough (disfluent) urination, the condition is often described as a bladder heat block. See block.

heat-block tetanic reversal

  jìng jué and

tetany (pronounced spasm) due to an evil blocked in the interior. It occurs, for example, in child fright wind occurring in high fever. See block.

heat chest bind

 jié xiöng

heat repletion chest bind.

heat cholera

 huò luàn

Synonym:  heat qi cholera .

arising when obstruction of center burner after internal damage by rich food or external contraction of summerheat-heat or damp-heat. In addition to the principal signs of cholera (simultaneous vomiting and diarrhea), there is gripping pain in the abdomen, hot malodorous stool, oppression in the chest, heart vexation, heat~effusion, thirst, yellow or reddish urine, a yellow slimy tongue fur, and a rapid surging or rapid sunken pulse.

Medication:  Clear heat and transform dampness; repel foulness and drain turbidity. Use Coptis and Magnolia Bark Beverage (lián  yîn) or Coptis and Elsholtzia Powder (huáng lián xiäng  sân).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LI, ST, SP, and PC. Select LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , ST-37 (shàng  , Upper Great Hollow) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , and PC-7 ( líng, Great Mound) ; needle with drainage.

heat constipation

  due to heat binding in the large intestine (

see heat bind). Heat constipation is accompanied by generalized heat~effusion, red facial complexion, aversion to heat and desire for coolness, mouth and tongue sores, dry mouth and parched lips, yellow or reddish urine, yellow tongue fur, and a rapid replete pulse.

Medication:  Treat by clearing heat and draining precipitation using Diaphragm-Cooling Powder (liáng  sân), Three Yellows Bitter Orange and Ovate Atractylodes Pill (sän huáng zhî zhú wán), or Saussurea and Areca Pill ( xiäng bïng láng wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on the alarm, back transport, and lower uniting points of LI, and on ST and LI. Select BL-25 ( cháng shü, Large Intestine Transport) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , ST-37 (shàng  , Upper Great Hollow) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , SP-14 ( jié, Abdominal Bind) , and KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) ; needle with drainage.

heat cough

 sòu attributed to depressed heat damaging the lung.

Heat cough is treated in different ways depending on the quantity of phlegm. Heat cough is usually associated with scant thick sticky yellow phlegm that takes repeated coughing to expectorate and that may be flecked with blood, and attended by a dry sore throat, hot breath issuing from the nose, and sometimes heat~effusion.

Medication:  Clear heat and moisten the lung using formulas such as Coptis Phlegm-Transforming Beverage (huáng lián huà tán yîn).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on LU and LI. Select BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LU-10 ( , Fish Border) , LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , and GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) ; needle with drainage. Prick LU-11 (shào shäng, Lesser Shang) to bleed. In some cases, heat cough is associated with copious yellow phlegm with a fishy smell, accompanied by fullness and oppression in the chest and stomach duct, heat vexation, red facial complexion, and rapid pulse.

Medication:  Treat by clearing heat and sweeping phlegm with formulas such as Minor Chest Bind Decoction (xiâo xiàn xiöng täng) or Scutellaria and Pinellia Pill (qín bàn wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on LU and LI. Select BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LU-10 ( , Fish Border) , LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) , CV-22 (tiän , Celestial Chimney) , and CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) . Needle with drainage.

heat damages qi

 shäng 

Heat and summerheat cause the interstices to open and let sweat flow, thereby damaging liquid and wearing qi. See, for example, summerheat-heat.

heat damaging the network vessels of the lung

 shäng fèi luò <

heat damaging the network vessels> Heat in the lung causing bloody expectorate. Both repletion heat and vacuity heat can damage the network vessels of the lung.

Repletion heat:  (shí ) Repletion heat is observed in diseases of recent onset. It is attributable to depressed evils transforming into heat and is characterized by expectoration of copious amounts of blood, heat~effusion, red facial complexion, red tongue with yellow fur, and slippery rapid pulse.

Medication:  White-Draining Powder (xiè bái sân) combined with Indigo and Clamshell Powder (dài  sân) plus Imperatae Rhizoma (bái máo gën), Nelumbinis Rhizomatis Nodus (ôu jié), Ecliptae Herba ( hàn lián), and Rehmanniae Radix Exsiccata seu Recens (shëng  huáng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LU, LI, and PC. Drain LU-10 ( , Fish Border) , PC-8 (láo göng, Palace of Toil) , BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , and LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , and prick LU-11 (shào shäng, Lesser Shang) , and LI-1 (shäng yáng, Shang Yang) to bleed.

Vacuity heat:  ( ) Vacuity heat is observed in patients suffering from chronic disease or depletion of lung-kidney yin when vacuity fire scorches the lung, and is characterized by expectoration of scant amounts of blood or merely blood-flecked phlegm, periodic low fever, postmeridian tidal heat~effusion, flushing of the cheeks, pale red tongue, and rapid fine pulse.

Medication:  Lily Bulb Lung-Securing Decoction (bâi   fèi täng). Add Imperatae Rhizoma (bái máo gën), Nelumbinis Rhizomatis Nodus (ôu jié), Ecliptae Herba ( hàn lián), and Rehmanniae Radix Exsiccata seu Recens (shëng  huáng) to stanch bleeding and add Artemisiae Apiaceae seu Annuae Herba (qïng häo), Amydae Carapax (bië jiâ), Lycii Radicis Cortex (  ), and Cynanchi Baiwei Radix (bái wëi), to clear vacuity heat.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LU and KI. Drain LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , LU-6 (kông zuì, Collection Hole) , LU-10 ( , Fish Border) , and , and supplement KI-2 (rán , Blazing Valley) , and KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) .

heat damaging the sinews

 shäng jïn mài

High or enduring heat~effusion scorches construction-yin, depriving the sinews of nourishment and thereby causing hypertonicity of the limbs, wilting and limpness, or paralysis.

heat damaging the spirit light

 shäng shén míng

Heat causing spirit-mind signs such as clouded spirit, mania etc. Heat damaging the spirit light is most commonly observed in heat entering the pericardium in warm disease.

heat depression

 

A condition that arises when any persistent depression (damp depression, qi depression, etc.) transforms into heat, and that is characterized by clouded head and dizzy vision, thirst with desire for fluid, dry lips and tongue, yellow or reddish urine, and a rapid sunken pulse. Sometimes the flesh is scorching hot to the touch. Qi depression is the underlying cause of all of the six depressions, and is attributed to constrained affect-mind causing binding depression of liver qi. Whatever other forms of depression liver qi depression causes, it can always transform into heat.

Medication:  Use Heat Depression Decoction (  täng).

heat diarrhea

 xiè

Synonym:  fire diarrhea .

caused by heat distressing the stomach and intestines. Heat diarrhea patterns are marked by abdominal pain and rumbling intestines. Pain comes in bouts with diarrhea. The stool is thick and sticky, or watery, or containing untransformed food. Other signs include burning pain in the anus, tenesmus, thirst with desire for cold drinks, and rough voidings of reddish urine.

Western Medical Concept:  bacterial food poisoning* food poisoning*!bacterial bacillary dysentery* dysentery*!bacillary bacillary enteritis* enteritis*!bacillary

Medication:  Clear heat and drain fire with formulas such as Scutellaria Decoction (huáng qín täng), Pueraria, Scutellaria, and Coptis Decoction ( gën qín lián täng), or Saussurea and Coptis Pill (xiäng lián wán)

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV, ST, and SP. Select CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and ST-37 (shàng  , Upper Great Hollow) ; needle with drainage. For qi vacuity with heat, add BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) .

heat disease

 bìng

Definition: 

Synonym:  febrile disease .

Any disease characterized by heat~effusion (fever), caused by externally contracted evil. Compare heat disease. See externally contracted heat febrile disease; cold damage; warm disease.

Definition:  Febrile disease in summer caused by latent qi.

heat distention

 zhàng arising when damage by liquor and rich food causes damp-

heat to brew in the center or when depressed qi transforms into fire. Heat distention is characterized by abdominal fullness and distention, dry bound stool, yellow or reddish urine, and a rapid surging pulse. In some cases there is heat~effusion.

Medication:  Drain fire and dry dampness using Center Fullness Separating and Dispersing Pill (zhöng mân fën xiäo wán) or Tangkuei, Gentian, and Aloe Pill (däng guï lóng huì wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on ST, CV, PC, SP, and LI. Select ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with drainage.

heat distressing the large intestine

   cháng

Impairment of the large intestine's governing of conveyance and transformation manifesting in abdominal pain, diarrhea with malodorous yellow stool, burning pain in the anus, short voidings of yellow urine, dry yellow tongue fur, and a slippery rapid pulse.

heat dysentery

  forming a heat pattern.

Heat dysentery is usually attributable to exuberant heat in the intestines causing accumulation and stagnation. It is characterized by the general signs of dysentery (abdominal pain, tenesmus, and red and white stool) in addition to generalized heat~effusion, vexation and thirst with intake of fluid, hot reddish urine, slimy yellow tongue fur, and a forceful rapid slippery pulse.

Medication:  Clear heat, cool the blood, and resolve toxin. Use formulas such as Pulsatilla Decoction (bái tóu wëng täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on ST and LI. Select LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , ST-37 (shàng  , Upper Great Hollow) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , and GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) ; needle with drainage.

heat~effusion

 

Synonym:  fever .

Abnormal bodily heat that can be detected by palpation or that is experienced subjectively; fever. Heat~effusion occurring with aversion to cold or aversion to wind at the onset of illness indicates external evils invading the fleshy exterior. If the aversion to cold is more pronounced than the heat~effusion, the pattern is one of wind-cold. Pronounced heat~effusion with only aversion to wind suggests wind-heat. Heat~effusion without aversion to cold occurs in various patterns. Distinction is made between vigorous heat~effusion, tidal heat~effusion, vexing heat in the five hearts, steaming bone tidal heat~effusion, baking heat~effusion, and unsurfaced heat.

Vigorous heat~effusion  (zhuàng ) , a persistent high fever without aversion to cold, occurs as external evil passes from the exterior into the interior of the body.

Tidal heat~effusion  (cháo ) , heat~effusion that recurs at regular intervals, usually every afternoon, is in most cases due to internal heat from yin vacuity. Because the heat~effusion feels as though it is radiating out from the innermost part of the body, it is also called steaming bone tidal heat~. See also postmeridian tidal heat~effusion and late afternoon tidal heat~effusion.

Baking heat~effusion  (höng ) is the steady heat~effusion that is associated with damage to yin, and attended by heart vexation, insomnia, and oppressive feverishness.

Vexing heat in the five hearts  ( xïn fán ) refers to heat in the center of the soles and palms, and the center of the chest. It is usually a sign of yin or blood vacuity but may also occur when evils are deep-lying in the yin aspect or when fire becomes depressed.

Unsurfaced heat~effusion  (shën   wài yáng) is caused by dampness trapping hidden heat so that the heat can only be felt after longer palpation.

High fever  (gäo ) , fever!high heat~effusion as shown by a high reading on the thermometer, is a modern medical term now often used in Chinese medical literature. See also gan heat~effusion; qi vacuity heat~effusion; hot back; hot head.

heat~effusion and aversion to cold

 hán  

See the separate entries heat~effusion; aversion to cold.

heat entering construction-blood

  yíng xuè

In warm disease, heat evil entering the construction aspect or blood aspect. See construction-aspect pattern; blood-aspect pattern; clearing construction; cooling the blood.

heat entering the blood aspect

  xuè fèn invading the blood aspect in warm heat disease.

Heat entering the blood aspect easily causes wear on the blood and causes it to move frenetically. Signs include heat~effusion becoming more pronounced at night, clouded spirit, agitation, or convulsions, patches and macules, bleeding, and a deep crimson tongue. On Warm Heat (wën  lùn) says that ``Entry into the blood poses the danger of wear on the blood and stirring of the blood. It calls for cooling and dissipating blood.'' See blood-aspect pattern.

heat entering the blood chamber

  xuè shì exploiting vacuity during menstruation or after childbirth to enter the blood chamber (

thoroughfare vessel and uterus) to contend with the blood. Heat entering the blood chamber is characterized by hard fullness in the lower abdomen or chest and rib-side, alternating heat~effusion and aversion to cold, and nonsensical talk at night.

Medication:  Treat with Minor Bupleurum Decoction (xiâo chái  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on GB, LR, and SP. Select GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , LR-14 ( mén, Cycle Gate) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , and SP-8 ( , Earth's Crux) ; needle with drainage. On Cold Damage (shäng hán lùn) says: ``For heat entering the blood chamber, LR-14 ( mén, Cycle Gate) must be needled.''

heat entering the pericardium

  xïn bäo

A warm heat disease pattern characterized by high fever, clouded spirit, delirious speech, reversal cold of the limbs, and convulsions. See pericardiac pattern.

heat epilepsy

 xián due to accumulated heat.

Heat epilepsy occurs in infants when feeding damages the stomach, heat accumulates in the stomach and gives rise to wind phlegm. It is characterized by drawing together of mouth and eye, jerking of the limbs, rigid lumbus and back, arched rigidity of the neck, foaming at the mouth, sound in the nose, vigorous heat~effusion, and crying.

Medication:  Abate heat~effusion and eliminate epilepsy using formulas such as Uncaria Beverage (göu téng yîn) and variations.

Acupuncture:  Use the general points given for fits under epilepsy, and needle GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , and ST-45 ( duì, Severe Mouth) . Prick to bleed.

heat evil

 xié as a disease-

causing agent, causing repletion patterns that are hot and yang in nature with signs such as heat~effusion, rough breathing, redness and swelling, burning pain, and constipation. Compare evil heat.

heat evil congesting the lung

 xié yöng fèi

Synonym:  heat evil obstructing the lung .

upsetting lung function. Heat evil congesting the lung is characterized by heat~effusion, cough with thick yellow sticky phlegm possibly streaked with blood, a tongue that is red at the tip and margins with a dry yellow fur, and a rapid surging or rapid stringlike pulse. In severe cases, there may be hasty rapid breathing and chest and rib-side pain. This condition is more severe than the more common wind evil invading the lung, and is attributed to phlegm-heat that arises when external evils invade the lung, where they then lie depressed and transform into heat, which damages the liquid of the lung and condenses it to form phlegm that obstructs the network vessels of the lung.

Western Medical Concept:  bronchitis* pneumonia* emphysema* asthma*!bronchial bronchitis; pneumonia; concurrent infections in emphysema and in bronchial asthma.

Medication:  Clear and drain lung heat with White-Draining Powder (xiè bái sân).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LU and LI. Select BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , LU-7 (liè quë, Broken Sequence) , LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , LU-10 ( , Fish Border) , GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) , and ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) ; needle with drainage, and prick LU-11 (shào shäng, Lesser Shang) to bleed.

heat evil obstructing the lung

 xié  fèi

heat evil congesting the lung.

heat evil passing into the interior

 xié chuán 

Synonym:  exterior heat passing into the interior .

Externally contracted evil moving from the exterior of the body into the interior, marked by the disappearance of aversion to wind or cold, increase in heat~effusion, reddening of the eyes, oppression in the chest, vexation and agitation, thirst with intake of fluid, constipation, red tongue with yellow fur, a rapid pulse, and in severe cases delirious speech.

heat formation

huà 

See transformation into heat.

heat gan

 gän

See cold-heat gan.

heat heart pain

 xïn tòng

Synonym:  heat reversal heart pain ;

Synonym:  fire heart pain .

attributed to depressed heat that may arise when summerheat toxin enters the heart or after continual consumption of hot medicinals or hot food. Heat heart pain is characterized by intermittent burning stomach duct pain that fears heat and likes cold, sometimes accompanied by red or yellow face and eyes, generalized heat~effusion, vexation and agitation, heat in the palms and soles, and hard stool.

Medication:  Resolve depression and drain heat with Toosendan Powder (jïn líng  sân) or, in severe cases, Major Qi-Coordinating Decoction ( chéng  täng). See reversal heart pain.

heat hiccough

 è attributed to stomach fire ascending counterflow or depressed phlegm-

fire. Heat hiccough is a forceful hiccough accompanied by red facial complexion, vexation and thirst, dry mouth and dry tongue, yellow tongue fur, and a rapid large surging pulse.

Medication:  Harmonize the stomach and downbear fire using formulas such as Tangerine Peel and Bamboo Shavings Decoction (  zhú  täng) or Stomach-Quieting Beverage (än wèi yîn). For patterns with constipation, use Diaphragm-Cooling Powder (liáng  sân), whereas for phlegm-fire in the stomach use Pinellia and Scutellaria Pill (bàn huáng wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on ST, LR, and PC. Main points: BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , CV-14 ( què, Great Tower Gate) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , and LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) . Selection of points according to pattern: For stomach fire ascending counterflow, add ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) and LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , and needle with drainage. For depressed phlegm fire, add ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) . For constipation, add TB-6 (zhï göu, Branch Ditch) , and needle with drainage. See hiccough.

heat impediment

 

Definition: 

An impediment pattern attributed either to heat toxin pouring into the joints or externally contracted wind-cold-damp evil contending with internally brewing heat. It is characterized by hot red swollen painful joints sometimes accompanied by heat~effusion and thirst.

Western Medical Concept:  arthritis*!rheumatoid arthritis*!rheumatic gout* rheumatic arthritis; rheumatoid arthritis; gout.

Medication:  Clear heat and dispel dampness; diffuse impediment and relieve pain. Use formulas such as Cinnamon Twig, Peony, and Anemarrhena Decoction (guì zhï sháo yào zhï  täng).

Acupuncture:  Main points: GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , and LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) . Needle to a shallow depth and drain, or use cutaneous needle. For selection of points according to affected area, see impediment .

Definition:  vessel impediment.

heat in the heart of the palms and soles

shôu  xïn 

Feeling of heat in the palms and soles.

heat in the stomach

wèi zhöng 

See stomach heat.

heat is treated with cold

 zhê hán zhï

From Elementary Questions ( wèn) Cold and cool medicinals are used for heat patterns. Heat patterns include exterior heat, internal heat, vacuity heat, and repletion heat. Exterior heat forming a repletion pattern is treated by resolving the exterior with coolness and acridity, while interior heat is treated by clearing. Vacuity heat is treated by enriching yin to abate heat or by eliminating greate heat with sweetness and warmth.

heat malaria

 nüè characterized by pronounced heat~

effusion and mild aversion to cold. Universal Aid Formulary (  fäng) states, ``Evil in the yang brightness channel is heat malaria, which is treated mainly by precipitation.'' See foot yang brightness malaria.

heat night crying

  

Crying in infants and children attributed to fetal heat, fright heat, or wind-heat. Heat night crying is associated with supine posture, copious tearing, red facial complexion reddish urine, generalized heat~effusion (possibly with sweating), and hot breath. The crying is exacerbated by heat and light.

Medication:  Clear the heart and quiet the spirit using Red-Abducting Powder (dâo chì sân) plus Coptidis Rhizoma (huáng lián).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on HT, GV, LI, SI, and empirical points. Needle with drainage at BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , HT-8 (shào , Lesser Mansion) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) , and LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , and with even supplementation and drainage at , , and SI-3 (hòu , Back Ravine) .

heat panting

 chuân attributed to intense lung heat.

Heat panting arises when heat scorches the lung and prevents the normal downward movement of water, causing phlegm-fire to congest and obstruct the airways. It is associated with copious thick phlegm, heat vexation, and fullness in the chest.

Medication:  Clear the lung, drain heat, and flush phlegm. Use formulas such as Fire-Draining Lung-Clearing Decoction (xiè huô qïng fèi täng). Contraction of cold when there is heat in the lung and accumulated phlegm in the center can also give rise to a panting pattern sometimes referred to as ``cold-enveloping-heat panting,'' which is treated by diffusing depressed heat with formulas such as Ephedra Panting-Stabilizing Decoction ( huáng dìng chuân täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LU, LI, ST, and SP. Select , LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , LU-7 (liè quë, Broken Sequence) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) , and SP-2 ( , Great Metropolis) , needling with drainage. Prick LU-11 (shào shäng, Lesser Shang) to bleed. For coughing of blood, add LU-6 (kông zuì, Collection Hole) , and LU-10 ( , Fish Border) , needling with drainage. For panting from cold enveloping heat, add BL-12 (fëng mén, Wind Gate) and BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) .

heat pattern

 zhèng

Any sign or signs indicating the presence of heat. Heat patterns arise when a yang evil invades the body or when yin humor becomes insufficient. Thus, heat patterns are caused by a surfeit of yang or a deficit of yin, and form repletion heat or vacuity heat patterns.

Repletion heat:  (shí ) Repletion heat patterns are characterized by red complexion, reddening of the eyes, vigorous heat~effusion, agitation, thirst, desire for cold fluids, hard stool, short voidings of reddish urine, a red or crimson tongue with a yellow fur, and rapid pulse or a rapid large surging pulse.

Medication:  Repletion heat is treated by clearing, according to the principle that heat is treated with cold. Heat-clearing fire-draining medicinals such as Gypsum (shí gäo), Anemarrhenae Rhizoma (zhï ), Coptidis Rhizoma (huáng lián), and Rhei Rhizoma ( huáng) are commonly used. Heat-clearing toxin-resolving medicinals are useful in specific cases. Formulas frequently used to treat repletion heat patterns include White Tiger Decoction (bái  täng) and Heart-Draining Decoction (xiè xïn täng). In treating vacuity heat, nourishing yin is of greater importance than clearing heat. Medicinals frequently used include Artemisiae Apiaceae seu Annuae Herba (qïng häo), Cynanchi Baiwei Radix (bái wëi), Stellariae Lanceolatae Radix (yín chái ), Lycii Radicis Cortex (  ), Anemarrhenae Rhizoma (zhï ), and Phellodendri Cortex (huáng bâi). Sweet Wormwood and Turtle Shell Decoction (qïng häo bië jiâ täng) is a commonly used vacuity-heat--clearing formula. See also supplementing yin.

Acupuncture:  PC-8 (láo göng, Palace of Toil) , HT-8 (shào , Lesser Mansion) , PC-9 (zhöng chöng, Central Hub) , HT-9 (shào chöng, Lesser Surge) , and GV-26 (shuî göu, Water Trough) can be used to treat heart fire; LU-10 ( , Fish Border) , LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , LU-11 (shào shäng, Lesser Shang) , and LI-1 (shäng yáng, Shang Yang) can be selected to treat lung heat; LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , GB-43 (xiá , Pinched Ravine) , and GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) can be selected to treat liver-gallbladder fire; ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , and ST-45 ( duì, Severe Mouth) can be selected to treat stomach fire (heat); ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) can be selected to treat large intestine fire (heat); HT-8 (shào , Lesser Mansion) , ST-39 (xià  , Lower Great Hollow) , and SI-2 (qián , Front Valley) can be selected to treat small intestine fire (heat); CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) can be selected to treat exuberant bladder heat; needle with drainage or prick to bleed.

Vacuity heat:  ( ) Vacuity heat patterns are marked by vexing heat in the five hearts (palms, soles and chest), steaming bone tidal heat~effusion, dry throat and mouth, smooth bare red tongue (mirror tongue), and a thin, rapid pulse.

Medication:  Medicinals frequently used for clearing vacuity heat include Artemisiae Apiaceae seu Annuae Herba (qïng häo), Cynanchi Baiwei Radix (bái wëi), Stellariae Lanceolatae Radix (yín chái ), Lycii Radicis Cortex (  ), Anemarrhenae Rhizoma (zhï ), and Phellodendri Cortex (huáng bâi). Sweet Wormwood and Turtle Shell Decoction (qïng häo bië jiâ täng) is a formula commonly used for clearing vacuity heat.

Acupuncture:  KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , KI-2 (rán , Blazing Valley) , KI-1 (yông quán, Gushing Spring) , HT-8 (shào , Lesser Mansion) , and HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) can be selected to treat kidney vacuity with fire stirring; ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , SP-3 (tài bái, Supreme White) , and BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) can be selected to treat spleen-stomach vacuity fire; BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , BL-43 (gäo huäng shü, Gao-Huang Transport) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , and KI-2 (rán , Blazing Valley) can be used to treat lung taxation vacuity heat; use both supplementation and drainage to address the vacuity and the heat respectively.

heat phlegm

 tán

Definition: 

A phlegm pattern characterized by cough with thick sticky yellow or white phlegm that is difficult to expectorate and by rapid breathing. General signs include heat~effusion, dry mouth, sore swollen throat, red tongue with yellow fur, and slippery rapid pulse, all of which indicate heat. In internal damage miscellaneous disease, repeated incidence of heat phlegm signs often gives rise to phlegm-fire. This occurs when phlegm heat failing to clear brews internally and Transforms into fire.

Comparison:  Heat phlegm should be distinguished from dryness phlegm. Dryness phlegm is caused by dryness evil or lung (or lung-kidney) yin vacuity, and is characterized by scant phlegm that is difficult to expectorate, and signs of yin humor depletion such as dry mouth, tongue, throat, and nose. In contrast, heat phlegm is characterized by thick yellow or white phlegm, rapid breathing, and pronounced heat signs. Dryness phlegm is either vacuity or repletion; heat phlegm is always a repletion pattern.

Western Medical Concept:  Heat phlegm usually falls within the scope of acute inflammatory respiratory diseases (or acute attacks in chronic conditions) in Western medicine.

Medication:  Clear heat and resolve toxin; transform phlegm. Commonly used medicinals include Scutellariae Radix (huáng qín), Lonicerae Flos (jïn yín huä), Taraxaci Herba cum Radice ( göng yïng), Houttuyniae Herba cum Radice ( xïng câo), Mori Radicis Cortex (säng bái ), Descurainiae seu Lepidii Semen (tíng  ), Fritillariae Cirrhosae Bulbus (chuän bèi ), Trichosanthis Fructus (guä lóu), Bambusae Succus Exsiccatus (zhú ), Phragmititis Rhizoma Recens (xiän  gën), and Benincasae Semen (döng guä ). Formulas include Lonicera and Phragmites Mixture (yín wêi  ) and its variations.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LU, LI, and back transport points. Select BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) , and CV-22 (tiän , Celestial Chimney) ; needle with drainage. For sore swollen throat, drain LU-11 (shào shäng, Lesser Shang) or prick to bleed.

Definition:  A disease pattern arising in patients suffering from phlegm disease, when eating hot spicy foods and rich fried or roasted meats, using excessively thick clothing or bedclothes, and from heat evil due to hot weather triggers panting, expectoration, cough, and spitting.

Definition:  Phlegm-heat confounding the heart arising when phlegm and heat contend with each other, gather and bind. It is characterized by turbid thick gluey yellow phlegm that is sometimes flecked with blood and that is difficult to expectorate, and by a surging pulse, red face, heat vexation and heart pain, frequent laughing, mania and withdrawal, clamoring stomach, anguish, fearful throbbing, and dry mouth and lips.

Medication:  Clear the heart, drain fire, and abduct phlegm. Use Qi-Clearing Phlegm-Transforming Pill (qïng  huà tán wán) or Chlorite/Mica Phlegm-Rolling Pill (méng shí gûn tán wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GV, HT, ST, and PC. Select GV-26 (shuî göu, Water Trough) , BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , PC-7 ( líng, Great Mound) , and PC-5 (jiän shî, Intermediary Courier) ; needle with drainage.

Definition:  fire phlegm.

heat qi cholera

  huò luàn

heat cholera.

heat repletion chest bind

 shí jié xiöng

Synonym:  heat chest bind .

A pattern (painful hard fullness in the center and abdomen) accompanied by heat~effusion, heart vexation, anguish, clouding and oppression, dry mouth, constipation, and a slippery sunken pulse.

Medication:  Open binds and discharge heat using Three Yellows Heart-Draining Decoction (sän huáng xiè xïn täng) or Major Chest Bind Decoction ( xiàn xiöng täng).

Acupuncture:  See major chest bind.

heat reversal

 jué

A reversal pattern that occurs in generalized heat~effusion and headache and that is attributable to overexuberant evil depressing yang qi and preventing its warming force from reaching the extremities. Its features are clouded spirit, reversal cold of the limbs, and a sunken or hidden pulse that is slippery under pressure. There may be aversion to heat, thirst with desire for fluids, flailing of the arms and legs, vexation and agitation, insomnia, scorching (palpable) heat in the chest and abdomen, constipation and reddish urine.

Medication:  Diffuse depressed heat. Use Counterflow Cold Powder (  sân) for mild patterns and White Tiger Decoction (bái  täng), Major Qi-Coordinating Decoction ( chéng  täng), or Diaphragm-Cooling Powder (liáng  sân) for severe patterns.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on ST, LI, and KI. Select LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , ST-43 (xiàn , Sunken Valley) , and KI-1 (yông quán, Gushing Spring) . Needle with drainage, and prick the to bleed. See reversal pattern; yang reversal.

heat reversal heart pain

 jué xïn tòng

See heat heart pain.

heat scorching kidney yin

 zhuó shèn yïn

Damage to kidney yin by evil heat, usually occurring in advanced stages of warm heat disease and characterized by low fever, scorching (palpable) heat in the hearts of the palms and soles, dry mouth and teeth, deafness, dry smooth emaciated crimson tongue, and a rapid fine or rapid vacuous pulse. Since the teeth are the surplus of the bones, which are governed by the kidney, and since the kidney opens at the ears, dry teeth and deafness are kidney signs.

Medication:  Use variations of Pulse-Restorative Decoction ( mài täng).

Acupuncture:  Drain points such as LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , LU-11 (shào shäng, Lesser Shang) , LI-1 (shäng yáng, Shang Yang) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , and LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) to drain the heat, and needle with supplementation at KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , KI-2 (rán , Blazing Valley) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) to supplement kidney yin.

heat sore

 chuäng

A sore on the lips, at the corners of the mouth, or around the nose, composed of a cluster of vesicles the size and shape of millet seeds or rice beans and containing fluid that is initially clear and progressively turbid. A heat sore, which may be associated with itching or burning pain, usually clears within a week, but easily occurs again. It is attributable to externally contracted heat or upward steaming lung-stomach heat.

Medication:  Clear heat and dissipate wind. Use formulas such as Magnolia Flower Lung-Clearing Powder (xïn  qïng fèi sân) as oral medication and applying Coptis Paste (huáng lián gäo) topically.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LI, LR, ST, and LU. Select LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , and LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) ; needle with drainage. Prick LU-11 (shào shäng, Lesser Shang) and ST-45 ( duì, Severe Mouth) to bleed.

heat strangury

 lín

Definition:  attributable to damp-

heat brewing in the lower burner. Heat strangury is characterized by the general features of strangury (urinary urgency with frequent difficult and painful voidings), as well as by reddish urine. Other possible signs include alternating heat~effusion and aversion to cold, lumbar pain, and smaller-abdominal distention and pain.

Medication:  Clear heat and disinhibit dampness using formulas such as Eight Corrections Powder ( zhèng sân), Red-Abducting Powder (dâo chì sân), or Five Stranguries Powder ( lín sân).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on the three yin channels of the foot and alarm and back transport points of BL (CV-3 and BL-28). Select BL-28 (páng guäng shü, Bladder Transport) , CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , LR-8 ( quán, Spring at the Bend) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , and TB-5 (wài guän, Outer Pass) . Needle with drainage.

Definition:  A general term for strangury patterns.

heat stroke

 zhòng

Definition: 

From Elementary Questions ( wèn) A disease characterized by reddening of the eyes, arising when wind evil invades the stomach, which is linked to the eyes by channel.

Definition:  A qi vacuity and effulgent fire pattern attributable to damage to the spleen through dietary irregularities or taxation fatigue and characterized by generalized heat~effusion, heart vexation, panting, headache, aversion to cold, and in some cases thirst. The pulse is large and floating (and forceless).

Medication:  Use Center-Supplementing Qi-Boosting Decoction ( zhöng   täng).

heat sweating

 hàn

yang sweating.

heat tearing

 lèi (

lacrimation) that is attributable to invasion of wind-heat, to intense liver-lung heat, to flaming yin vacuity fire, or to foreign bodies entering the eye, and that is associated with a hot sensation. Heat tearing may be further associated with aversion to light, swelling of the eyes, and a red facial complexion. It is often observed in external obstructions of the eye. Methods of treatment include coursing wind, clearing heat, nourishing yin, calming the liver, cooling the blood, and dispelling stasis, depending upon the cause. If a foreign body is the cause, this should be removed by washing.

heat toxin

 

Definition:  that arises from depression of fire-

heat disease evil and that gives rise to various external medical diseases such as welling-abscess , clove sores , cinnabar toxin , etc. Compare damp toxin.

Definition:  Warm toxin.

heat toxin precipitation of blood

  xià xuè

Discharging blood from the anus, attributable to heat toxin brewing in the large intestine and causing frenetic movement of the blood. Heat toxin precipitation of blood is characterized by bright red bloody stool, abdominal pain, burning pain in the anus, and dry mouth and tongue.

Medication:  Clear heat and resolve toxin; cool the blood and stanch bleeding. Use Coptis Pill (huáng lián wán) and Blood-Cooling Rehmannia Decoction (liáng xuè  huáng täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on BL, ST, and LI. Select ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , BL-25 ( cháng shü, Large Intestine Transport) , ST-37 (shàng  , Upper Great Hollow) , GV-1 (cháng qiáng, Long Strong) , BL-57 (chéng shän, Mountain Support) , BL-32 ( liáo, Second Bone-Hole) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , and PC-8 (láo göng, Palace of Toil) ; needle with drainage.

heat vexation

fán 

From Elementary Questions ( wèn) accompanied by heat~effusion, or agitation with a subjective feeling of heat and oppression. In externally contracted heat (febrile) disease, heat vexation appearing in exterior patterns indicates that evil heat is not being discharged, whereas its appearance in interior patterns indicates exuberant repletion heat; in interior patterns with fecal stoppage and lesser-abdominal pain, it is caused by dry stool binding internally. In internal damage miscellaneous disease, it is caused by effulgent liver fire or effulgent yin vacuity fire. Compare heat vexation in the chest.

heat vexation in the chest

xiöng zhöng fán 

From Elementary Questions ( wèn) A feeling of oppression, anguish, unease, and heat in the chest. Heat vexation in the chest is usually attributable to internal heat, but can also occur in external contractions.

Hyperactive heart fire:  (xïn huô kàng shèng) Heat vexation in the chest attributable to hyperactivity of heart fire is associated with erosion of the mouth and tongue, thirst, and reddish urine.

Medication:  Clear heat and disinhibit urine. Use Red-Abducting Powder (dâo chì sân).

Blood vacuity with flaming fire  (xuè  huô yán) gives rise to heat vexation in the chest with anxiety and insomnia.

Medication:  Clear heat and eliminate vexation; nurture yin and quiet the spirit. Use Coptis, Ass Hide Glue, and Egg Yolk Decoction (huáng lián ë jiäo   huáng täng). Heat vexation in the chest with heat in the hearts of the palms and soles is called vexing heat in the five hearts.

Externally contracted heat febrile disease:  (wài gân  bìng) Heat vexation in the chest may occur in exterior patterns or after they have abated.

Medication:  In exterior patterns, course the exterior and clear heat with Gardenia and Fermented Soybean Decoction (zhï  chî täng). For residual heat after the exterior pattern has been resolved, use Bamboo Leaf and Gypsum Decoction (zhú  shí gäo täng). Heat vexation in the chest occurring in pregnancy is called vexation of pregnancy.

heat vomiting

 ôu attributable to accumulated spleen-

stomach heat or heat evil invading the stomach. Heat vomiting is characterized by immediate vomiting of ingested food or even violent vomiting often just at the sight of food. It is accompanied by red facial complexion, heart vexation, thirst, constipation, yellow or reddish urine, and a rapid surging pulse.

Western Medical Concept:  gastritis*!acute cholecystitis* pancreatitis* hepatitis* Heat vomiting is observed in acute gastritis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, or hepatitis.

Medication:  Clear heat and drain fire; harmonize the stomach and check vomiting. Use formulas such as Minor Bupleurum Decoction (xiâo chái  täng), Bamboo Shavings Decoction (zhú  täng), or Rhubarb and Licorice Decoction ( huáng gän câo täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on ST, LI, and CV. Select CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , and ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) ; needle with drainage. For incessant vomiting, prick or PC-8 (láo göng, Palace of Toil) to bleed.

heat wheezing

 xiäo due to accumulated phlegm-

heat causing congestion and counterflow of lung qi. Heat wheezing is characterized by rough rapid panting, phlegm rale in the throat, raised chest, cough with thick yellow phlegm, vexation and oppression in the chest and diaphragm, red facial complexion, spontaneous sweating, thirst with intake of fluid, red tongue with slimy yellow tongue fur, and a slippery rapid pulse. In some cases, there may also be exterior signs, as when patients suffering from accumulated internal heat contract external cold, which is a pattern of cold enveloping heat.

Medication:  Diffuse the lung and clear heat; dispel phlegm and stabilize panting. Use formulas such as Panting-Stabilizing Decoction (dìng chuân täng) or Mulberry Root Bark Decoction (säng bái  täng). For cold enveloping heat, treatment should aim to dissipate cold in order to resolve depressed heat, using Spleen-Effusing Decoction Plus Pinellia (yuè  jiä bàn xià täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LU, LI, and ST. Select LU-7 (liè quë, Broken Sequence) , LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LU-11 (shào shäng, Lesser Shang) , , ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) , CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , and GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) ; needle with drainage. Selection of points according to signs: For cold enveloping heat, add BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) and BL-12 (fëng mén, Wind Gate) . For vexation and oppression in the chest and diaphragm, add LU-10 ( , Fish Border) and PC-7 ( líng, Great Mound) . For thirst with intake of fluid, add KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , and KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) .

heaven

tiän

The sky or heavens; the highest cosmic principle or force. The Chinese concept of heaven includes not only the physical sky or space covering the earth, but also weather and the seasons, and the notion of Nature and the forces and laws that govern it.

heaven and man are mutually responsive

tiän rén xiäng yìng

Man and his natural environment bear certain similarities to each other and are interactive. This principle has multiple facets: the correspondence between the phases (metal, wood, water, fire, and earth) and the organs of the five viscera (lung, liver, kidney, heart, and spleen); na" ve correspondences such as ``heaven has the sun and moon; man has two eyes''; correspondence in the doctrine of periods and qi and its practical application of the midday-midnight point selection; the guideline applied in the treatment and prevention of disease of ``acting in accordance with seasonal, geographical, and personal factors.'' See five phases; holism.

heaven-borne blisters

tiän pào chuäng

A disease characterized by blisters.

Western Medical Concept:  pemphigus* pemphigus. Two types are identified. A disease of sudden onset occurring in summer or autumn, marked by blisters on the head, limbs, and body, easily affecting children. The blisters are clearly demarcated and have shiny skin. They are white at the tip and red at the root. When ruptured, they exude fluid and spread quickly, and are infectious. This form of heaven-borne blisters arise when summerheat-damp invades the lung channel and lies depressed in the skin.

Medication:  Clear heat and disinhibit dampness. Use formulas such as Coptis Toxin-Resolving Decoction (huáng lián jiê  täng). A nonseasonal disease slow in development and which is not infectious, marked by thin-walled blisters of different sizes that are red at the root and which exude fluid when they burst. It is accompanied by general signs such as prolonged heat~effusion, oppression in the chest, and torpid stomach. In persistent cases, there may be yin vacuity signs such as steaming bone tidal heat~effusion, smooth bare red tongue, and rapid fine pulse.

Medication:  Use Spleen-Clearing Dampness-Eliminating Beverage (qïng  chú shï yîn). If there is damage to yin, use Stomach-Boosting Decoction ( wèi täng). Wash with Glycyrrhizae Radix (gän câo) water.

heaven current

tiän xíng

Synonym:  seasonal qi ;

Synonym:  seasonal current .

A disease prevalent in a particular place at a particular time, marked by the similar signs in both young and old; an epidemic. Distinction is made between cold and heat. A heavenly current of a cold nature is called a seasonal cold epidemic, whereas one of a hot nature is called heaven-current warm epidemic.

heaven-current cough

tiän xíng sòu

seasonal cough.

heaven-current red eye

tiän xíng chì yán

Compare wind-fire eye.

heaven-current warm epidemic

tiän xíng wën 

scourge epidemic.

heaven, human, and earth

tiän rén 

Three interrelated concepts of Chinese cosmology. In acupuncture, `heaven', `human', and `earth' denote shallow, medium, and deep levels of insertion respectively. See burning mountain fire method and heaven-penetrating cooling method for examples.

heaven, human, and earth supplementation and drainage

tiän rén  sän cái  xiè <

heaven, human, and earth> A method of needling that involves a three-stage insertion to achieve supplementation and a three-stage withdrawal to achieve drainage. Supplementation is achieved by inserting the needle to a shallow depth (heaven), advancing to a middle depth (human), and then further advancing to the deepest level (earth). The needle is then removed in a single movement. Drainage is achieved by first inserting the needle to the deepest level, and then withdrawing to the mid-level, and finally to the shallow level before removal.

heaven level

tiän 

The upper third of the insertion depth of a needle, i.e., the upper third of the distance between the surface of the body and the level of deepest insertion. See heaven, human, and earth. /EB

heavenly stems and earthly branches

tiän gän  zhï

A double series of signs used in combination to designate years, months, days, and hours. See Table .

heavenly tenth

tiän guî

Synonym:  tian-

gui .

Definition:  That upon which development of the human body, sexual function, and in women the ability to produce offspring depends. Elementary Questions ( wèn) states, ``In the male at the age of two eights i.e., sixteen kidney qi is exuberant, ``heavenly tenth'' arrives, essential qi flows forth, yin and yang are in harmony, and he can beget offspring At the age of seven eights i.e., fifty-six the ``heavenly tenth'' is exhausted, essence diminishes, the kidney grows weak, and the body loses its tone; at eight eights, the teeth and hair fall out. In the female at the age of two sevens, the heavenly tenth arrives, the controlling vessel flows, and the thoroughfare vessel fills, the menses come according to their times, and she can bear offspring At seven sevens, the controlling vessel empties, the thoroughfare vessel weakens, the heavenly tenth is exhausted, the passages of the earth are cut, the body deteriorates, and she can no longer bear children.'' These statements indicate that the arrival of the heavenly tenth corresponds to the point at which reproductive maturity is reached, and its ``exhaustion'' to the point at which reproductive function disappears. They further appear to indicate that the heavenly tenth is a product (material or functional) of the ``exuberant kidney qi,'' ``kidney qi'' being most clearly understood in this context as the essential qi of the kidney. The term tian1 gui3 is composed of gui3, meaning the tenth heavenly stem (S10) preceded by the tian1, heaven. According to one interpretation, heaven denotes earlier heaven (congenital constitution), whereas gui3 denotes ``yin water'' (as in the combination , yin and yang water), by which tian1 gui3 would be the ``yin water of earlier heaven,'' i.e., kidney yin or original yin. However, this interpretation is difficult to reconcile with the association of tian1 gui1 with kidney qi in the cited passage.

Definition:  Original yin.

Definition:  Menstruation.

heaven-penetrating cooling method

tòu tiän liáng

A draining needle manipulation method that combines the lifting and thrusting, slow and quick, and open and closed techniques. The heaven-penetrating cooling method is used to treat heat pathoconditions such as heat impediment, welling-abscess swelling, and steaming bone. Determine the depth to which the needle will be inserted, and divide this depth into heaven, human, and earth levels. Ask the patient to inhale deeply and slowly. (Steps 2 through 6 are performed during inhalation.) Thrust slowly and lift quickly at the earth level six times. Insert the needle to the earth level six times. Bring the needle up to the human level. Thrust slowly and lift quickly at the human level six times. Bring the needle up to the heaven level. Thrust the needle slowly and lift the needle quickly at this level six times. Repeat steps 3 through 5. Ask the patient to exhale, and withdraw the needle quickly, leaving the point uncovered.

heaven rampart

tiän kuò

See eight ramparts.

heaviness

zhòng

The state of being heavy. See heavy.

heavy

zhòng

Greater weight or a feeling of greater weight than normal or average.

heavy body

shën zhòng

Synonym:  generalized heaviness .

A sensation of heaviness with inhibited physical movement. Heavy body is due to dampness in the fleshy exterior arising through exposure to external dampness, wind contending with water, or yang vacuity water flood.

Dampness in the fleshy exterior  (shï zháo  biâo) arises through exposure to external dampness, and is characterized by heavy body and generalized pain with difficulty in turning side. There is heat~effusion and aversion to cold, headache and distention in the head as if the head were swathed, oppression in the chest, torpid intake, a thin white slimy tongue fur, and a moderate soggy pulse.

Medication:  Promote sweating and dispel dampness, using Notopterygium Dampness-Overcoming Decoction (qiäng huó shèng shï täng).

Wind contending with water  (fëng shuî xiäng ) arises when external wind fetters the lung and affects qi transformation. The heavy body it causes is less marked than in the previous pattern, and there is swelling of the eyes and face. Attending signs include fear of wind and cold, heat~effusion, headache, aching joints, cough, sore throats, scant urine, a thin white tongue fur, and a pulse that is floating.

Medication:  Diffuse the lung and disinhibit water using Spleen-Effusing Decoction Plus Ovate Atractylodes (yuè  jiä zhú täng).

Yang vacuity water flood  (yáng  shuî fàn) gives rise to heavy body when qi transformation is weakened owing to spleen-kidney yang vacuity. Heavy body in this case is not associated with pain. In addition, there is puffy swelling of the slower limbs that pits when pressure is applied, a withered-yellow of somber white lusterless complexion, torpid intake, sloppy stool, lassitude of spirit and cold limbs, heavy aching lumbus, short voidings of scant urine, a pale enlarged tongue with a white slimy fur, and a pulse that is sunken, fine and moderate.

Medication:  Spleen-Firming Beverage (shí  yîn) or True Warrior Decoction (zhën  täng).

heavy cumbersome head and body

tóu shën kün zhòng

See heavy body; heavy-headedness.

heavy cumbersome limbs

zhï  kün zhòng

Limbs that feel heavy and difficult to move; a sign of dampness.

heavy formula

zhòng 

One of the ten formula types; a formula comprising medicinals that are heavy in weight. Heavy medicinals can eliminate timidity, i.e., they are effective for various conditions involving susceptibility to fear and fright. An example of a heavy formula is Loadstone and Cinnabar Pill ( zhü wán), which contains Magnetitum ( shí), Cinnabaris (zhü shä), and Massa Medicata Fermentata (shén ).

heavy-headedness

tóu zhòng

Feeling of heaviness in the head, sometimes combined with dizziness. Heavy-headedness can be caused by wind-damp, damp-heat, phlegm-damp, or insufficiency of center qi.

Wind-damp  (fëng shï) heavy-headedness is accompanied by headache, head heavy as if swathed (bag-over-the-head sensation), exacerbation in rainy yin-type weather, nasal congestion, a heavy cumbersome, aching body, oppression in the chest, thin slimy tongue fur, and floating moderate or soggy pulse.

Medication:  Dispel wind and overcome dampness with Notopterygium Dampness-Overcoming Decoction (qiäng huó shèng shï täng), and if there is a stomach complication, add Magnoliae Cortex (hòu ), Atractylodis Rhizoma (cäng zhú), and Pinelliae Tuber (bàn xià) to rectify qi.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on triple-yang channel points, GV and ST. Select GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , GV-16 (fëng , Wind Mansion) , GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , SI-3 (hòu , Back Ravine) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , and ST-8 (tóu wéi, Head Corner) ; needle with drainage.

Damp-heat  (shï ) heavy-headedness is accompanied by a painful distention (feeling of pressure in the head) that worsens at noon, red face, generalized heat~effusion, vexation, oppression in the chest, no desire for food and drink, dark yellow urine, yellow slimy tongue fur, and a slippery rapid or soggy rapid pulse.

Medication:  Clear heat and transform dampness using Clear Sky Paste (qïng köng gäo).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on ST and LI. Select , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) ; needle with drainage.

Phlegm-damp  (tán shï) heavy-headedness is worst in the morning on rising and is accompanied by dizziness, tinnitus, somnolence, glomus and oppression in the chest and stomach duct, nausea and drool ejection, white slimy tongue fur, and a soggy slippery pulse.

Medication:  Dry dampness and transform phlegm with formulas such as Pinellia, Ovate Atractylodes, and Gastrodia Decoction (bàn xià bái zhú tiän  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV, GB, ST, and LI. Select GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) , ST-8 (tóu wéi, Head Corner) , , and SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) ; needling with drainage.

Insufficiency of center qi  (zhöng   ) heavy-headedness is characterized by fuzzy-headedness or empty-headedness and dizziness, and is accompanied by lusterless complexion, fatigued spirit and lack of strength, reduced food intake, sloppy stool, pale tongue with dental impressions, and forceless moderate pulse.

Medication:  Use Center-Supplementing Qi-Boosting Decoction ( zhöng   täng) to upbear clear yang.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV and ST. Select GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and SP-3 (tài bái, Supreme White) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa.

heavy medicinals can eliminate timidity

zhòng   qiè

Medicinals that are heavy in substance like Magnetitum ( shí) and Cinnabaris (zhü shä) have a settling and quieting action that makes them effective for the treatment of mental derangement, fright and fear, and forgetfulness.

heavy pain

zhòng tòng

A pain, often an aching pain, associated with a sensation of heaviness; attributed to internal or external dampness. See pain.

heavy settler

zhòng zhèn yào

Any mineral or shell product used, for example, to quiet the spirit in patterns characterized by heart palpitations and manic agitation. See quieting the spirit with heavy settlers.

heel bone

gën 

The bone in the heel of the foot.

Western Medical Concept:  calcaneus* calcaneus.

heel pain

 gën tòng

Pain in either or both heels that is usually unassociated with swelling yet makes walking difficult. Heel pain is a sign of kidney vacuity. If associated with intermittent heat in the lower leg, it is due kidney yin vacuity. If associated with inability to stand for long periods it is due to kidney yang vacuity sign. In some cases, dampness may collect in the heel causing local swelling. Damp-heat may also be observed.

Medication:  Kidney yin vacuity is treated by supplementing the kidney and enriching yin with Six-Ingredient Rehmannia Pill (lìu wèi  huáng wán) or Four Agents Decoction (  täng) and variations. Kidney yang vacuity is treated by supplementing the kidney and warming yang, using Cinnamon Bark and Aconite Eight-Ingredient Pill (guì   wèi wán). For swelling due to dampness, use Statesman Shi's Wine-Steeped Formula (shî guó göng jìn jîu fäng). For damp-heat, use Anemarrhena and Phellodendron Eight-Ingredient Pill (zhï bâi  wèi wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on KI, BL, and PC. Main points: KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) joined to BL-60 (kün lún, Kunlun Mountains) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , BL-62 (shën mài, Extending Vessel) , and PC-7 ( líng, Great Mound) ; needle with supplementation. For kidney yin vacuity, add BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , BL-52 (zhì shì, Will Chamber) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with supplementation. For kidney yang vacuity, add BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , and KI-7 ( lïu, Recover Flow) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa. For dampness, add SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , needling with even supplementation and drainage, and, if appropriate, adding moxa. For damp-heat, SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , needling with drainage.

helix

êr lún

The outer rim of the auricle.

hematuria

niào xuè

bloody urine.

hemilateral headache

piän tóu tòng

Definition: 

hemilateral head wind.

Definition:  Any headache on one side or one part of the head, as opposed to medial headache (the more common type).

hemilateral head wind

piän tóu fëng

Synonym:  hemilateral headache ;

Synonym:  side head wind .

Pain in the temple or the corner of the head, either on the left side or the right, or switching from one to the other. Pain may stretch into the eye, and enduring pain may affect vision. In some cases, there are other accompanying signs such as nausea and vomiting. Hemilateral head wind is attributed to wind evil assailing the lesser yang or liver vacuity and binding depression of phlegm-fire. In former times, it was believed that pain on the left was attributable to wind or blood, or to exuberant blood vacuity fire, whereas pain in the right was due to phlegm or heat, or to qi vacuity complicated by phlegm.

Medication:  Dispel wind and free the network vessels; soothe the liver and sweep phlegm; or supplement the liver and nourish the blood. Use Clear Sky Paste (qïng köng gäo) or Hemilateral Headache Decoction (sàn piän täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GB, LR, ST, SP, and back transport points. Main points: GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , , joining GB-8 (shuài , Valley Lead) , TB-3 (zhöng zhû, Central Islet) , and GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) ; needle with drainage. To soothe the liver and sweep phlegm, add PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , needling with even supplementation and drainage; if there is phlegm-fire, prick to bleed, and needle LI-4 ( , Union Valley) and ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) to drain. To supplement the liver and nourish the blood, add BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , and BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , and needle with supplementation. See head wind; headache.

hemilateral sagging

piän zhuì

sagging of one testicle.

hemilateral sweating

piän 

Sweating on one side of the body; observed in wind stroke. Elementary Questions ( wèn) states, ``Hemilateral sweating causes hemilateral withering.'' The healthy side of the body sweats, whereas the affected side is dry.

hemilateral wind

piän fëng

hemilateral withering.

hemilateral withering

piän 

Synonym:  hemilateral wind .

Hemiplegia with gradual emaciation. See hemiplegia.

hemiplegia

bàn shën  suì

Paralysis of one half of the body. Hemiplegia is the result of wind stroke, and is observed in all wind stroke visceral patterns, bowel patterns, and channel patterns usually in conjunction with deviated eyes and mouth. It is traditionally attributed to a)~debilitation of construction and defense, vacuity of the vessels, and evil qi (wind, cold, dampness, phlegm, or static blood) exploiting the vacuity and entering; b)~qi vacuity; or c)~kidney vacuity with insufficiency of essential qi.

Medication:  Nourish the blood and dispel wind; warm the channels and free the network vessels; boost qi and quicken the blood; supplement the kidney and boost essence. Applicable formulas include the following: Large Gentian Decoction ( qín jiäo täng), Major Network-Quickening Elixir ( huó luò dän), Yang-Supplementing Five-Returning Decoction ( yáng huán  täng), Eight-Gem Decoction ( zhën täng), and Rehmannia Drink ( huáng yîn zi).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on points of the hand and foot yang brightness LI and ST, supported by points of the greater yang and lesser yang . Main points: LI-15 (jiän , Shoulder Bone) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , TB-5 (wài guän, Outer Pass) , GB-30 (huán tiào, Jumping Round) , GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , ST-42 (chöng yáng, Surging Yang) , and BL-60 (kün lún, Kunlun Mountains) . In the early stages, needle both sides. One of the following three methods can be used. First drain the unaffected side, then supplement the affected side. Needle or moxa the two sides alternately. Needle only the affected side, using a medium stimulus. In enduring cases, apply moxa on both sides to supplement. Selection of points according to affected area: For paralysis of the upper limbs, add TB-14 (jiän liáo, Shoulder Bone-Hole) , TB-4 (yáng chí, Yang Pool) , and SI-3 (hòu , Back Ravine) . For paralysis of the lower limbs, add GB-31 (fëng shì, Wind Market) , ST-33 (yïn shì, Yin Market) , and GB-39 (xuán zhöng, Suspended Bell) . For hypertonicity of the elbow, add PC-3 ( , Marsh at the Bend) and LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) . For hypertonicity of the wrist, add PC-7 ( líng, Great Mound) . For hypertonicity of the knee, add LR-8 ( quán, Spring at the Bend) , KI-10 (yïn , Yin Valley) . For hypertonicity of the ankle, add KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) and KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) . For hypertonicity of the fingers, add , and SI-3 (hòu , Back Ravine) joining PC-8 (láo göng, Palace of Toil) . For hypertonicity of the toes, add and KI-1 (yông quán, Gushing Spring) . For deviation of the mouth, add TB-17 ( fëng, Wind Screen) , ST-4 ( cäng, Earth Granary) , ST-6 (jiá chë, Cheek Carriage) , BL-2 (zân zhú, Bamboo Gathering) , and ST-2 ( bái, Four Whites) . For stiff tongue and sluggish speech, add CV-23 (lián quán, Ridge Spring) , , and HT-5 (töng , Connecting Li) . See wind stroke; .

hemorrhoid

zhì

Synonym:  pile .

A protuberance on the inside or outside of the anus, often accompanied by constipation and the passage of fresh blood. A Western medical distinction between internal, external, and mixed hemorrhoids, often seen in modern literature. In traditional medicine, a broad distinction is made between repletion and vacuity. patterns arise when long sitting or standing or walking, enduring dysentery or diarrhea, constipation and straining, or pregnancy cause general depletion and center qi fall that causes loosening of the sinews and vessels. The hemorrhoids usually hang out of the anus and cannot be retracted; they are accompanied by a sensation of sagging distention in the anus. Attending signs may include shortness of breath, laziness to speak, reduced food intake, lack of strength, pale tongue, and weak pulse.

Medication:  Treat with Center-Supplementing Qi-Boosting Decoction ( zhöng   täng). If there is bleeding, use Spleen-Returning Decoction (guï  täng). If there is constipation, use Straitened Spleen Hemp Seed Pill ( yuë  rén wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on BL and empirical points. Main points for hemorrhoids: BL-32 ( liáo, Second Bone-Hole) , GV-1 (cháng qiáng, Long Strong) , BL-35 (huì yáng, Meeting of Yang) , BL-57 (chéng shän, Mountain Support) , and ; needle with supplementation and add moxa. To address the vacuity, add GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , and CV-8 (shén què, Spirit Gate Tower) , and apply moxa. Selection of points according signs: For bloody stool, add SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , SP-1 (yîn bái, Hidden White) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) . For constipation, add BL-25 ( cháng shü, Large Intestine Transport) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , TB-6 (zhï göu, Branch Ditch) , and CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) . patterns arise when dietary irregularities such as excessive consumption of hot acrid foods, enduring constipation, or wind, dampness, dryness, or heat external contractions either cause congestion of qi and blood and engender wind and transform into dryness, or give rise to damp-heat stagnation and turbid qi and static blood pouring down to the anus. Attending signs include thirst, constipation, reddish urine, red tongue and yellow fur, and slippery rapid pulse.

Medication:  Congestion of qi and blood engendering wind and transforming into dryness is treated by clearing heat and cooling the blood and by moistening dryness and coursing wind. Use Blood-Cooling Rehmannia Decoction (liáng xuè  huáng täng). Treat damp-heat by clearing heat and disinhibiting dampness with Pig's Intestines and Coptis Pill (zàng lián wán). If there is constipation, use Major Qi-Coordinating Decoction ( chéng  täng).

Acupuncture:  Use the same main points for hemorrhoids as given above, but needle with drainage. To clear heat and cool the blood, and moisten dryness and course wind, add GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , needling with drainage. To clear heat and disinhibit dampness, add SP-5 (shäng qïu, Shang Hill) and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , needling with drainage. Selection of points according to signs: For sore swollen anus, add BL-54 (zhì biän, Sequential Limit) , BL-2 (zân zhú, Bamboo Gathering) , and BL-58 (fëi yáng, Taking Flight) . For red sore, add PC-8 (láo göng, Palace of Toil) . For bloody stool, add LU-6 (kông zuì, Collection Hole) and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) . For constipation, add BL-25 ( cháng shü, Large Intestine Transport) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , TB-6 (zhï göu, Branch Ditch) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , and LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) . Other methods of treating hemorrhoids include hemorrhoid desiccation and hemorrhoid point picking. For severe cases, modern surgical ligature replaces the traditional treatments. See also everted-flower hemorrhoids.

hemorrhoid desiccation

 zhì 

A method of treating advanced-stage internal hemorrhoids using a powder medicine such as Alum Hemorrhoid-Desiccating Powder ( zhì sân) or Three-Shot Gun (sän pîn  tiáo qiäng) to erode away the hemorrhoids and make them dry up and slough off. Because of the danger of arsenic poisoning, this method is no longer widely used. It should not be applied to patients with anemia, hypertension, cirrhosis of the liver, or active tuberculosis. anemia* hypertension* tuberculosis*!active cirrhosis of the liver*

hemorrhoid point picking

tiäo zhì

Picking of points on the back to treat hemorrhoids. Patients with hemorrhoids are often found to have hemorrhoid points, i.e., small tiny papular protuberances on the back (from vertebra C down to L). These are of a white, red, or brown coloration that does not fade when pressed. Choose papules close to the spine and at as low a position on the back or lumbus as possible. Use a thick needle to pick open the papule, and then pick out ten or so of the fibers visible within the rupture. Apply a dressing.

hen cough

 

whooping cough.

heralding speckle

bào diân

A speckle that forewarns of macular eruption. In measles, for example, faint red speckles may appear at the hairline two or three days before the eruption actually occurs.

heralding tip

bào biäo

heralding speckle.

herbal foundation

bên câo

Synonym:  bencao ;

Synonym:  pen-ts'ao .

Definition:  Collectively, the items used in Chinese medicinal remedies, so called because herbs constitute the majority; materia medica.

Definition:  Any traditional work consisting of a systematic listing of Chinese medicinals with illustrations, e.g., The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (shén nóng bên câo jïng) The Comprehensive Herbal Foundation (bên câo gäng ) and The Essential Herbal Foundation (bên câo bèi yào)

herbal medicinal

câo yào

Any medicinal herb that is used locally and scantly or not mentioned in literature. Such herbs are often referred to as green herbs``'' when sold fresh. See medicinal.

heron cough

 si 

whooping cough.

hiccough

è 

Counterflow upsurge of stomach qi causing a continual series of sudden short sounds produced by a jerking of the stomach. Hiccough may be caused by excessive consumption of raw or cold or hot spicy foods, or cold bitter or warm dry medicines. It may also be caused by emotional stimulus, or by stomach vacuity cold in enduring or severe disease. Distinction is made between cold hiccough; heat hiccough; vacuity hiccough; repletion hiccough; stasis hiccough; phlegm hiccough; qi hiccough.

hidden pulse

 mài

A pulse even deeper than the sunken pulse, considerable pressure being needed to feel it. It is associated with fulminant desertion of yang qi and deep-lying cold, and generally appears in conjunction with severe vomiting, diarrhea, and pain.

high-altitude wind sparrow-vision internal obstruction

gäo fëng què  nèi zhàng <

high-altitude wind> A condition that starts with poor vision in dark places, and subsequently, reduced visual acuity in the daytime, narrowing of the field of vision, and in severe cases clear-eye blindness. If the pupil turns golden yellow with time, the condition is called yellow wind.

Western Medical Concept:  pigmentary degeneration of retina* retina*!pigmentary degeneration of pigmentary degeneration of retina.

Medication:  Enrich the liver and kidney and supplement qi and the blood with formulas such as Right-Restoring Life Gate Pill (yòu guï wán) or Center-Supplementing Qi-Boosting Decoction ( zhöng   täng) with judicious addition of Chloriti seu Micae Lapis (méng shí), Vespertilionis Excrementum ( míng shä), Atractylodis Rhizoma (cäng zhú), and fresh Suis Iecur (zhü gän).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, KI, LR, SI, and BL. Select BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , BL-1 (jïng míng, Bright Eyes) , GB-37 (guäng míng, Bright Light) , SI-6 (yâng lâo, Nursing the Aged) , GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa.

hip bone

kuà 

The bone that can be felt on either side of the body just below the umbilicus.

Western Medical Concept:  ilium* ilium.

hoarse voice

shëng yïn  

A harsh, husky, muffled, faltering, or forced voice; attributable to wind-cold, wind-heat, heat evil invading the lung, lung-kidney yin vacuity, or blood stasis and phlegm. dysphonia*

Western Medical Concept:  dysphonia* dysphonia.

Wind-cold  (fëng hán) hoarse voice is associated with an itchy throat, swollen larynx, cough, heat~effusion, aversion to cold, thin white tongue fur, and a tight floating pulse.

Medication:  Course wind and dissipate cold; diffuse the lung and restore the voice. Use Rough and Ready Three Decoction (sän ào täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GV, LU, and LI. Select GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , LU-8 (jïng , Channel Ditch) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , CV-22 (tiän , Celestial Chimney) , and CV-23 (lián quán, Ridge Spring) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage and, if appropriate, moxa.

Wind-heat  (fëng ) hoarse voice is accompanied by sore throat with burning sensation, heat~effusion, aversion to cold, cough with yellow phlegm, thin yellow tongue fur, and a rapid floating pulse.

Medication:  Course wind and clear heat; diffuse the lung and restore the voice. Use Mulberry Leaf and Chrysanthemum Beverage (säng  yîn).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GV, LU, and LI. Select GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) , LU-7 (liè quë, Broken Sequence) , LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , and CV-23 (lián quán, Ridge Spring) ; needle with drainage and prick LU-11 (shào shäng, Lesser Shang) to bleed.

Heat dryness-heat evil  ( xié) invading the lung causes a hoarse voice accompanied by red sore swollen throat with a sense of blockage, thick phlegm, oppression in the chest, dry stool and reddish urine, red tongue with sticky yellow fur, and a slippery rapid pulse.

Medication:  Treat with Dryness-Clearing Lung-Rescuing Decoction (qïng zào jìu fèi täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, LU, and KI. Select BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , LU-10 ( , Fish Border) , LI-18 ( , Protuberance Assistant) , and KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) ; needle with drainage and prick LU-11 (shào shäng, Lesser Shang) to bleed.

Lung-kidney yin vacuity  (fèi shèn yïn ) hoarse voice is an long-standing condition associated with dry sore itchy throat, sticky phlegm, red tongue with scant fur, and a fine rapid pulse.

Medication:  Enrich the lung and kidney; clear heat and restore the voice. Use Lily Bulb Lung-Securing Decoction (bâi   fèi täng) or Six-Ingredient Rehmannia Pill (lìu wèi  huáng wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, LU, and KI. Select BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , BL-43 (gäo huäng shü, Gao-Huang Transport) , GB-25 (jïng mén, Capital Gate) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , GV-15 ( mén, Mute's Gate) , and CV-23 (lián quán, Ridge Spring) ; needle with supplementation.

Blood stasis and phlegm  (xuè  tán ) hoarse voice is also a long-standing condition that may gradually worsen; it is accompanied by a sore dry throat possibly with visible nodes or lumps; the tongue is purple with thin fur, and the pulse is fine and stringlike.

Medication:  Treat with Borax (péng shä), Pumex (hâi  shí), Sterculiae Semen (pàng  hâi), Chebulae Fructus ( ), Shancigu Bulbus (shän  ), Bolbostemmatis Tuber ( bèi ), Citri Semen ( ), and Litchi Semen ( zhï ).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, SP, ST, and LR. Select BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) , CV-22 (tiän , Celestial Chimney) , and CV-23 (lián quán, Ridge Spring) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage. Compare loss of voice; sudden loss of voice. See also throat lichen .

holism

zhêng  guän

The philosophical notion that phenomena are more than the sum of their component parts; in medicine, the application of this principle, involving the treatment of the whole person rather than isolated signs or diseases. Chinese medicine is considered holistic on the grounds of a perceived emphasis on the relationship between the human being and the environment and the relationship of the parts of the body to the whole in contrast to the emphasis of Western medicine on analysis and detail, in which a global view of the individual and his or her environment is partially lost. Holism is also seen in the universal correspondences of yin-yang and the five phases.

home

shû

Of channels, to meet the organs to which they belong, e.g., the foot greater yin lung channel homes to the lung.

honey pill

 wán

Medicinal preparation consisting of powdered medicinals bound together with a small quantity of honey, and formed into round spheres, usually up to 0.5 cm in diameter.

Hongkong foot

A popular modern name for foot damp qi.

hooking and cutting

göu  

A surgical method of treating the eyes whereby diseased tissue is lifted up with a hook and removed with a knife.

hot

Definition: 

Of or relating to heat. See heat.

Definition:  Of a nature tending to create heat and reduce cold, e.g., hot agent. See four natures.

hot back

bèi 

Palpable heat or feeling of heat in the back. A hot back is a sign of lung heat or yin vacuity.

Lung heat  (fèi ) may be associated with effusion of heat from the back, which gets worse after noon, together with a dry mouth, cough, coughing of yellow phlegm, distending pain in the chest and back, constipation, red complexion, yellow tongue fur, and a rapid pulse.

Medication:  Clear and downbear lung fire with Family Secret White-Draining Powder (jiä  xiè bái sân).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GV, LU, and LI. Select GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) , BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , LU-10 ( , Fish Border) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) ; needle with drainage.

Yin vacuity  (yïn ) may be associated a feeling of heat in the back that gets worse at night, associated with aching pain in the back and lumbus, heat in the hearts of the hands and feet, night sweating, red tongue with little fur, and a rapid fine pulse.

Medication:  Enrich yin and clear heat with Anemarrhena, Phellodendron, and Rehmannia Pill (zhï bâi  huáng wán). Heat in the back at night that abates in the daytime with no other signs is seen in yin vacuity of the elderly. Washing in warm water can reduce the discomfort.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on KI, BL, and GV. Supplement BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , KI-2 (rán , Blazing Valley) , and drain GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) , BL-40 (wêi zhöng, Bend Center) , and LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) . Alternatively, needle all points with even supplementation and drainage.

hot body

shën 

generalized heat~effusion.

hot formula

 

One of the twelve formula types. Heat can eliminate cold; hence hot formulas treat cold patterns. For example, Counterflow Cold Decoction (  täng), which contains Zingiberis Rhizoma Exsiccatum (gän jiäng), Aconiti Tuber Laterale ( ), and Glycyrrhizae Radix (gän câo), treats aversion to cold, counterflow cold of the limbs, curled-up lying posture, watery diarrhea containing untransformed food, absence of thirst, and a forceless deep fine pulse.

hot head

tóu 

From Essential Prescriptions of the Golden Coffer (jïn guì yào lüè) A feeling of heat in the head. A hot head is usually attributable to yin vacuity with upbearing fire, or liver wind or liver yang harassing the upper body, and is often associated with redness of the checks and baking heat~effusion that can be palpated.

Medication:  Enrich yin and downbear fire; calm the liver and subdue yang. Use Gastrodia and Uncaria Beverage (tiän  göu téng yîn) or Uncaria Powder (göu téng sân).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, and points of the three yin channels of the foot, HT, and GB. Main points: BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with supplementation. Selection of points according to patterns: For upbearing vacuity fire, prick HT-8 (shào , Lesser Mansion) and KI-1 (yông quán, Gushing Spring) to bleed. For liver wind and liver yang harassing the upper body, add GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , and GB-43 (xiá , Pinched Ravine) ; needle with drainage.

hot medicinals can eliminate cold

   han

Medicinals that are hot in nature such as Zingiberis Rhizoma Exsiccatum (gän jiäng) and Aconiti Tuber Laterale ( ) can treat cold patterns. See hot formula.

hot pack method

yùn 

A method of treatment in which a cloth bag containing medicinals that have been warmed, usually by stir-frying, is applied to the body to relieve pain. The hot pack method is used to treat wind-cold-damp impediment, cold pain in the stomach duct and abdomen. For example, stomach qi pain can be treated with a hot pack of stir-fried tangerine leaves. Salt, sand, or earth can also be used. Care should be taken not to burn the patient.

hot tears

lèi 

Discharge of hot tear fluid; observed, for example, in wind-fire eye.

house

Synonym:  mansion .

Place of dwelling or activity. See following entries for examples. It should be noted that this term in ancient Chinese was undifferentiated from the term rendered in the present text as bowel.

house of bright essence

jïng míng zhï 

The head.

house of essence

jïng 

essence chamber.

house of the blood

xuè zhï 

The vessels.

house of the kidney

shèn zhï 

The lumbus.

house of the marrow

suî zhï 

The bones.

house of the original spirit

yuán shén zhï 

The brain.

house of the sinews

jïn zhï 

The knees. The knee is an area in which many large sinews converge, and is the location of GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , the meeting point of the sinews. Limpness of the sinews affecting the knees is observed especially in insufficiency of the kidney and liver.

HT

xïn

Abbreviation for the heart or hand lesser yin heart channel.

huang

huäng

Definition: 

The region below the heart and above the diaphragm. See gao-huang.

Definition:  huang membrane.

huang membrane

huäng 

The fatty membrane below the heart and above the diaphragm.

Hua Tuo's paravertebral points

huá tuó jiá  xué

A group of points, named after the famous 3rd century (Eastern Han) physician Hua Tuo, located along either side of the spine about 0.5 body-inches lateral to the lower end of the spinous process of each vertebra. Their functions are similar to those of the governing vessel and transport points between which they are located. They are notably used for diseases of the back and lumbus. Although Hua Tuo's points do not include points beside the cervical vertebrae, in modern clinical practice, however, cervical paravertebral points are used effectively in the treatment of neck diseases. The extended group may be referred to simply as paravertebral points.

human center

rén zhöng

Definition: 

The philtrum.

Definition:  GV-26, which is located in the philtrum.

human-center clove sore

rén zhöng dïng

A clove sore at the human center (philtrum). A human-center clove sore starts as a small lump like a small bean. It is hard, swollen, and painful, and is attended by general signs. It should not be squeezed for fear of encouraging a process of spread and exacerbation known as ``running yellow'' (see clove sore running yellow). Similar sores may occur in the sauce receptacle (the groove between the lip and chin) or at the corners of the mouth, known as sauce receptacle clove sore and tiger's-whiskers clove sore respectively.

human level

rén 

The middle third of the insertion range of a needle, i.e., the middle third of the distance between the surface of the body and the point of deepest insertion. See heaven, human, and earth.

humor

Any fluid in the human body, and specifically a thicker fluid in contrast to ``liquid.'' See five humors; fluids.

humor desertion

tuö 

See damage to yin.

humor-increasing moist precipitation

zëng  rùn xià

See moist precipitation.

hunchback

guï bèi

tortoise back.

hundred-day cough

bâi  

whooping cough.

hyperactive heart fire

xïn huô kàng shèng

Synonym:  intense heart fire ;

Synonym:  exuberant heart fire .

A heart disease pattern characterized by signs such as heat vexation, insomnia, and mouth sores, arising when the six excesses lie depressed in the inner body and transform into fire, when the patient is given to excessive consumption of hot acrid foods or warm supplementing medicinals, or when affect-mind causes transformation into fire. The main signs, heart vexation, insomnia, and mouth sores, are accompanied by red face, thirst, yellow urine, dry stool, blood ejection and spontaneous external bleeding, manic agitation and delirious speech, heat~effusion, and skin sores that are red, swollen, and painful. The tongue is red or red at the tip. The tongue fur is yellow. The pulse is rapid.

Analysis:  The heart stores the spirit and opens at the tongue. Its bloom is in the face. When heart fire is exuberant, it harasses the spirit. The resulting condition of disquieted heart spirit is characterized by heart vexation, insomnia, and, in severe cases, manic agitation and delirious speech. When heart fire flames upward, signs such as red face, red tongue, and painful ulcerating mouth sores are observed. When exuberant heat damages liquid, there is thirst, yellow urine, and dry stool. When heat congests, blood stasis develops, hence sores on the skin. When heat damages the blood network vessels and causes frenetic movement of the blood, there is blood ejection and spontaneous external bleeding. Exuberant heat is also reflected in the yellow tongue fur and the rapid pulse.

Medication:  Clear the heart and drain fire. Use Heart-Draining Decoction (xiè xïn täng) or Palace-Clearing Decoction (qïng göng täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on PC and HT. Select PC-8 (láo göng, Palace of Toil) , HT-8 (shào , Lesser Mansion) , and CV-14 ( què, Great Tower Gate) , needling with drainage and prick PC-9 (zhöng chöng, Central Hub) , and HT-9 (shào chöng, Lesser Surge) to bleed. Selection of points according to signs: For mouth sores, add KI-2 (rán , Blazing Valley) . For vexation and agitation, add KI-1 (yông quán, Gushing Spring) , and PC-5 (jiän shî, Intermediary Courier) . For insomnia, add HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , and HT-5 (töng , Connecting Li) . For thirst, add TB-2 ( mén, Humor Gate) , CV-23 (lián quán, Ridge Spring) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) . For dry stool, add LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , ST-37 (shàng  , Upper Great Hollow) , and TB-6 (zhï göu, Branch Ditch) . For blood ejection, add ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , and PC-4 ( mén, Cleft Gate) . Compare heart fire flaming upward, intense internal heart fire, and heart heat.

hyperactive kidney fire

shèn huô piän kàng

Synonym:  effulgent life gate fire .

Effulgent yin vacuity with fire causing discharge of semen. The kidney is a yin viscus that stores fire and water (true yin and true yang), which must remain in balance if the body is to remain healthy. Depletion of kidney-water or liver-yin vacuity can give rise to hyperactive kidney fire, which manifests in the form of excessive libido, seminal emission, and premature ejaculation.

Medication:  Use Anemarrhena, Phellodendron, and Rehmannia Pill (zhï bâi  huáng wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on KI. Select BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , BL-52 (zhì shì, Will Chamber) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage. For seminal emission and premature ejaculation, add BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , and PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) .

hyperactivity

kàng

In the doctrine of yin and yang, pronounced strengthening and prevalence of yang.

hypersomnia

hün shuì

clouding sleep.

hypertonicity

 

Stiffness and tension in the limbs inhibiting normal bending and stretching. Hypertonicity is usually attributable to wind, and occurs, for example, in impediment . See tension of the sinews.

hypertonicity of the limbs

 zhï mài  

See hypertonicity.

hypertonicity of the sinews

jïn mài  

See tension of the sinews.