B

Section B

baby moth

 é

Synonym:  nipple moth ;

Synonym:  throat moth .

Redness, swelling, and soreness of either or both of the throat nodes (tonsils) with a yellowish white discharge visible on their surface. Baby moth is attributable to a)~congesting lung-stomach heat with fire toxin steaming upward; b)~qi stagnation and congealing blood together with old phlegm and liver fire binding to form malign blood; or c)~liver kidney yin-liquid depletion with vacuity fire flaming upward. Accompanying signs include constipation, a thick slimy tongue fur, difficulty in swallowing fluids, and alternating heat~effusion and aversion to cold.

Western Medical Concept:  tonsillitis* tonsillitis.

Medication:  Congesting lung-stomach heat is treated by coursing wind and diffusing the lung, and by dispersing swelling and resolving toxin; formulas such as Throat-Clearing Diaphragm-Disinhibiting Decoction (qïng yän   täng) can be used. Liver fire patterns are treated by clearing heat and expelling phlegm with formulas such as Pathfinder Poria (Hoelen) Pill (zhî   líng wán). Effulgent yin vacuity fire patterns are treated by enriching yin and downbearing fire with formulas such as Anemarrhena, Phellodendron, and Rehmannia Pill (zhï bâi  huáng wán). Nipple moth assuming a nipple-like shape without severe pain and brought on by contraction of cold is called stone moth, a condition that is difficult to treat.

Acupuncture:  For lung-stomach heat, base treatment mainly on LU, LI, and ST. Select LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , ST-43 (xiàn , Sunken Valley) , and CV-22 (tiän , Celestial Chimney) ; needle with drainage, and prick TB-1 (guän chöng, Passage Hub) , LU-11 (shào shäng, Lesser Shang) , and LI-1 (shäng yáng, Shang Yang) to bleed. For phlegm turbidity and liver fire, base treatment mainly on LR, GB, and ST. Select LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) ; needle with drainage. For effulgent yin vacuity fire, base treatment mainly on KI and LU. Select KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , and LU-10 ( , Fish Border) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage, and prick LU-11 (shào shäng, Lesser Shang) to bleed.

back

bèi

The rear aspect of the trunk from the shoulder to the buttocks, especially the part excluding the lumbus. The back is considered yang in relationship to the chest and abdomen, which are yin.

back associated point

bèi shü

back transport point.

back pain

bèi tòng

Pain in the upper part of the back, as distinct from lumbar (low back) pain. The two main patterns are wind-cold and qi stagnation and blood stasis.

Wind-cold  (fëng hán) back pain is pain and stiffness in the back stretching into the nape, with inhibited movement of the shoulder blade, or heaviness and stiffness in the back with aversion to cold.

Medication:  Dispel wind and dissipate cold using Notopterygium Dampness-Overcoming Decoction (qiäng huó shèng shï täng). Channel conductors such as Ledebouriellae Radix (fáng fëng) and Notopterygii Rhizoma (qiäng huó) can be used according to the precise location of discomfort.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GV, BL, and GB. Select GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , GV-16 (fëng , Wind Mansion) , TB-5 (wài guän, Outer Pass) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , GV-26 (rén zhöng, Human Center) , GV-12 (shën zhù, Body Pillar) , GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , GV-3 (yäo yáng guän, Lumbar Yang Pass) , BL-60 (kün lún, Kunlun Mountains) , and BL-40 (wêi zhöng, Bend Center) ; needle with drainage and add moxa.

Qi stagnation and blood stasis  ( zhì xuè ) back pain is most common in the elderly and in patients left weak after enduring disease, and is marked by aching back pain with numbness in the elbow after waking from sleep, where discomfort is relieved by physical activity.

Medication:  Treat by boosting qi and nourishing the blood, assisted by quickening the blood. Use Impediment-Alleviating Decoction (juän  täng) combined with Minor Network-Quickening Elixir (xiâo huó luò dän). The channel conductors given above may be used.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GV, BL, CV, SP, and LR. Select CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , GV-26 (rén zhöng, Human Center) , BL-43 (gäo huäng shü, Gao-Huang Transport) , GV-12 (shën zhù, Body Pillar) , GV-3 (yäo yáng guän, Lumbar Yang Pass) , and BL-40 (wêi zhöng, Bend Center) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage or with supplementation, and add moxa.

back transport point

bèi shü

Any of a group of points on the bladder channel, 1.5 body-inches either side of the spinal column, each associated with, and named after, an organ whose qi is said to pass through their locations. The back transport points of the bowels and viscera are given in the list below.

Application:  Back transport points are used to diagnose and treat the bowels and viscera with which they are associated. When the qi of a particular bowels or viscus is inhibited, qi collects at the transport point, and tenderness or other abnormalities can be detected by palpation. Thus, the transport points are primarily used to treat diseases of the five viscera and the tissues and sense organs to which they are related. This usage accords with The Classic of Difficult Issues (nàn jïng) which states that ``yin disease moves to the yang,'' i.e., disease in the yin aspect of the body, the viscera, manifests in the yang aspect of the body, the back. Back transport points are also appropriate for the treatment of acute diseases. They are drained to treat repletion of the bowel or viscus with which they are associated, and supplemented to treat vacuity. The transport points may be combined with alarm points of the respective bowels and viscera. See combining transport and alarm points.

Back Transport Points
  • BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) Lung:
  • BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) Heart:
  • BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) Liver:
  • BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) Spleen:
  • BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) Kidney:
  • BL-19 (dân shü, Gallbladder Transport) Gallbladder:
  • BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) Stomach:
  • BL-28 (páng guäng shü, Bladder Transport) Bladder:
  • BL-22 (sän jiäo shü, Triple Burner Transport) Triple burner:
  • BL-25 ( cháng shü, Large Intestine Transport) Large intestine:
  • BL-27 (xiâo cháng shü, Small Intestine Transport) Small intestine:

bad breath

kôu chòu

Fetid breath. When poor oral hygiene or tooth decay, which are common causes, have been ruled out, bad breath is attributable to stomach heat steaming upward, phlegm heat congesting the lung, or gastrointestinal food accumulation.

Stomach heat  (wèi ) steaming upward causes bad breath with thirst as well as intake of cold drinks, red lips, mouth sores, erosion of the mouth or red sore swollen gums, reddish urine, constipation, yellow tongue fur, and a forceful rapid pulse.

Medication:  Clear the stomach and discharge heat with Stomach-Clearing Decoction (qïng wèi täng) or Gastrodia and Astragalus Decoction (shëng  huáng  täng). If there is bowel repletion with constipation, use Diaphragm-Cooling Powder (liáng  sân).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on ST, LI, and PC. Select ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , and PC-7 ( líng, Great Mound) . Needle with drainage.

Phlegm-heat congesting the lung  (tán  yöng fèi) causes fishy-smelling breath with pain or fullness in the chest, cough with ejection of turbid phlegm, coughing up of blood, dry throat, bitter taste in the mouth and dry tongue with no desire to drink, a slimy yellow tongue fur, and a slippery rapid pulse.

Medication:  Treat by dispersing accumulations and abducting stagnation with Harmony-Preserving Pill (bâo  wán) or Unripe Bitter Orange Stagnation-Abducting Pill (zhî shí dâo zhì wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LU, ST, LI and PC. Select BL-13 (fèi shü, Lung Transport) , LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , ST-40 (fëng lóng, Bountiful Bulge) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , and PC-7 ( líng, Great Mound) . Needle with drainage.

Gastrointestinal food accumulation  (wèi cháng shí ) causes sour bad breath with distention and fullness in the stomach duct and abdomen, frequent belching, no thought of food and drink, constipation or uninhibited stool, foul-smelling flatus, thick slimy or putrid slimy tongue fur, and a slippery rapid pulse.

Medication:  Use White-Draining Powder (xiè bái sân) or Thousand Gold Pieces Phragmites Decoction (qiän jïn wêi jïng täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV, ST, and PC. Select , CV-21 (xuán , Jade Swivel) , CV-10 (xià wân, Lower Stomach Duct) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , ST-37 (shàng  , Upper Great Hollow) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , and PC-7 ( líng, Great Mound) . Needle with drainage.

bad odor

chòu 

See malodor.

bag-over-the-head sensation

tóu zhòng  guô

head heavy as if swathed.

baking heat~effusion

höng 

Pronounced, persistent heat~effusion associated with damage to yin, and usually attended by vexation, insomnia, and oppression. See heat~effusion.

bald scalp sore

 chuäng

bald white scalp sore.

bald white scalp sore

bái  chuäng

Synonym:  white perverse crop ;

Synonym:  lai scalp sore .

A disease of the scalp mostly seen in children and characterized by white crusts that spread and coalesce, and that are associated with unbearable itching and hair loss on the affected area. The hair usually grows back once the sores heal. Bald white scalp sores are attributed to wind evil invading the interstices of the scalp or to the use of unclean hair-dressing implements.

Medication:  Treat with Chinaberry Root Bark Paste ( liàn gäo) or Bald Sores Oil ( chuäng yóu).

Acupuncture:  Needle with drainage bilaterally at LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , with supplementation bilaterally at KI-2 (rán , Blazing Valley) , and with even supplemenation and drainage at BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) .

banking up earth

péi 

Supplementing spleen-earth to restore normal movement and transformation. The method of banking up earth is used to treat spleen vacuity with reduced food intake and diarrhea.

banking up earth and repressing wood

   

fortifying the spleen and coursing the liver.

banking up earth to dam water

péi  zhì shuî

A method of treatment used to address water swelling by fortifying the spleen and boosting qi. Here, earth refers to the spleen, but water refers not to the kidney but to water-damp.

banking up earth to engender metal

péi  shëng jïn

A method of treatment that involves fortifying the spleen to treat diseases of the lung. Banking up earth and engendering metal is used, for example, in the treatment of phlegm that arises when water-damp gathers and concentrates as a result of impaired splenic movement and transformation. See supplementing the spleen to boost the lung.

bar

guän

Definition: 

The pulse position between the inch and cubit. See wrist pulse.

Definition:  Any one of the segments in the infant's finger examination.

base joint

bên jié

The joint at which a digit springs from the hand or foot.

basket-steam

lóng zhëng

To steam in steaming baskets.

bean curd tongue fur

 täi

Synonym:  tofu tongue fur .

A lumpy, easily removable fur like crumbs of bean curd (tofu). A bean curd tongue fur indicates the development of sweltering damp-heat in patterns of damage to yin by stomach vacuity. This generally occurs in enduring or severe illnesses and indicates complex patterns that are difficult to treat.

bearing

tài

Posture and movement. Examining a patient's bearing is an important part of diagnosis. Flailing of the limbs, agitation and talkativeness, or manic agitation and desire to throw off clothing and bedclothes usually indicates a yang disease, i.e., a disease due to heat or repletion. A patient who sleeps curled up, is uncommunicative, who suffers from a general feeling of heaviness and difficulty in movement, and who keeps his body well wrapped, is ordinarily suffering from a yin disease, i.e., a disease of cold or vacuity. Groping in the air and pulling at invisible strings and picking at bedclothes indicate that the illness has reached its most advanced stage and that the condition is severe. Deviated eyes and mouth, convulsions of the limbs, shaking of the head, and twitching of the lips or cheeks are conditions mostly attributable to liver wind stirring internally. Pronounced forceful spasm is usually seen in repletion heat patterns, whereas milder forms usually indicate vacuity wind. , arched-back rigidity (opisthotonos), and clenched jaw (trismus) indicate tetany . inhibiting normal bending and stretching, and rigidity, distention, and deformation of the joints usually indicate impediment . Weakness and limpness of the limbs that deprives the patient of the ability to grasp things and move about freely indicates wilting . If the patient suffers from rapid breathing while lying, and is thus forced to sit up, an exuberant evil is present and right qi is vacuous. Dizziness experienced when sitting up, confining the patient to a lying posture, usually indicates either a vacuity pattern or phlegm turbidity harassing the upper body.

bearing

shëng jiàng

Upward and downward bearing of qi, e.g., upbearing of clear yang and downbearing of the turbid. See, for example, spleen governs upbearing of the clear and stomach governs downbearing of the turbid.

bearing

shëng jiàng  chén

The direction of medicinal action, including upbearing, downbearing, floating, and sinking. Upbearing means ascending to the upper body; downbearing means descending to the lower body. Floating means effusing and dissipating; sinking means draining and disinhibiting. Upbearing and floating medicinals (upfloaters) move upward and outward, and have actions such as upbearing yang, effusing the exterior, and dispersing cold. Downbearing and sinking medicinals (downsinkers) move downward and inward, have actions such as subduing yang, downbearing counterflow, astriction, clearing heat, percolating dampness, and draining. Most yang medicinals, which are warm or hot in nature and sweet and acrid in flavor, such as Ephedrae Herba ( huáng), Cinnamomi Ramulus (guì zhï), and Astragali (seu Hedysari) Radix (huáng ), are upfloaters. Most yin medicinals, which are cold in nature and bitter or sour in nature, such as Rhei Rhizoma ( huáng), Mirabilitum (máng xiäo), and Phellodendri Cortex (huáng bâi), are downsinkers. Generally, flowers and leaves and other light medicinals such as Asiasari Herba cum Radice ( xïn), Menthae Herba ( ), and Cimicifugae Rhizoma (shëng ), Inulae Flos (xuán  huä) are upfloaters--- being an exception, whereas seeds, fruits, and heavy items, such as Perillae Albae Semen (bái  ), Aurantii Fructus Immaturus (zhî shí), and Gypsum seu Calcitum (hán shuî shí), Viticis Fructus (màn jïng ) are downsinkers--- being an exception. Bearing can be imparted to other medicinals. Stir-frying with wine causes medicinals to bear upward; stir-frying with bran causes medicinals to downbear; stir-frying with ginger causes medicinals to dissipate; and stir-frying with vinegar causes medicinals to astringe.

bearing

suô zài

The environment conducive to supporting the fetus in the uterus.

bedsore

 chuäng

Synonym:  yin sores .

A sore on the back, sacrum, heels etc., that develops in comatose, paralyzed, or weak patients confined to bed. Bedsores start as red patches which gradually develop into ulcerations that are difficult to heal. They are attributable to major depletion of qi and blood in enduring illness with confinement to bed that causes friction and prevents the normal movement of qi and blood, thus depriving the skin of nourishment.

Medication:  Commonly used medicinals include Astragali (seu Hedysari) Radix (huáng ), Atractylodis Ovatae Rhizoma (bái zhú), Codonopsitis Radix (dâng shën), Poria ( líng), Angelicae Sinensis Radix (däng guï), Paeoniae Radix Rubra (chì sháo yào), Paeoniae Radix Alba (bái sháo yào), Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix (dän shën), Lonicerae Flos (jïn yín huä), Taraxaci Herba cum Radice ( göng yïng), and Glycyrrhizae Radix Cruda (shëng gän câo). Prior to ulceration, apply an alcohol compress, and then sprinkle with Talcum (huá shí). After ulceration has started, apply Red Oil Paste (hóng yóu gäo) sprinkled with Nine-to-One Elixir (jîu  dän). In the healing stage, use Flesh-Engendering Jade and Red Paste (shëng   hóng gäo).

bedwetting

niào chuáng

See enuresis.

begrudging milk

A condition attributable to the accumulation of breast milk arising after delivery when either there is no child to feed or the mother produces more milk than the child can take and characterized by hard painful distended breasts that cannot bear even the slightest touch. Small sores may grow on the nipples that may be sore or itchy and that, when scratched, exude yellow water that causes them to spread.

Medication:  Clear heat and resolve toxin. Use Forsythia Powder (lián qiào sân) from The Golden Mirror of Medicine ( zöng jïn jiàn) If ruptured, apply Deerhorn Powder ( jiâo sân) which consists of Cervi Cornu ( jiâo) and Glycyrrhizae Radix (gän câo) ground to a powder and mixed with Galli Vitellus (  huáng). See mammary welling-abscess.

begrudging semen sore

gan sore.

belching

ài 

Synonym:  belching .

Expulsion of gas (qi) from the stomach that occurs after eating to satiation or eating too quickly, and in stomach diseases. It is one manifestation of stomach qi ascending counterflow.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on ST and CV. Select CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , and BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage, add moxa if appropriate.

belching of putrid qi

ài 

putrid belching.

bell healer

líng  <

I>itinerant healer.

belly

abdomen.

bencao

bên câo

herbal foundation.

bend-center toxin sore

wêi zhöng 

Synonym:  bend-

center welling-abscess .

A welling-abscess located at BL-40 (wêi zhöng, Bend Center) , i.e., on the back of the knee (popliteal fossa). A bend-center toxin is attributed to accumulated heat in the gallbladder channel binding in the bladder channel or to stagnation of qi and blood in the kidney channel. Sometimes it develops from other sores at the site. The back of the knee becomes as hard as stone, is slightly red and swollen or scorching hot and red with generalized heat~effusion and aversion to cold. It makes bending and stretching difficult and causes flexing. When the pain and swelling grows more severe day by day and the heat~effusion and aversion to cold do not abated, this is a sign that pus has formed.

Medication:  Quicken the blood and transform stasis. Use Blood-Quickening Stasis-Dissipating Decoction (huó xuè sàn  täng).

bend-center welling-abscess

wêi zhöng yöng

Synonym:  bend-

center toxin sore .

bent needle

wän zhën

A needle that, owing to poor needle manipulation skill or physical movement by the patient, becomes bent after insertion in the human body. Gently move the patient into the original posture in which the needle was inserted. Then gradually work the needle out. Do not under any circumstances use forceful or brisk movement, otherwise the needle may break.

beverage

yîn

A decoction that is left to cool before being taken, e.g., Elsholtzia Beverage (xiäng  yîn). Compare drink.

bi

impediment.

bian toxin sore

biàn 

Definition: 

bubo sore.

Definition:  A bubo sore on right side of the body, as distinct from a fish mouth, which is one on the left.

biaoju

biäo 

tip-abscess.

bind

jié

Definition: 

To become tight, hard, or stiff.

Definition:  To cohere or make cohere.

Definition:  To constipate. Bind denotes a concentration of evils in a specific location, that causes hardness. When phlegm and qi bind, phlegm nodes form. When heat binds in the intestines, the stool becomes dry, solid, and difficult to evacuate. For example, large intestinal heat can cause heat bind, which is characterized by hard bound stool (i.e., constipation). When damp-heat gathers and binds in the lower burner, urinary stones form. In the term ``binding depression of qi dynamic,'' it refers to frustrated movement of qi that can cause accumulation of phlegm or static blood. See stoppage.

binding depression of liver qi

gän   jié

Synonym:  liver depression

Synonym:  depressed liver (

);

Synonym:  liver qi depression

Synonym:  depressed liver qi (

). Stagnation in the liver and liver channel resulting from impairment of the liver's function of free coursing. It arises when affect-mind frustration leads to depression and anger that damage the liver and impair free coursing. Other factors include invasion of external damp-heat and insufficiency of yin-blood depriving the liver of nourishment. The chief signs are affect-mind depression, vexation, agitation, and irascibility. There is also distention and pain in the rib-side, oppression in the chest, and sighing. Other signs include distention and pain in the breasts before menstruation, distention and pain in the lesser abdomen, menstrual irregularities, plum-pit qi, goiter, accumulations and gatherings under the rib-side, jaundice, and epilepsy. The tongue body may be normal. The tongue fur is thin and white. The pulse is stringlike.

Analysis:  The liver channel skirts around the genitals, passes through the lesser abdomen, spreads over the rib-side and breasts, and passes up the neck. Binding depression of liver qi manifests in signs along this part of the liver channel pathway. Qi stagnation in the chest and rib-side region causes distending pain in the rib-side and frequent sighing. Liver qi depression may also ascend counterflow, carrying phlegm upward and causing plum-pit qi (the sensation of a lump in the throat that can neither be swallowed nor ejected). It can cause phlegm to bind at the neck, causing goiter (thyroid enlargement), characterized by soft swellings on both sides of the laryngeal prominence that move up and down when the patient swallows. Enduring depression of liver qi can cause blood stasis that develops into accumulations and gatherings under the rib-side. Blood stasis can cause water to collect, further giving rise to drum distention. When liver qi is depressed, it can affect other bowels and viscera. Liver qi invading the stomach manifests as nausea, vomiting, swallowing of upflowing acid, and acute abdominal pain and distention, or as painful distention and diarrhea. This can develop into liver-spleen disharmony with diarrhea. When caused by damp-heat, it can disrupt bile secretion, manifesting in jaundice and vomiting of bitter fluid or yellow bile (see damp-heat brewing the liver and gallbladder). It may also affect the thoroughfare and controlling vessels, leading to menstrual pain, menstrual block, premenstrual swelling of the breast, breast lumps, and menstrual irregularities. Whatever form liver qi depression takes, it can always manifest in or be caused by emotional disturbances such as anger, frustration, rashness and impatience. Severe depression of liver qi may lead to fire formation and the emergence of a liver fire flaming upward pattern or to damage to liver yin-blood, which manifests as a vacuity pattern. When patients with binding depression of liver qi also suffer from spleen vacuity with phlegm turbidity arising from within, liver qi can carry the phlegm turbidity upward to cloud the clear orifices, causing epileptic fits. Extreme depression may cause a counterflow upsurge of liver qi, one form of qi reversal.

Comparison:  Liver fire flaming upward: Binding depression of liver qi and liver fire flaming upward are both associated with inhibition of liver channel qi causing rib-side pain and distention of the breasts. However, liver fire flaming upward is associated with heat signs not observed in simple binding depression of liver qi. Binding depression of liver qi is often associated with diarrhea from a strong liver that restrains the spleen and poor appetite. Liver fire flaming upward is associated with heat signs such as scorching pain in the rib-side, as well as headache, dizziness, tinnitus, deafness, red face and red ears. When liver fire scorches the blood network vessels, there may be blood ejection or spontaneous external bleeding.

Medication:  Binding depression of liver qi is treated by coursing the liver and rectifying qi. Medicinals commonly used to treat binding depression of liver qi include Bupleuri Radix (chái ), Curcumae Tuber ( jïn), Citri Exocarpium Immaturum (qïng ), Aurantii Fructus (zhî ), Cyperi Rhizoma (xiäng  ), Toosendan Fructus (chuän liàn ), Corydalis Tuber (yán  suô), Perillae Caulis (  gêng), Akebiae Fructus ( yuè zhá), Liquidambaris Fructus (  töng), Linderae Radix ( yào), and Citri Semen ( ). Bupleurum Liver-Coursing Powder (chái  shü gän sân) or Depression-Overcoming Pill (yuè  wán) may be used as a basic formula and varied according to need. Counterflow Cold Powder (  sân) plus Cyperi Rhizoma (xiäng  ), Curcumae Tuber ( jïn), and Citri Exocarpium Immaturum (qïng ) is a further option. When depressed qi transforms into fire, Moutan and Gardenia Free Wanderer Powder (dän zhï xiäo yáo sân) combined with Left-Running Metal Pill (zuô jïn wán) can be used, adding Gentianae Radix (lóng dân) and Rhei Rhizoma ( huáng) for constipation. Liver qi invading the stomach can be treated with Left-Running Metal Pill (zuô jïn wán). Liver-spleen disharmony can be treated with Free Wanderer Powder (xiäo yáo sân) or Pain and Diarrhea Formula (tòng xiè yào fäng). Plum-pit qi is treated by downbearing qi and transforming phlegm with formulas such as Four-Seven Decoction (  täng) or Pinellia and Magnolia Bark Decoction (bàn xià hòu  täng). Goiter is treated by rectifying qi and dispersing goiter with Sargassum Jade Flask Decoction (hâi zâo   täng). Menstrual problems arising when binding depression of liver qi affects the thoroughfare and controlling vessels can be treated with variations of Free Wanderer Powder (xiäo yáo sân). Epilepsy can be treated with Fit-Settling Pill (dìng xián wán). Accumulations and gatherings can be treated with Bupleurum Liver-Coursing Powder (chái  shü gän sân) combined with Toosendan Powder (jïn líng  sân) or Saussurea Qi-Normalizing Decoction ( xiäng shùn  täng). Drum distention can be treated with Bupleurum Liver-Coursing Powder (chái  shü gän sân) combined with Stomach-Calming Powder (píng wèi sân), or Free Wanderer Powder (xiäo yáo sân) combined with Harmony-Preserving Pill (bâo  wán). Most liver-coursing qi-rectifying medicinals are dry and aromatic, and therefore readily damage yin-blood. This effect can be reduced by the inclusion of liver-emolliating medicinals such as Paeoniae Radix Alba (bái sháo yào), Angelicae Sinensis Radix (däng guï), Rehmanniae Radix Exsiccata seu Recens (shëng  huáng), and Lycii Fructus (gôu  ).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LR, PC, SP and back transport points. Select BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , LR-13 (zhäng mén, Camphorwood Gate) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , TB-6 (zhï göu, Branch Ditch) , and GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage and add moxa. Selection of points according to the signs: For mental depression, add HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) and GV-26 (rén zhöng, Human Center) . For oppression in the chest, add CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) . For rib-side pain and distention, add LR-14 ( mén, Cycle Gate) , GB-40 (qïu , Hill Ruins) , and TB-5 (wài guän, Outer Pass) . For pain and distention of the breasts, add CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) and LR-14 ( mén, Cycle Gate) . For pain and distention in the lesser abdomen, add LR-5 ( göu, Woodworm Canal) , and LR-6 (zhöng , Central Metropolis) . GB-32 (zhöng , Central River) . For plum-pit qi, add CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) , PC-5 (jiän shî, Intermediary Courier) , and CV-22 (tiän , Celestial Chimney) .

binding depression of phlegm and qi

tán   jié

phlegm and qi binding together.

binding in yang

jié yáng

From Elementary Questions ( wèn) A pathomechanism of swelling of the limbs. The four limbs are the root of yang, and when yang qi of the limbs congeals and binds, water collects.

binding in yin

jié yïn

From Elementary Questions ( wèn) Evil qi binding in the yin channels. The liver belongs to reverting yin and stores the blood; the spleen belongs to greater yin and manages the blood. When evil qi binds in the yin channels, and is not moved by yang qi, in time the yin network vessels are damaged and the blood spills internally causing bloody stool.

birth

fën miân

childbirth.

birth gate

chân mén

Definition: 

yin door.

Definition:  The cervix of the uterus. The Wings to the Classified Canon (lèi jïng  ) states, ``At the bottom of the uterus is a door, which in women can be felt with the hand. This is what is commonly called chan3 men2.''

bitter

See bitterness.

bitterness

The flavor of burnt things; the flavor associated with fire. Bitterness enters the heart; it can drain and dry. See five flavors and five flavor entries.

bitterness enters the heart

  xïn

Bitter medicinals act on the heart. Examples of bitter medicinals that enter the heart are Coptidis Rhizoma (huáng lián), Scutellariae Radix (huáng qín), Gardeniae Fructus (shän zhï ), Forsythiae Fructus (lián qiào), Moutan Radicis Cortex ( dän ), Polygalae Radix (yuân zhì), Rehmanniae Radix Exsiccata (gän  huáng), Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix (dän shën), Rubiae Radix (qiàn câo gën), and Persicae Semen (táo rén).

bitter taste in the mouth

kôu 

Experience of a bitter flavor not attributable to foodstuffs. Bitter taste is the most commonly reported deviation from ``harmony of mouth.'' It is explained in terms of bile in the mouth. The Magic Pivot (líng shü) states, ``When bile is discharged, there is a bitter taste in the mouth.'' It is a sign of liver or gallbladder disease and most commonly reflects steaming of gallbladder qi when there is heat in the liver and gallbladder. Elementary Questions ( wèn) states, ``When there is illness marked by a bitter taste in the mouth the disease is called `gallbladder pure heat' the person affected is one who plots and schemes indecisively, so that the gallbladder becomes vacuous and qi spills upward to make the mouth bitter.''

Lesser yang disease  (shào yáng bìng) causes bitter taste in the mouth with dry throat, headache, dizzy vision, alternating heat~effusion and aversion to cold, bitter fullness in the chest and rib-side, heart vexation and frequent vomiting, reduced intake of food, yellow urine, thin white or yellow tongue fur, and a forceful floating stringlike pulse. On Cold Damage (shäng hán lùn) states, ``Lesser yang disease: bitter taste in the mouth, and dizzy vision.''

Medication:  Harmonize the lesser yang with variations of Minor Bupleurum Decoction (xiâo chái  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on TB, PC, GB, and LR. Select TB-4 (yáng chí, Yang Pool) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , GB-40 (qïu , Hill Ruins) , LR-5 ( göu, Woodworm Canal) , and GB-38 (yáng , Yang Assistance) ; needle with even supplemenation and drainage or with drainage.

Depressed liver-gallbladder heat  (gän dân  ) can cause bitter taste in the mouth with heart vexation, dry mouth with desire to drink, sighing and irascibility, dizzy head and headache, red eyes and dizzy vision, distention and pain in the rib-sides, yellow urine, stool tending to be dry, red margins of the tongue, thin yellow or slimy yellow tongue fur, and a rapid stringlike pulse.

Medication:  Clear and resolve depressed liver-gallbladder heat using Gentian Liver-Draining Decoction (lóng dân xiè gän täng). If there is phlegm-heat harassing the inner body, use Coptis Gallbladder-Warming Decoction (huáng lián wën dân täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LR and GB. Select BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , GB-43 (xiá , Pinched Ravine) , GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , GB-40 (qïu , Hill Ruins) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , and GB-38 (yáng , Yang Assistance) ; needle with drainage.

bitter vomiting

ôu 

Synonym:  vomiting of bitter water ;

Synonym:  vomiting of bile .

Vomiting of bitter-tasting fluid. Bitter vomiting is usually a sign of disease in the liver channel.

Medication:  Treat with Bupleurum Gallbladder-Clearing Decoction (chái  qïng dân täng), which is comprised of Bupleuri Radix (chái ), Scutellariae Radix (huáng qín), Pinelliae Tuber (bàn xià), Citri Exocarpium (chén ), Glycyrrhizae Radix (gän câo), or Bambusae Caulis in Taeniam (zhú ). Alternatively use Left-Running Metal Pill (zuô jïn wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on PC, ST, and CV, and on alarm and lower uniting points of GB. Select CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , GB-24 ( yuè, Sun and Moon) , and GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) ; needle with drainage.

BL

páng guäng jïng

Abbreviation for the bladder or the foot greater yang bladder channel.

black

hëi

Color associated with water and the kidney in the five phases.

black face

miàn hëi

black facial complexion.

black facial complexion

miàn  hëi

Synonym:  black face .

A sign of severe or intractable disease, associated with kidney vacuity and blood stasis. A complexion that is soot-black (black with a tinge of yellow), dark gray, or purple-black may occur in enduring diseases, patterns characterized by kidney essence depletion or in static blood accumulation patterns.

blackhead

hëi tóu fên 

See acne.

black jaundice

hëi dân

From Essential Prescriptions of the Golden Coffer (jïn guì yào lüè) characterized by a blackish facial complexion. Black jaundice arises in persistent jaundice as a result of liver-kidney debilitation and stasis turbidity causing internal obstruction. The body is yellow and lusterless, while the eyes and face are blackish. There is anguish in the heart, dry skin that is insensitive to scratching, black stool, bladder tension (smaller-abdominal distention and fullness), heat in the underside of the feet, and a weak floating pulse. In severe cases, the abdomen is distended as if containing water, the face is puffy, and pain in the spine prevents the patient from standing erect.

Medication:  Treat by supporting right and supplementing the liver and kidney, supported by attacking evil and transforming stasis. Niter and Alum Powder (xiäo shí fán shí sân) can be combined with liver-kidney--enriching medicinals.

black mole

hëi zhì

A black or dark brown spot, from the size of a millet seed to the size of a soybean, either flat or raised, often growing stringlike hairs. Black moles are found on the face and other parts of the body, and are attributed to turbid qi in the kidney channel binding in the skin. Normally, they require no treatment, but when they gradually grow larger as a result of friction, they can be treated with Water Crystal Paste (shuî jïng gäo). Swift appearance or sudden increase in size may indicate what is termed malignancy in Western medicine. Compare blood mole.

black stool

 biàn hëi 

Stool that is extremely dark in color; a sign of static blood.

black teeth

 hëi

Sudden blackening of the teeth is sign of impending death. If the gums of black, this is expiration of the heart and liver. Black teeth with lumbar pain and reversal cold of the feet is observed in steaming bones.

black tongue fur

hëi täi

A tongue fur presenting a blackish or grayish coloration. Black fur may occur in cold, heat, repletion, and vacuity patterns, but most commonly indicates exuberant evil. A rough dry black fur somewhat parched in appearance, on a red or deep red tongue body indicates damp-heat transforming into dryness or damage to yin by intense heat. A thick slimy black fur usually indicates a phlegm-damp complication. A glossy black fur signifies either stomach or kidney vacuity. A slimy yellow fur with a grayish black coloring generally indicates exuberant damp-heat. A mixed gray and white fur or a gray fur that is thin, slimy, and glossy generally means cold-damp.

black vaginal discharge

hëi dài

See liver channel damp-heat vaginal discharge.

bladder

páng guäng

One of the six bowels; the organ in the smaller abdomen that stores and discharges urine. The bladder stands in exterior-interior relationship with the kidney. Elementary Questions ( wèn) states, ``The bladder holds the office of river island (or Regional Rectifier), stores fluid, and by qi transformation lets it out.'' The qi transformtion in this context is seen as kidney qi transformation. See kidney governs water.

bladder channel

páng guäng jïng

foot greater yang bladder channel.

bladder cough

páng guäng 

From Elementary Questions ( wèn) Cough with urinary incontinence. See cough.

bladder damp-heat

páng guäng shï 

Synonym:  damp-

heat brewing in the bladder ;

Synonym:  downpour of damp-heat into the bladder .

A disease pattern that arises when damp-heat causes inhibited bladder qi transformation and that manifests in frequent urination, urinary urgency, inhibited urination, painful urination, red or yellow murky urine, or bloody urine. Other signs of bladder damp-heat include heat~effusion, lumbar pain, and sand or stones in the urine. The tongue is red with slimy yellow fur. The pulse is rapid and slippery.

Western Medical Concept:  urinary calculus* calculus*!urinary urinary tract infection*!acute observed in acute urinary tract infections or urinary calculus.

Medication:  Clear heat and disinhibit dampness; disinhibit water and free strangury. Commonly used medicinals include Mutong Caulis ( töng), Plantaginis Herba (chë qián), Polygoni Avicularis Herba (biân ), Talcum (huá shí), Dianthi Herba ( mài), Gardeniae Fructus (shän zhï ), Jinqiancao Herba (jïn qián câo), Cephalanoploris Herba seu Radix (xiâo ), Typhae Pollen ( huáng), Polyporus (zhü líng), Alismatis Rhizoma ( xiè), and Dioscoreae Hypoglaucae Rhizoma ( xiè). A general formula is Eight Corrections Powder ( zhèng sân). Pyrrosia Powder (shí wéi sân) and its variations can be used to treat sand and stone strangury.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on BL and CV. Select CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , BL-28 (páng guäng shü, Bladder Transport) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with drainage. For short voidings of reddish urine, add GV-27 (duì duän, Extremity of the Mouth) . For pain on urination, add LR-5 ( göu, Woodworm Canal) , and LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) . For bloody urine, add SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) and BL-60 (kün lún, Kunlun Mountains) . See strangury.

bladder damp-heat bloody urine

páng guäng shï  niào xuè

Synonym:  lower burner damp-

heat bloody urine .

attributed to bladder damp-heat. Bladder damp-heat bloody urine is marked by dry pharynx and mouth, tense fullness in the lesser abdomen, rough voidings of reddish urine, dribbling urinary blockage, slimy yellow tongue fur, and a rapid pulse.

Medication:  Clear heat and disinhibit dampness. Cephalanoplos Drink (xiâo  yîn zi).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on BL, CV, and SP. Select BL-28 (páng guäng shü, Bladder Transport) , CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , and BL-60 (kün lún, Kunlun Mountains) . Needle with drainage.

bladder disease

páng guäng bìng

Any morbid state of the bladder. Bladder disease manifests in changes in urine and urination. It may take the form of vacuity or repletion. Vacuity patterns are attributable to insufficiency of kidney qi affecting bladder qi transformation (voiding of urine) and take the form of frequent urination, dribbling incontinence, or enuresis. Repletion patterns are usually attributable to damp-heat and are characterized by short voidings of reddish urine, murky urine, frequent urination with difficulty in voiding, heat pain during urination, stones, pus, or bloody urine, and urinary block with painful distention of the lesser abdomen. Vacuity patterns are treated by supplementing the kidney and securing the bladder; damp-heat patterns are treated by clearing heat and disinhibiting dampness.

bladder distention

páng guäng zhàng

Fullness of the lower abdomen with inhibited urination, usually attributed to bladder cold.

Medication:  Treat with formulas such as Complementarity Decoction (  täng). Bladder distention may also be observed in drum distention patterns, for which bladder channel conductors such as Talcum (huá shí) and Notopterygii Rhizoma (qiäng huó) are added to the formula treating the principal pattern.

bladder governs fluid storage

páng guäng zhû cáng jïn 

The bladder is the collecting point of water passing through the triple burner, from where it is discharged by kidney qi transformation.

bladder heat bind

 jié páng guäng

heat binding in the bladder.

bladder holds the office of the river island; it stores fluids

páng guäng zhe3, zhöu  zhï guan1, jïn  cáng yän <

bladder holds> From Elementary Questions ( wèn) The bladder stores urine. The ``office of the river island'' is one interpretation of , by which is taken to mean . Other interpretations claim to be a confluence of waters. P.U. Unschuld suggests should be interpreted literally to mean Regional Rectifier, an official title in ancient China.

bladder impediment

páng guäng 

From Elementary Questions ( wèn) A condition characterized by smaller-abdominal distention with pain exacerbated by pressure and difficult urination, and attended by runny nose with clear snivel (nasal mucus). Bladder impediment arises when wind-cold-damp settles in the bladder, causes bladder vacuity cold, and disrupts normal qi transformation. A pattern of similar smaller-abdominal signs may be the result of damp-heat brewing in the bladder.

Medication:  Wind-cold-damp patterns are treated by warming and freeing with formulas such as Kidney Fixity Decoction (shèn zhuó täng); damp-heat patterns are treated by clearing and disinhibiting with formulas like Eight Corrections Powder ( zhèng sân) and variations. See impediment.

bladder qi block

páng guäng  

Impairment of bladder qi transformation (the action of the bladder) mostly related to inhibited qi transformation of the kidney, lung, or triple burner, resulting in inhibited urination, difficult urination, or urinary block with smaller-abdominal distention. Bladder qi block is a functional disorder of the bladder preventing normal flow of urine, and differs from blockage caused by stones, which is of a mechanical nature.

Medication:  For inhibited qi transformation of the bladder due to kidney vacuity, use variations of Life Saver Kidney Qi Pill ( shëng shèn  wán). For inhibited qi transformation of the bladder due to lung qi congestion, use the method of ``raising the pot and removing the lid'' (causing the patient to sneeze or vomit) to open lung qi; if after a long time heat develops, Lung-Clearing Beverage (qïng fèi yîn) with urine-disinhibiting medicinals can be used.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on KI and BL. Select BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , BL-22 (sän jiäo shü, Triple Burner Transport) , KI-10 (yïn , Yin Valley) , BL-39 (wêi yáng, Bend Yang) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , needle with supplementation and add moxa. For pronounced smaller-abdominal fullness and distention, add CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) . Selection of points according to pattern: For kidney vacuity and inhibited qi transformation, add CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) and GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) . For lung-metal dryness-heat and impaired downbearing of qi, needle with drainage at LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , and LU-7 (liè quë, Broken Sequence) . See block.

bladder qi transformation failure

páng guäng  huà shï 

Impairment of bladder function. Qi transformation in its widest sense denotes all transformations of qi, blood, fluids, and essence in the body. Bladder qi transformation denotes the function of ensuring the regular uninhibited discharge of urine. Breakdown of bladder qi transformation can result in any of the following: frequent urination; profuse urination at night; enuresis; urinary incontinence; dribble after voiding; urinary urgency; inhibited urination; and painful urination. Inhibited bladder qi transformation is a term often used specifically to denote the pathomechanism that explains frequent urination, dribble after voiding, urinary urgency, inhibited urination, and painful urination, as well as signs such as turbid urine or the passage of sand or stones that frequently accompany them.

bladder vacuity cold

páng guäng  hán

Loss of the retentive power of the bladder due either to insufficiency of qi transformation or to contraction of external cold evil. The main signs of bladder vacuity cold are frequent voidings of clear urine, enuresis, dribble after voiding, or incontinence. Other signs include white turbidity after urination, ungratifying dribbling urination, inability to achieve a full stream, and smaller-abdominal cold pain. Lumbar pain and other kidney yang vacuity signs are usually present. The tongue is pale with a thin moist white fur. The pulse is sunken and fine.

Medication:  Stream-Reducing Pill (suö quán wán) or Dyke-Strengthening Pill (gông  wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on BL and CV. Select CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , BL-28 (páng guäng shü, Bladder Transport) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa. For pronounced vacuity cold, add CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) and CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , and apply a large amount of moxa. For concurrent kidney yang vacuity, add GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , and KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) .

bland

dàn

See blandness.

blandness

dàn

Mild flavor, or the absence of a predominating flavor. The flavor associated with damp-percolating and water-disinhibiting medicinals. See five flavors; five flavor entries.

bland taste in the mouth

kôu dàn

Lack of taste in the mouth. Patients suffering from bland taste in the mouth differ from normal individuals with harmony of mouth in that food lacks flavor and eating leaves no pleasant taste in the mouth. It is attributed to spleen-stomach vacuity or to dampness obstructing the center burner. It may also be observed in patients suffering from aversion to cold and heat~effusion due to external contraction of wind-cold.

Spleen-stomach vacuity  ( wèi ) causes bland taste in the mouth with no desire for food and drink, lassitude of spirit, shortness of breath, lack of strength, stomach duct glomus and abdominal distention, sloppy stool, a pale tongue with thin fur, and a weak moderate pulse.

Medication:  Boost qi, fortify the spleen, and harmonize the stomach. Use Saussurea and Amomum Six Gentlemen Decoction (xiäng shä lìu jün  täng) plus scorch-fried Oryzae Fructus Germinatus ( ) or Hordei Fructus Germinatus (mài ).

Dampness obstructing the center burner  (shï  zhöng jiäo) causes inability to taste food, bland taste in the mouth associated with stickiness and sliminess, torpid intake, glomus and oppression in the chest and stomach duct, nausea and vomiting, sloppy stool, white slimy or yellow slimy tongue fur and a soggy pulse.

Medication:  Repel turbidity with aroma; transform dampness and awaken the stomach. Use Agastache/Patchouli, Magnolia Bark, Pinellia, and Poria (Hoelen) Decoction (huò  xià líng täng) and Three Kernels Decoction (sän rén täng).

blast-frying

páo

Stir-frying (medicinal materials) vigorously in an iron wok over a fierce fire until they give off smoke and their surface becomes scorched, swollen, and cracked. Zingiberis Rhizoma Exsiccatum (gän jiäng), Aconiti Tuber Laterale ( ), and Aconiti Tuber Laterale Tianxiong (tiän xióng) may be processed in this way to reduce their harshness. Compare char-frying.

blaze

fán

To burn furiously. Describes heat in the exuberant heat stage of warm diseases. See heat.

blazing bone

rán 

A bone on the inside of the foot.

Western Medical Concept:  navicular bone* navicular bone.

blazing of both qi and blood

 xuè liâng fán

qi and blood both ablaze.

blazing of both qi and construction

 yíng liâng fán

qi and construction both ablaze

bleed

chü xuè

To put or bring forth blood.

bleeding

chü xuè

The escape of blood from vessels. See blood spillage.

bleeding gums

 yín chü xuè

spontaneous bleeding of the gums.

bleeding hemorrhoids

xuè zhì with pronounced bleeding.

blister

Definition: 

Synonym:  vesicle .

An elevation in the skin containing fluid; attributable to friction, heat, or to certain heat (febrile) diseases. Blistering occurs in scarring moxibustion; medicinal-induced blister moxibustion. girdling fire cinnabar; heaven-borne blisters; tongue blister; lacquer sore; palm heart toxin sore; plaster wind; wind red sore;

Definition:  chicken pox.

block

Blockage. The term block occurs in the terminology of signs and pathomechanisms: blockage of normal discharge from the body, as in menstrual block (amenorrhea), fecal block (constipation), and dribbling urinary block (retention of urine). blockage or disturbance of the pathways of qi as in qi block. See also stoppage.

blockage

 töng

See stoppage.

block and repulsion

guän 

Definition:  (

block) and continuous vomiting (repulsion) caused by insufficiency of the spleen and kidney with depressed lodged damp turbidity transforming into heat and thrusting upward.

Medication:  Treatment involves the use of Golden Coffer Kidney Qi Pill (jïn guì shèn  wán) to provide warming supplementation and boost kidney qi and to warm yang and transform water, and Left-Running Metal Pill (zuô jïn wán) to harmonize the stomach and downbear turbidity. Where enduring depression has given way to heat transformation, abdominal distention and diarrhea, vexation and agitation, dry lips, a taste of urine in the mouth, and a thick turbid tongue fur are observed, and the treatment is to free yang and downbear turbidity with Rhubarb and Aconite Decoction ( huáng   täng) combined with Coptis Gallbladder-Warming Decoction (huáng lián wën dân täng). If there is a pronounced yang brightness bowel pattern, formulas such as Major Qi-Coordinating Decoction ( chéng  täng) and Yellow Dragon Decoction (huáng lóng täng) may be used.

Definition:  Vomiting with the gradual appearance of fecal and urinary stoppage, accompanied by a sense of blockage in the throat. This is a severe form of dysphagia-occlusion .

Definition:  Exuberance of both yin and yang. When yin qi is overexuberant and yang qi is not nourished, this is called block. When yang qi is overexuberant and yin qi is not nourished, this is called repulsion. When yin and yang are both overexuberant and fail to nourish each other, this is called block and repulsion.

Definition:  Extremely exuberant wrist and man's prognosis pulses, which are a sign of impending separation of yin and yang.

block pattern

 zhèng

See block.

blood

xuè xiê xue=

4 The red fluid of the body that according to traditional explanations is derived from the essential qi derived from food by the stomach and spleen, which becomes red blood after being transformed by construction qi and the lung. Blood flows to all parts of the body, and is governed by the heart. By the action of the heart and lung, it flows through the vessels, carrying nourishment to the whole of the body. All the bowels and viscera and all parts of the body rely on the blood for nourishment. The heart and liver are said to have their own blood, the terms heart blood and liver blood meaning blood in relation to the functions of those two viscera. See heart qi and heart blood; liver blood.

blood accumulation

xuè 

An accumulation of static blood due to qi counterflow and blood depression or due to injury from knocks and falls. Blood accumulation is accompanied by a withered-yellow facial complexion with crab claw markings, a lump in the abdomen of rib-side that does not move and frequently causes pain, and constipation or black stool.

Medication:  Quicken the blood and transform stasis with formulas like Dead-On Pill ( dàng wán), Peach Kernel and Carthamus Four Agents Decoction (táo hóng   täng), Peach Kernel Qi-Coordinating Decoction (táo  chéng  täng), or Rhubarb and Wingless Cockroach Pill ( huáng zhè chóng wán).

Acupuncture:  Main points are blood-quickening stasis-dispelling points such as BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and ; needle with even supplementation and drainage or bleed with a three-edged needle. For qi counterflow and blood depression, add CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , and BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) .

blood amassment

 xuè

Definition: 

A greater yang cold damage pattern in which evil heat enters the interior to contend with the blood, causing stasis heat amassing and binding internally and manifesting in the form of smaller-abdominal pain and distention, heat~effusion and aversion to cold, clear-mindedness in the daytime that gives way to delirious raving, mania, confused speech, and vociferation and violent behavior at night.

Medication:  Blood amassment is treated by offensive precipitation of static blood using Dead-On Pill ( dàng wán), Peach Kernel Qi-Coordinating Decoction (táo  chéng  täng), Infradiaphragmatic Stasis-Expelling Decoction ( xià zhú  täng), plus Rhei Rhizoma ( huáng), or Rhinoceros Horn and Rehmannia Decoction ( jiâo  huáng täng).

Definition:  Any substantial or insubstantial blood stasis accumulation due to internal causes or to external injury.

blood amassment yellowing

 xuè  huáng

Synonym:  static blood yellowing .

From Cold Damage Life-for-All Collection (shäng hán quán shëng ) due to stasis heat amassing internally. On Cold Damage (shäng hán lùn) states ``Greater yang disease with yellow body, bound sunken pulse, lesser-abdominal hardness and inhibited urination indicates a lack of blood; if there is uninhibited urination and the patient acts like a maniac, this is definitely a blood pattern.''

Medication:  Treat by offensive expulsion of stasis heat. Peach Kernel Qi-Coordinating Decoction (táo  chéng  täng) or Dead-On Decoction ( dàng täng).

blood arrow

xuè jiàn

Definition:  of the flesh,

attributable to exuberant fire in the heart channel that causes frenetic movement of the blood. Blood arrow is characterized by red macules and bleeding from the pores, in severe cases with blood spurting out like an arrow.

Medication:  Enrich yin, downbear fire, and cool the blood using Blood-Cooling Rehmannia Decoction (liáng xuè  huáng täng). If bleeding is profuse, use Tangkuei Blood-Supplementing Decoction (däng guï  xuè täng). Peach Blossom Powder (táo huä sân) may be applied topically.

Definition:  intestinal aggregation.

blood aspect

xuè fèn

defense, qi, construction, and blood.

blood-aspect heat toxin

xuè fèn  

Definition: 

Heat evil in the blood-aspect, characterized by high fever, clouded spirit, macules and papules, and in some cases blood ejection, spontaneous external bleeding, or bloody stool, and a deep crimson or purple-crimson tongue.

Western Medical Concept:  measles* scarlet fever* exanthematous typhus* severe measles; scarlet fever; exanthematous typhus.

Medication:  Cool and dissipate the blood. Use Rhinoceros Horn and Rehmannia Decoction ( jiâo  huáng täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on HT and PC. Select PC-3 ( , Marsh at the Bend) , PC-9 (zhöng chöng, Central Hub) , HT-9 (shào chöng, Lesser Surge) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , BL-40 (wêi zhöng, Bend Center) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with drainage or prick to bleed. For high fever, add the and GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) . For clouded spirit, add HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , , and PC-7 ( líng, Great Mound) .

Definition:  Generally denotes what Western medicine describes as recurrent or multiple acute pyogenic infections.

blood-aspect pattern

xuè fèn zhèng

Any warm disease pattern arising when an evil enters the blood aspect. Signs include a deep crimson tongue coloring and signs of frenetic movement of the blood such as bleeding and purple maculopapular eruptions. The tongue may, in addition to being crimson, be bare and smooth like a mirror, indicating damage to yin and fluid desertion. Such a condition may include signs of vacuity stirring internal wind such as convulsions of the limbs or tetanic reversal. These latter signs are nevertheless differentiated from the tetanic reversal and convulsions associated with extreme heat engendering wind. The accent in blood-aspect patterns may be on repletion signs such as frenetic blood movement; or it may be on vacuity of right with a lodged evil, where signs such as desiccated tongue and teeth, dry pharynx and mouth, heart vexation, and a rapid fine pulse indicate that although the heat has abated, the evil is still present and yin humor is severely damaged. See cooling the blood.

blood chamber

xuè shì

Definition: 

The uterus.

Definition:  The thoroughfare vessel.

Definition:  The liver.

blood chest bind

xuè jié xiöng

A yang-natured cold damage pattern arising when blood ejection is incomplete and blood amasses in the upper burner. It is characterized by distention, fullness, hardness and pain in the chest and abdomen, generalized heat~effusion with only a desire to wet the mouth rather than swallow fluid, forgetfulness, black stool, and inhibited urination.

Medication:  Use formulas such as Rhinoceros Horn and Rehmannia Decoction ( jiâo  huáng täng) or Dead-On Decoction ( dàng täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on CV, PC, SP, and LR. Select CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , PC-5 (jiän shî, Intermediary Courier) , and HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) ; needle with drainage.

blood cold

xuè hán

Congealing cold and qi stagnation inhibiting movement of blood causing stasis. Blood cold is observed in mounting qi , concretions, conglomerations, accumulations, and gatherings, delayed menstruation, and scant menstruation, frostbite, and sloughing flat-abscess . Blood cold mostly arises through blood congealing in the liver vessel. Elementary Questions ( wèn) states, ``The reverting yin vessel connects with the yin organs (genitals) and ties to the liver; when cold qi settles in this vessel, the blood congeals and the pulse because urgent; hence there is pain from the rib-side to the lesser abdomen.''

blood cold delayed menstruation

xuè hán jïng xíng hòu  due to blood cold,

most commonly observed in postpartum patients who contract external cold that seizes a vacuity and storms the uterus, where it causes stagnation of the blood. Arrival of periods is delayed and flow is dark, clotted, and scant. The condition is associated with gripping abdominal pain relieved by warmth, green-blue or white facial complexion, physical cold, and aversion to cold. If flow is scant and pale and accompanied by dull abdominal pain relieved by warmth and pressure, a bright white facial complexion, dizziness and shortness of breath, the pattern is one of thoroughfare and controlling vessel vacuity cold making the blood powerless to move.

Medication:  Repletion cold is treated by warming the channels and moving stagnation using Channel-Warming (Menses-Warming) Decoction (wën jïng täng); vacuity cold is treated by warming the channels and nourishing the blood with Major Construction Brew ( yíng jiän).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on the CV and the three yin channels of the foot. Main points: CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , KI-13 ( xué, Qi Point) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , needle with supplementation and add moxa. To warm the channels and move stagnation, add ST-29 (guï lái, Return) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , and LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) ; to warm the channels and nourish the blood, add BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , and KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , See delayed menstruation.

blood cold scant menstruation

xuè hán yuè jïng guò shâo due to yang vacuity engendering internal yin cold,

insufficient production of blood due to reduced qi transformation and shortage of blood in the thoroughfare and controlling vessels. A scant thin pale or dark pale or dark flow is accompanied by physical cold and aversion to cold, cold pain in the smaller abdomen relieved by warmth.

Medication:  Warm the channels and nourish the blood with formulas such as Major Construction Brew ( yíng jiän) with the addition of Zingiberis Rhizoma Tostum (páo jiäng) and, if necessary, Aconiti Tuber Laterale ( ).

Acupuncture:  The CV, back transport points, SP, and ST provide the main basis for treatment. Select CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , and KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and needle with supplementation and use large amounts of moxa.

blood collapse

wáng xuè

Acute, critical vacuity of the blood. See collapse.

blood concretion

An abdominal lump attributable to accumulation of static blood congesting the channels. Concretions may occur in the rib-side or below the abdomen. They feel hard to the touch, do not move when pushed, and are associated with local stasis pain. Patients suffering from them also reveal signs such as gradual emaciation, fatigue and lack of strength, reduced food intake, and in women menstrual irregularities or menstrual block.

Medication:  Quicken the blood and dissipate stasis. If visceral qi is weak, support right and dispel the evil. Formulas that may be used include Turtle Shell Decocted Pill (bië jiâ jiän wán), Concretion-Transforming Return-to-Life Elixir (huà zhëng huí shëng dän), Infradiaphragmatic Stasis-Expelling Decoction ( xià zhú  täng), and Lesser Abdomen Stasis-Expelling Decoction (shào  zhú  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on back transport points, SP, and LR. Main points are blood-quickening stasis-dispelling points such as BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and . Selection of points according to affected area: Chest and abdomen: add CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) . Rib-side: add SP-21 ( bäo, Great Embracement) and GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) . Below the umbilicus: add CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , SP-8 ( , Earth's Crux) , and ST-29 (guï lái, Return) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage or pricking and cupping. For vacuity of visceral qi, add CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and needle with supplementation and add moxa.

blood depletion menstrual block

xuè kuï jïng  (

absence of menstruation) due to blood depletion arising when loss of blood, early marriage, excessive number of births, or excessive breast feeding causes damage to essence-blood. Blood depletion menstrual block appears gradually, and menstrual flow gradually becomes increasingly scant until it finally ceases. It is accompanied by no thought of food and drink, dry skin, and emaciation.

Medication:  Supplement the blood and boost qi using formulas such as Ginseng Construction-Nourishing Decoction (rén shën yâng róng täng) or Perfect Major Supplementation Decoction (shí quán   täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on CV and back transport points, selecting CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and the . Needle with supplementation and add moxa.

blood depression

xuè 

A condition that results from sudden violent flights of anger, sprains, or irregular eating and that is characterized by stabbing pain in the chest and rib-side accompanied by lack of strength in the limbs, dribbling urination, bloody stool or a pulse sunken, scallion-stalk, rough, bound, or skipping and scallion-stalk.

Medication:  Harmonize the blood and resolve depression with Blood Depression Decoction (xuè  täng), Four Agents Depression-Transforming Decoction (  huà  täng) or Toosendan Powder (jïn líng  sân) with the judicious addition of Persicae Semen (táo rén), Angelicae Sinensis Radicis Extremitas (däng guï wêi), Curcumae Tuber ( jïn), and Dalbergiae Lignum (jiàng zhën xiäng).

blood desertion

xuè tuö

Depletion of true yin and emptiness of the sea of blood resulting from insufficiency of the congenital constitution, anxiety, taxation fatigue, sexual taxation, damage by food and liquor, or massive or chronic loss of blood. Blood desertion is characterized by somber white facial complexion that is sheenless and perished, as well as dizziness and flowery vision, heart palpitations or fearful throbbing, shortness of breath and faint breathing, cold limbs, clouding reversal and loss of consciousness. The tongue is pale; the pulse is empty and vacuous, or scallion-stalk, or faint and fine, verging on expiration. Loss of blood deprives the skin and flesh of nourishment, hence the somber white perished complexion and pale tongue. When it deprives the clear orifices of nourishment, there is dizziness and flowery vision. When it deprives the heart-spirit of nourishment, there are heart palpitations or fearful throbbing. The blood is the mother of qi, and qi is the commander of the blood. Massive loss of blood deprives qi of its support, causing qi to desert with the blood and giving rise to signs such as cold limbs and, in severe cases, clouding reversal and loss of consciousness. With the sudden reduction in the volume of blood that results from excessive loss of blood, construction-blood is insufficient and fails to fill the vessels; hence the pulse is empty and vacuous, or faint and verging on desertion. If yang qi loses its support and dissipates outward, there is a scallion-stalk pulse.

Medication:  Boost yin and supplement the blood using Construction-Supplementing Decoction ( róng täng) or Ginseng Construction-Nourishing Decoction (rén shën yâng róng täng). For acute hemorrhage, supplement qi, nourish the blood, and stem desertion, using Pure Ginseng Decoction ( shën täng) or Ginseng and Aconite Decoction (shën  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, CV, and SP; select points such as CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , and BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa. Point selection according to signs: For dizzy head and flowery vision, add GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , BL-1 (jïng míng, Bright Eyes) , and BL-2 (zân zhú, Bamboo Gathering) . See also qi deserting with the blood. For acute massive hemorrhage, see yin collapse.

blood desertion with qi desertion

xuè tuö  tuö

qi deserting with the blood.

blood desiccation

xuè 

Definition: 

Blood vacuity manifesting in emaciation, scant semen, and menstrual block.

Definition:  Insufficiency of the blood due to massive bleeding.

blood desiccation menstrual block

xuè  jïng  (

absence of menses) due to desiccation of the blood. Distinction is made between vacuity and repletion patterns.

Vacuity  () patterns arise from loss of blood, early marriage, excessive number of births, or excessive breast-feeding cause damage to the blood that leads to emptiness of the thoroughfare and controlling vessels. Signs include reduced food intake, lusterless bright white facial complexion, gradual emaciation, reddening of the cheeks, and sometimes postmeridian heat~effusion and steaming bone.

Medication:  When due to excessive blood loss, treat by supplementing the blood, using Ginseng Construction-Nourishing Decoction (rén shën yâng róng täng). When due to damage to essence through early marriage, treat by enriching yin and supplementing the blood, using Six-Ingredient Rehmannia Decoction (lìu wèi  huáng täng). When due to excessive breast feeding, treat by dual supplementation of qi and the blood, with Perfect Major Supplementation Decoction (shí quán   täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, CV, and SP. Select BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , CV-7 (yïn jiäo, Yin Intersection) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa.

Repletion  (shí) patterns are usually attributed to heat evil entering the stomach, scorching the blood, and thereby causing liquid depletion and dryness of the thoroughfare vessel. They are characterized by a red facial complexion and generalized heat~effusion, dry mouth and desire for cool drinks, dry stool, and yellow urine.

Medication:  Drain stomach heat and regulate the blood vessels using Jade Candle Powder ( zhú sân).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on ST, SP, and LI. Select ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and KI-2 (rán , Blazing Valley) ; needle with drainage.

blood disease pattern

xuè bìng zhèng hòu

Any abnormal condition of the blood. See the entries listed below.

Blood Disease Patterns

blood drum

xuè 

Synonym:  blood drum distention ;

Synonym:  blood gu .

(pronounced abdominal distention), arising when blood stasis and qi stagnation hamper the movement of water-damp. Blood drum is characterized by enlargement of the abdomen with green-blue prominent vessels (caput medusae), and red-thread marks (spider nevi), black stool, short voidings of reddish urine, and a scallion-stalk pulse. In some cases there is spontaneous external bleeding or blood ejection.

Medication:  Quicken the blood and move stasis; fortify the spleen and disinhibit dampness. Use formulas such as Dead-On Pill ( dàng wán) and Spleen-Firming Beverage (shí  yîn).

Western Medical Concept:  ascites* schistosomiasis* ascites due to schistosomiasis (blood fluke infestation) or other causes.

Acupuncture:  Two sets of points may be used: CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , KI-9 (zhú bïn, Guest House) , and KI-16 (huäng shü, Huang Transport) . (2) SP-15 ( hèng, Great Horizontal) ~, CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , KI-9 (zhú bïn, Guest House) , and KI-16 (huäng shü, Huang Transport) . The sets may be alternated, needling with drainage. Pole CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , and bilateral SP-15 ( hèng, Great Horizontal) for 30--60 minutes each time after needling.

blood drum distention

xuè 

blood drum.

blood dryness

xuè zào

Blood vacuity manifesting in signs of dryness. Blood dryness may occur when essence-blood is depleted in old age or when nutritional disturbances or static blood binding internally reduce the nutritive power of the blood. Blood dryness is characterized by emaciation, rough dry skin (), brittle nails, dry lusterless hair, hard stool, and dry tongue. Itchy and scaling skin, occurring either alone or with the above signs, is known as blood dryness (or blood vacuity) engendering wind.

Medication:  Nourish the blood and moisten dryness with Rehmanniae Radix Exsiccata seu Recens (shëng  huáng), Rehmanniae Radix Conquita (shú  huáng), Polygoni Multiflori Radix ( shôu ), Angelicae Sinensis Radix (däng guï), Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix (dän shën), Paeoniae Radix Alba (bái sháo yào), Lycii Fructus (gôu  ), Biotae Semen (bâi  rén), Sesami Semen Atrum (hëi zhï ), etc. Blood-nourishing dryness-moistening formulas include Dryness-Enriching Construction-Nourishing Decoction ( zào yâng yíng täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on ST, SP, LR and KI. Select ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , and BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) ; needle with supplementation. For blood dryness engendering wind, add SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , GB-31 (fëng shì, Wind Market) , and LR-8 ( quán, Spring at the Bend) , needling these points with drainage.

blood dryness engendering wind

xuè zào shëng fëng

blood vacuity engendering wind.

blood dysentery

xuè 

Synonym:  red dysentery .

Dysentery characterized by bright bloody stool or passing of pure blood, associated with tenesmus and an exuberant pulse.

Western Medical Concept:  amebic dysentery* dysentery*!amebic ulcerative colitis* colitis*!ulcerative schistosomiasis*!chronic blood fluke infestation* bacillary dysentery* dysentery*!bacillary amebic dysentery; ulcerative colitis; chronic schistosomiasis (blood fluke infestation); bacillary dysentery.

Medication:  Clear the intestines and resolve toxin with formulas such as Pulsatilla Decoction (bái tóu wëng täng). For persistent passage of blood, use Coptis and Ass Hide Glue Decoction (huáng lián ë jiäo täng) with the judicious addition of blood-cooling blood-quickening medicinals like Lonicerae Flos (jïn yín huä), Rehmanniae Radix Exsiccata seu Recens (shëng  huáng), Angelicae Sinensis Radix (däng guï), and Sanguisorbae Radix ( ). Persistence of the condition can cause center qi vacuity cold, which is characterized by passage of grayish blood, withered-yellow facial complexion, and a soggy pulse, and is treated by warming the spleen and containing the blood with Yellow Earth Decoction (huáng  täng).

Acupuncture:  To clear the intestines and resolve toxin, base treatment mainly on ST and LI; select BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , ST-37 (shàng  , Upper Great Hollow) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) SP-4 (göng sün, Yellow Emperor) , GV-1 (cháng qiáng, Long Strong) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , and GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) ; needle with drainage. For persistent passing of blood, needle with even supplementation and drainage and, if appropriate, use moxa at GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , SP-1 (yîn bái, Hidden White) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) . For enduring disease causing center qi vacuity cold, base treatment on CV, ST, LI and back transport points. Select CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , ST-37 (shàng  , Upper Great Hollow) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , and BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) ; needle with supplementation and use moxa. See dysentery.

blood ejection

 xuè

Ejection of blood through the mouth; vomiting or expectoration of blood (i.e., respiratory tract or digestive tract bleeding); sometimes defined as being associated with neither the sound of retching or of coughing. Blood ejection is attributed liquor damage, food damage, or taxation fatigue causing exuberant heat in the bowels and viscera, effulgent yin vacuity fire, or qi vacuity and spleen cold. The main patterns are accumulated heat in the stomach, intense liver fire, effulgent yin vacuity fire, spleen-stomach vacuity cold, and qi vacuity verging on desertion.

Accumulated heat in the stomach  (wèi zhöng  ) causes blood ejection marked by fresh or dark purple blood, distending pain in the stomach duct and abdomen, constipation, yellow tongue fur, and a slippery rapid pulse.

Medication:  Clear the stomach and drain fire. Use variations of Firewood-Removing Beverage ( xïn yîn) or Heart-Draining Decoction (xiè xïn täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on ST, LI, and PC. Select CV-13 (shàng wân, Upper Stomach Duct) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , ST-37 (shàng  , Upper Great Hollow) , and PC-4 ( mén, Cleft Gate) . Needle with drainage.

Intense liver fire  (gän huô chì shèng) blood ejection is characterized by bright red blood with purple stasis, bitter taste in the mouth, rib-side pain, heart vexation, irascibility, red tongue, and rapid stringlike pulse.

Medication:  Drain the liver and harmonize the stomach with variations of Moutan and Gardenia Free Wanderer Powder (dän zhï xiäo yáo sân).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on ST, LR, and CV. Select ST-34 (liáng qïu, Beam Hill) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , LR-14 ( mén, Cycle Gate) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , and BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) . Needle with drainage.

Effulgent yin vacuity fire  (yïn  huô wàng) blood ejection is associated with heat~effusion, night sweating, tinnitus, insomnia, and a rapid fine pulse.

Medication:  Enrich yin and downbear fire; cool the blood and stanch bleeding. Use formulas such as Blood-Cooling Rehmannia Decoction (liáng xuè  huáng täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on back transport points, KI, and HT. Needle with supplementation at BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) and with drainage at KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , KI-2 (rán , Blazing Valley) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , and HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) . If fire signs are pronounced, prick HT-8 (shào , Lesser Mansion) to bleed.

Spleen-stomach vacuity cold  ( wèi  hán) blood ejection is characterized by ejection of dark, dull, purple blood, fear of cold, cold limbs, and a faint pulse.

Medication:  Warm the center and stanch bleeding. Use Aconite Center-Rectifying Decoction (   zhöng täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV, ST, BL, and SP. Select CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , SP-1 (yîn bái, Hidden White) , and ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) . Needle with supplementation and moxa.

Qi vacuity verging on desertion  (   tuö) blood ejection is characterized by exhaustion of essence-spirit, and faint weak soft vacuous pulse.

Medication:  Boost qi and contain the blood with formulas such as Pure Ginseng Decoction ( shën täng).

Acupuncture:  See blood desertion.

blood failing to nourish the sinews

xuè  yâng jïn

Insufficiency of liver blood manifesting in hypertonicity of the sinews, numbness or wilting of limbs, or brittle nails. The liver stores the blood and governs the sinews, and the nails are the surplus of the sinews. Hence, insufficiency of liver blood depriving the sinews of nourishment manifests in abnormalities of the sinews and nails.

blood failing to stay in the channels

xuè  guï jïng

Escape of blood from the vessels. Examples of blood failing to stay in the channels include flooding and spotting, blood ejection, spontaneous external bleeding, bloody stool, bloody urine, and stasis macules, which may be due to qi vacuity, qi counterflow, blood stasis, fire or heat.

blood falling with qi

xuè suí  xiàn

Bleeding due to qi vacuity fall. For example, spleen-stomach vacuity can cause qi vacuity fall and deprive qi of the ability to contain the blood, so that blood becomes depressed in the lower body and seeps out. It is accompanied by devitalized essence-spirit, fatigued limbs, somber white facial complexion, pale tongue with scant fur, and a rapid vacuous or forceless fine sunken pulse.

Western Medical Concept:  uterine bleeding!dysfunctional In modern clinical practice, blood falling with qi is seen in dysfunctional uterine bleeding and some forms of bloody stool.

blood flying to the eye

 fëi xuè

The development of red vessels in the whites of the eye. Blood flying into the eye occurs in a number of eye diseases such as peppercorn sore, millet sores, and fire gan.

blood goiter

xuè yîng

A goiter on the neck characterized by purple red coloration of the skin and red intersecting veins. It arises when blood heat stemming from fulminant exuberance of liver fire contends with an externally contracted evil.

Western Medical Concept:  angioma of the neck* angioma of the neck.

Medication:  Enrich yin and suppress fire; nourish the blood and transform stasis. Use Scutellaria, Coptis, Anemarrhena, and Fritillaria Pill (qín lián èr  wán) or combine Sargassi Herba (hâi zâo), Cyclinae (seu Meretricis) Concha (hâi  ), Algae Thallus (kün ), Alismatis Rhizoma ( xiè), Suis Glandula Thyroidea (zhü ), Scutellariae Radix (huáng qín), Coptidis Rhizoma (huáng lián), and Fritillariae Bulbus (bèi ) with Four Agents Decoction (  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on TB, GB, LI, ST, SP, and LR. Needle with even supplementation and drainage at TB-13 (nào huì, Upper Arm Convergence) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , CV-22 (tiän , Celestial Chimney) , SI-17 (tiän róng, Celestial Countenance) , LI-17 (tiän dîng, Celestial Tripod) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , and SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , and with drainage at LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , and GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) .

blood gu

xuè 

blood drum.

blood heat

xuè 

A condition characterized by heat and blood signs, mostly occurring in externally contracted heat (febrile) diseases, though not uncommon in miscellaneous diseases. When blood heat scorches the vessels causing extravasation of the blood, there is retching of blood, expectoration of blood, bloody stool or urine, nosebleed, or menstrual irregularities (see following entries). This pathomechanism is called frenetic blood heat (or frenetic movement of hot blood). Bleeding is often profuse and the blood is either bright red or purple-black in color. Blood heat can also cause red papules and macules. General signs of blood heat such as heart vexation, thirst, red or sunken red tongue, and rapid pulse all indicate heat. Coma may occur in severe cases.

Western Medical Concept:  purpura*!anaphylactoid purpura*!thrombocytopenic anemia*!aplastic leukemia* anaphylactoid and thrombocytopenic purpura; aplastic anemia; leukemia.

Medication:  Cool the blood, clear heat, and resolve toxin using medicinals such as Rehmanniae Radix Exsiccata seu Recens (shëng  huáng), Imperatae Rhizoma Recens (xiän máo gën), Lithospermi, Macrotomiae, seu Onosmatis Radix ( câo), Moutan Radicis Cortex ( dän ), Paeoniae Radix Rubra (chì sháo yào), Typhae Pollen ( huáng), Sanguisorbae Radix ( ), and Cephalanoploris Herba seu Radix (xiâo ). Among commonly used formulas, Rhinoceros Horn and Rehmannia Decoction ( jiâo  huáng täng) treats blood heat with generalized signs such as clouded spirit, delirious mania, red or crimson tongue, and maculopapular eruptions, whereas Cephalanoplos Drink (xiâo  yîn zi) is a general blood-cooling blood-stanching formula.

Acupuncture:  The following points are considered to clear heat and cool the blood: KI-2 (rán , Blazing Valley) , LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , PC-7 ( líng, Great Mound) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , PC-3 ( , Marsh at the Bend) , and BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) . Needle with drainage or with even supplementation and drainage. For exuberant heat, prick and bleed with a three-edged needle. When blood heat scorches the vessels causing extravasation of the blood, points such as PC-7 ( líng, Great Mound) , PC-4 ( mén, Cleft Gate) , LU-6 (kông zuì, Collection Hole) , LU-9 (tài yuän, Great Abyss) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , SP-1 (yîn bái, Hidden White) , and ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) can be drained to clear heat and stanch bleeding.

blood heat advanced menstruation

xuè  jïng xíng xiän  (

i.e., premature arrival of periods) due to blood heat. Blood heat advanced menstruation occurs in women who usually have internal heat or like hot spicy food; it may result from contracting heat evil; it may stem from excessive anger causing qi depression that transforms into fire; it can also be the result of yin vacuity internal heat. In all cases, the heat harasses the thoroughfare and controlling vessels and causes frenetic movement of the blood.

Blood heat  (xuè ) advanced menstruation is characterized by early periods with copious thick sticky purple red flow, heart vexation, thirst with desire for cool drinks, constipation, and yellow urination.

Medication:  Clear heat and cool the blood using Scutellaria and Coptis Four Agents Decoction (qín lián   täng).

Acupuncture:  Treatment is based on the CV and the three yin channels of the foot. Main points: CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) and SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) . For blood heat, add LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , and LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , needling with drainage.

Qi depression transforming into fire  (  huà huô) causes advanced menstruation with purple clotted flow, distending pain in the chest and rib-side, vexation and irascibility.

Medication:  Calm the liver and clear heat, using formulas like Moutan and Gardenia Free Wanderer Powder (dän zhï xiäo yáo sân).

Acupuncture:  Add to the main points given above PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , PC-8 (láo göng, Palace of Toil) , and SP-8 ( , Earth's Crux) , needling with drainage.

Yin vacuity blood heat  (yïn  xuè ) advanced menstruation is marked by a scant dribbling red thick sticky flow, reddening of the cheeks, and heat in the soles and palms.

Medication:  Nourish yin and clear heat using Rehmannia and Lycium Root Bark Decoction (liâng  täng) or Lycium Root Bark Beverage (   yîn).

Acupuncture:  Add to the main points given above SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and KI-2 (rán , Blazing Valley) , needling with even supplemenation and drainage. See advanced menstruation.

blood heat flooding and spotting

xuè  bëng lòu (

abnormal discharge of blood via the vagina) due to blood heat. Blood heat flooding and spotting forms a repletion pattern when due to constitutional internal heat, excessive consumption of hot spicy food, or contraction of heat evil. It may stem from excessive anger causing qi depression that transforms into fire. It can also be the result of yin vacuity internal heat. In all cases, the heat harasses the thoroughfare and controlling vessels and causes frenetic movement of the blood.

Repletion pattern blood heat  (shí zhèng xuè ) flooding and spotting is characterized by sudden bleeding from the vagina that is copious or dribbling. The flow is deep red or purple in color and thick and sticky in consistency. General signs include a red facial complexion, thirst, vexation and agitation, and irascibility.

Medication:  Clear heat, cool the blood, and stanch bleeding with Heat-Clearing Channel-Securing (Menses-Securing) Decoction (qïng   jïng täng).

Qi depression transforming into fire  (  huà huô) giving rise to blood heat flooding and spotting is marked by chest and rib-side distention and pain, heart vexation and irascibility.

Medication:  Calm the liver and clear heat, using formulas like Moutan and Gardenia Free Wanderer Powder (dän zhï xiäo yáo sân).

Yin vacuity blood heat  (yïn  xuè ) is characterized by a scant dribbling flow that is red, thick and sticky, as well as by reddening of the cheeks and heat in the soles and palms.

Medication:  Nourish yin and clear heat, using Rehmannia and Lycium Root Bark Decoction (liâng  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on the CV and SP. Main points: CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and SP-1 (yîn bái, Hidden White) . For repletion pattern blood heat, add SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , and KI-5 (shuî quán, Water Spring) , needling with drainage. For qi depression transforming into fire, add LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , TB-6 (zhï göu, Branch Ditch) , and LR-1 ( dün, Large Pile) . LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , needling with drainage. For yin vacuity blood heat, add KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , KI-2 (rán , Blazing Valley) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , needling with even supplementation and drainage.

blood heat habitual miscarriage

xuè  huá täi due to blood heat lying latent in the thoroughfare and controlling vessels,

causing frenetic movement of the blood that damages the fetal origin. The patient experiences smaller-abdominal pain, heart vexation, thirst, and desire for cool drinks. Bleeding from the vagina portends stirring fetus and impending miscarriage.

Medication:  Clear heat and quiet the fetus with Yin-Safeguarding Brew (bâo yïn jiän). See habitual miscarriage.

blood heat profuse menstruation

xuè  yuè jïng guò duö due to blood heat damaging the thoroughfare and controlling vessels and causing frenetic movement of the blood.

Distinction is made between vacuity heat and repletion heat.

Repletion heat  (shí ) is characterized by profuse menstrual flow that is deep red or purple in color, thick in consistency, and sometimes bears a foul smell, in addition to which a red facial complexion, dry mouth, thirst, and periodic vexation and agitation are observed.

Medication:  Clear heat and cool the blood with Channel-Clearing Decoction (qïng jïng täng) plus Asini Corii Gelatinum (ë jiäo).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on the CV, SP, LR, ST, and LI, selecting CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , LI-2 (èr jiän, Second Space) , ST-44 (nèi tíng, Inner Court) , and LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , and needling with drainage.

Vacuity heat  ( ) is marked by postmeridian heat in the soles and palms.

Medication:  Enrich yin, clear heat, and cool the blood with Rehmannia and Lycium Root Bark Decoction (liâng  täng) or Lycium Root Bark Beverage (   yîn).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on CV and three yin channels of the foot. Select CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , KI-2 (rán , Blazing Valley) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage.

blood impediment

xuè 

Definition: 

From Elementary Questions ( wèn) An impediment pattern that results from evil entering the blood aspect in patients suffering from qi-blood vacuity, often traceable to sleeping in drafts or sweating from exertion. Blood impediment is characterized by numbness, pain in the limbs, and a faint rough pulse that is fine and tight at the cubit.

Medication:  Boost qi and harmonize construction; free yang and move impediment . Use formulas such as Tangkuei Decoction (däng guï täng) or Astragalus and Cinnamon Twig Five Agents Decoction (huáng  guì zhï   täng).

Acupuncture:  Use the same basic formulas as given for wind impediment, and add points such as ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , and LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) to boost qi and nourish the blood.

Definition:  Wind impediment migrating from place to place with no fixed location.

blood in the stool

biàn xuè

bloody stool.

blood in the urine

niào xuè

bloody urine.

blood is the mother of qi

xuè wéi  zhï 

The nourishing action of blood is necessary for the activity of qi. The capacity of qi to enable all parts of the body to carry out their various activities is attributable to the adequate supply of nutrition from the blood. Blood is to qi as a mother is to a child. This is one aspect of the yin-yang relationship between qi and blood. See qi is the commander of the blood.

bloodletting

fàng xuè

Synonym:  network vessel pricking .

An acupuncture method whereby the skin is punctured with a stabbing or picking action, usually with a three-edged needle (or nowadays, especially in the West, with disposable lancets) and a few drops of blood are squeezed out in order to drain heat, quicken the blood, move qi, and reduce swelling. It is performed at the site of a point or at the small veins in the area surrounding a point (such as BL-40). First, pressure is applied to restrict the blood flow of the area, to increase the visibility of the veins and to cause the blood to flow out more easily when the vein is pricked. The point is then swiftly and decisively pricked to a superficial depth of about 0.1 body-inches and a few drops of blood are allowed to escape. Lastly, the point is pressed with sterile cotton until the bleeding ceases. Before bloodletting, explain the procedure to the patient thoroughly to allay any fears. This method is inappropriate for weak, pregnant, or postpartum patients, or those suffering from bleeding, anemia or low blood pressure. Bloodletting is often indicated in this text by the term prick to bleed``'' or pick to bleed``.'' See also diffuse pricking; three-edged needle.

blood loss

shï xuè

Reduction in blood due any form of bleeding, notably spontaneous external bleeding, blood ejection, retching of blood, expectoration of blood, coughing of blood, spitting of blood, spontaneous external bleeding, bloody stool, bloody urine, or bleeding from wounds (see incised wound). Blood loss is attributed fire heat, vacuity cold, blood stasis, or external injury.

blood loss dizziness

shï xuè xuàn yün due to loss of blood through blood ejection,

nosebleed, flooding and spotting, or external injury, and accompanied by somber white facial complexion, heart palpitations, spontaneous sweating, pale tongue, and, in severe cases, reversal desertion (i.e., shock).

Medication:  Supplement the blood and boost qi with Ginseng Construction-Nourishing Decoction (rén shën yâng róng täng) or Spleen-Returning Decoction (guï  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GV, CV, ST, and SP. Select GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , ST-8 (tóu wéi, Head Corner) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , and SP-1 (yîn bái, Hidden White) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa. For reversal desertion, add GV-26 (rén zhöng, Human Center) , GV-25 ( liáo, White Bone-Hole) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , and KI-1 (yông quán, Gushing Spring) . See dizziness.

blood management failure

  tông xuè

spleen failing to manage the blood.

blood mole

xuè zhì

A clearly delineated smooth shiny purple-red patch or swelling on the skin, usually of the face, neck or trunk, that bleeds fresh blood when forcefully ruptured. It is congenital, or attributable to binding depression of fire and anger in the liver channel.

Western Medical Concept:  vascular nevus* vascular nevus.

Medication:  Apply Borneol and Freshwater Snail Powder (bïng  sân). When the mole has disappeared, apply Pearl Powder (zhën zhü sân). If there is pronounced bleeding, take Blood-Cooling Rehmannia Decoction (liáng xuè  huáng täng).

blood mounting

xuè shàn

Definition: 

Painful binding of static blood in the smaller abdomen manifesting as hard fullness that is palpably circumscribed, and, in severe cases, associated with black stool, inhibited urination, and menstrual irregularities.

Medication:  Use Cinnamon Twig and Poria (Hoelen) Pill (guì zhï  líng wán) or Lesser Abdomen Stasis-Expelling Decoction (shào  zhú  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LR and SP. Select LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , and GB-41 ( lín , Foot Overlooking Tears) ; needle with drainage.

Definition:  Blood swelling of the scrotum following external injury.

blood network vessel

xuè luò

See network vessel.

blood pattern

xuè zhèng

Any manifestation of disease in the blood. The main blood patterns are blood vacuity, blood stasis, and blood heat. See also blood dryness; blood desiccation; blood cold.

blood pouring into the pupil spirit

xuè guàn tóng shén

A condition characterized by a blood spot in the pupil that obstructs vision. Blood pouring into the pupil spirit may be the result of exuberant liver-gallbladder heat or yin vacuity fire flaming upward and causing frenetic movement of hot blood. It may also be the result of external injury or surgery.

Medication:  Clear heat and cool the blood with Rhinoceros Horn and Rehmannia Decoction ( jiâo  huáng täng) and variations, by enriching yin and downbearing fire with Anemarrhena, Phellodendron, and Rehmannia Pill (zhï bâi  huáng wán), or by clearing heat, cooling the blood, and dissipating stasis with Rhubarb and Tangkuei Powder ( huáng däng guï sân).

Western Medical Concept:  hyphema* hyphema. See pupil spirit.

blood reversal

xuè jué

Definition:  (

clouding of consciousness and cold limbs) due to blood loss (blood desertion) or to sudden violent anger causing qi to move counterflow and blood to become depressed in the upper body.

Blood desertion  (xuè tuö) blood reversal is observed in severe flooding and spotting or blood ejection, and is characterized by sudden dizziness, bright white facial complexion, reversal cold of the limbs, and a faint pulse on the verge of expiration.

Medication:  Boost qi and stem desertion with formulas such as Pure Ginseng Decoction ( shën täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on CV, GV, SP, and back transport points. Select CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , GV-26 (shuî göu, Water Trough) , GV-25 ( liáo, White Bone-Hole) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , and KI-1 (yông quán, Gushing Spring) to stem vacuity desertion, combined with ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , and BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) to supplement qi and contain the blood. Needle with supplementation and use large amounts of moxa.

Qi counterflow and blood depression  (  xuè ) blood reversal is characterized by sudden collapse with clenched jaw, unconsciousness, and green-blue or purple lips.

Medication:  Downbear counterflow and free stasis, using formulas such as Liver-Transforming Brew (huà gän jiän) or Stasis-Freeing Brew (töng  jiän).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on PC, LR, SP, GV and ; select PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , and CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) to downbear qi and free stasis, combined with GV-26 (shuî göu, Water Trough) , , PC-8 (láo göng, Palace of Toil) and LI-4 ( , Union Valley) . Needle with drainage or prick to bleed. See reversal.

Definition:  The sudden appearance of a death-like condition in an otherwise healthy person. The patient does not move, cannot open his eyes, does not recognize people, and cannot open his mouth to speak. In some cases, he may show slight recognition of people, and may perceive sounds dimly.

Medication:  Use Baiwei Decoction (bái wëi täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points and GV. Select BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , and GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) ; needle with supplementation and use moxa. See reversal.

blood spillage

xuè 

The escape of blood from the vessels; bleeding; hemorrhage. Blood leaving its channels and flowing out of the body. Although the causes of blood spillage are numerous, they are all embraced by two pathomechanisms: damage to the nextwork vessels due to external injury and qi failing to contain the blood. is blood spillage not attributable to external injury. Severe blood spillage gives rise to blood collapse.

blood stagnation abdominal pain

xuè zhì  tòng

static blood abdominal pain.

blood stagnation menstrual block

xuè zhì jïng  (

absence of menses) attributable to qi depression and blood stagnation obstructing the thoroughfare and controlling vessels and preventing blood from reaching the uterus. Blood stagnation menstrual block often stems from constrained emotions. Attending signs include purple somber facial complexion, smaller-abdominal pain exacerbated by pressure, with pain sometimes reaching to the rib-sides.

Medication:  Resolve depression and move qi; quicken the blood and free the channels. Use Stasis-Freeing Brew (töng  jiän) or Amber Powder (  sân).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on CV, SP, and LR; select CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , SP-8 ( , Earth's Crux) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with drainage and add moxa. Point selection according to signs: For smaller-abdominal pain and distention, add CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) and KI-14 ( mân, Fourfold Fullness) . For pain in both rib-sides, add LR-14 ( mén, Cycle Gate) and TB-6 (zhï göu, Branch Ditch) .

blood stasis

xuè 

Impairment or cessation of the normal free flow of blood. Blood stasis may arise when knocks and falls, bleeding, qi stagnation, qi vacuity, blood cold, or blood heat impair free flow, causing local blood stasis. It manifests in a variety of ways including pain, abdominal masses, bleeding (especially from the vagina), and abdominal distention. The observable signs of blood stasis may be discussed under five headings: Static blood obstructs the channels impeding the flow of blood. Since ``when there is stoppage, there is pain,'' pain is the outstanding feature of blood stasis. The pain associated with blood stasis differs from the acute and scurrying pain characterizing qi stagnation since it is of fixed location and confined to the locality of the obstruction, and is stabbing in nature. When static blood accumulates, it forms masses and swellings. When resulting from knocks and falls, it gives rise to local green-blue or purple swellings (bruises). When occurring internally, it may cause hard swellings that can develop into concretions and accumulations. Since static blood obstructs the vessels, blood may extravasate when unable to pursue its normal course. Periodic bleeding is a common sign of blood stasis, particularly in menstrual irregularities and postpartum diseases, and is generally characterized by dark purple clotted blood. The complexion tends to be soot-black. The tongue is dark and purple, with stasis speckles. The pulse is fine and rough. The skin may be rough, dry, and lusterless (encrusted skin) with red speckles and purple macules (both due to subcutaneous bleeding), red thread marks (spider nevi), and prominent green-blue veins on the abdomen (caput medusae). Such signs are observed in enduring sickness. When blood stasis overwhelms the heart, raving, delirious speech and mania are observed. Static blood obstructing the vessels may also affect the free flow of fluids, causing internal water accumulations, e.g., blood drum. The etiology of such conditions is described in Essential Prescriptions of the Golden Coffer (jïn guì yào lüè) by the phrase, ``inhibited blood flow may give rise to water.''

Western Medical Concept:  cardiovascular disease* hepatosplenomegaly* menstrual disorders* heterotopic pregnancy* cardiovascular diseases, hepatosplenomegaly, menstrual disorders, heterotopic pregnancy, and postpartum disorders often present as blood stasis patterns.

Medication:  Quicken the blood and transform stasis. Commonly used medicinals include Persicae Semen (táo rén), Carthami Flos (hóng huä), Angelicae Sinensis Radix (däng guï), Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix (dän shën), Paeoniae Radix Rubra (chì sháo yào), Leonuri Herba (  câo), and Lycopi Herba ( lán). In severe enduring conditions, blood-breaking hardness-dispersing medicinals such as Sparganii Rhizoma (sän léng), Zedoariae Rhizoma (é zhú), Manitis Squama (chuän shän jiâ), and Eupolyphaga seu Opisthoplatia (zhè chóng) may be used. Where a draining precipitant action is also required as in heat stasis patterns such as cold damage blood amassment patterns, Rhei Rhizoma ( huáng), and Mirabilitum (máng xiäo) may be added. Where blood stasis causes bleeding, medicinals that have both a blood-stanching and blood-quickening action such as Notoginseng Radix (sän ), Typhae Pollen ( huáng), Cephalanoploris Herba seu Radix (xiâo ), and Rubiae Radix (qiàn câo gën) are used. Stasis-dispelling blood-quickening formulas include Peach Kernel and Carthamus Four Agents Decoction (táo hóng   täng), House of Blood Stasis-Expelling Decoction (xuè  zhú  täng), Peach Kernel Qi-Coordinating Decoction (táo rén chéng  täng), and Rhubarb and Wingless Cockroach Pill ( huáng zhè chóng wán).

Acupuncture:  Treatment varies according to cause and affected area. Points used to dispel stasis include: CV-17 (shän zhöng, Chest Center) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-60 (kün lún, Kunlun Mountains) , SP-8 ( , Earth's Crux) , PC-3 ( , Marsh at the Bend) , BL-40 (wêi zhöng, Bend Center) , and . Needle with even supplementation and drainage or bleed with a three-edged needle. See static blood; dispelling stasis and quickening the blood.

blood stasis delayed menstruation

xuè  jïng xíng hòu  (

late periods) due to blood stasis arising when qi stagnation or congealing cold obstruct the thoroughfare and controlling vessels and prevent the timely arrival of blood to the uterus.

Qi stagnation  ( zhì) gives rise to blood stasis delayed menstruation associated with scant inhibited flow, smaller-abdominal distention and pain exacerbated by pressure and relieved by passing of clots.

Medication:  Move qi, quicken the blood, and transform stasis using Overdue Beverage (guò  yîn).

Congealing cold  (hán níng) causes blood stasis delayed menstruation attended by lesser-abdominal cold pain exacerbated by pressure.

Medication:  Warm the channels, quicken the blood, and transform stasis using Lesser Abdomen Stasis-Expelling Decoction (shào  zhú  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on the CV and the three yin channels of the foot. Main points: CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , KI-13 ( xué, Qi Point) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , and SP-8 ( , Earth's Crux) . Needle with even supplementation and drainage. Selection of points according to pattern: For qi stagnation, needle with drainage at LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) and LR-5 ( göu, Woodworm Canal) . For congealing cold, needle with drainage and moxa at ST-29 (guï lái, Return) and ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , and moxa CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) for smaller-abdominal cold pain.

blood stasis flooding and spotting

xuè  bëng lòu (

abnormal discharge of blood via the vagina) due to static blood, which arises when internal damage by the seven affects or externally contracted evils cause static blood to collect before menstrual or postpartum blood has been fully discharged, so that static blood fails to be discharged and new blood fails to stay in the channels. Blood stasis flooding and spotting is characterized by either a sometimes scant, sometimes copious flow or by a dribbling inhibited flow that is dark in color, and thick and clotted in consistency. It is accompanied by abdominal pain exacerbated by pressure and relieved by the passing of clots.

Medication:  Quicken the blood and move stasis using Hand-of-Buddha Powder ( shôu sân), Sudden Smile Powder (shï xiào sân), or Leonurus (Motherwort) Paste (  câo gäo).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV and SP. Select CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , SP-1 (yîn bái, Hidden White) , SP-8 ( , Earth's Crux) , ST-30 ( chöng, Qi Thoroughfare) , and SP-12 (chöng mén, Surging Gate) ; needle with drainage.

blood stasis infertility

xuè   yùn is due to blockage of the thoroughfare and controlling vessels and the blood vessels of the uterus by static blood that arises when affect-

mind internal damage causes inhibited movement of qi and blood, or when contraction of cold evil causes blood to congeal and prevents receptivity to male essence (semen). It is attended by delayed menstruation, inhibited menstrual flow, clotted flow, and abdominal pain exacerbated by pressure.

Qi stagnation and blood stasis  ( zhì xuè ) gives rise to infertility that, in addition to the above signs, is characterized by distention and fullness in the chest and rib-side, agitation, vexation, and irascibility, distending pain in the breasts.

Medication:  Quicken the blood, move stasis, and regulate menstruation. Use House of Blood Stasis-Expelling Decoction (xuè  zhú  täng).

Cold evil settling in the uterus  (hán xié   bäo zhöng) gives rise to lack of warmth in the extremities and small-abdominal cold pain in addition to the general signs.

Medication:  Warm the channels and dissipate cold. Use Lesser Abdomen Stasis-Expelling Decoction (shào  zhú  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV, ST, SP, KI, and LR. Main points: CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , ST-30 ( chöng, Qi Thoroughfare) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , KI-14 ( mân, Fourfold Fullness) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , and SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , and needle with even supplementation and drainage. Selection of points according to pattern: For qi stagnation and blood stasis, add PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , BL-18 (gän shü, Liver Transport) , and HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) . For cold evil settling in the uterus, add LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , and GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) . See infertility.

blood stasis lumbar pain

xuè  yäo tòng

static blood lumbar pain.

blood stasis menstrual pain

xuè  tòng jïng attributed to blood stasis obstructing the thoroughfare and controlling vessels and the uterine vessels and is characterized by stabbing pain in the smaller abdomen prior to or during menstruation,

scant clotted menstrual flow, and relief from discomfort after passing clots.

Medication:  Move stasis and quicken the blood using Infradiaphragmatic Stasis-Expelling Decoction ( xià zhú  täng), Amber Powder (  sân), or Leonurus (Motherwort) Paste (  câo gäo).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on the CV, SP, and LR. Select CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , BL-32 ( liáo, Second Bone-Hole) , SP-8 ( , Earth's Crux) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , ST-29 (guï lái, Return) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with drainage. If there are purple clots in the menstrual flow, add LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) .

blood stasis scant menstruation

xuè  yuè jïng guò shâo due to blood stasis,

usually caused by congealing cold and stagnant qi causing internal blood stasis inhibiting the movement of blood in the thoroughfare and controlling vessels.

Congealing cold  (hán níng) causes scant menstruation with dark clotted flow, cold, pain, and sometimes distention in the smaller abdomen relieved by warmth and the passing of clots and exacerbated by pressure.

Medication:  Warm the channels, quicken the blood, and move stasis using with Lesser Abdomen Stasis-Expelling Decoction (shào  zhú  täng) or Overdue Beverage (guò  yîn).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on the CV and the three yin channels of the foot. Main points: CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , KI-13 ( xué, Qi Point) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , and SP-8 ( , Earth's Crux) . Needle with even supplementation and drainage. In addition, to address the congealing cold, needle with drainage and large amounts of moxa at ST-29 (guï lái, Return) and ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) .

Qi stagnation  ( zhì) causes scant menstruation associated with purple clotted flow, abdominal distention and sometimes pain relieved by the passing of flatus.

Medication:  Move qi and quicken the blood with formulas like Infradiaphragmatic Stasis-Expelling Decoction ( xià zhú  täng) or Sevenfold Processed Cyperus Pill ( zhì xiäng  wán).

Acupuncture:  Use the same basic points that are given above, and to address the qi stagnation, needle with drainage at LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) and LR-5 ( göu, Woodworm Canal) . For cold pain in the smaller abdomen, moxa CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) .

blood stasis wilting

xuè  wêi (

severe weakness of the sinews that hampers normal movement) due to blood stasis resulting from injuries from knocks and falls or arising after childbirth when static blood flows into the lumbus and knees before the lochia has been fully eliminated. Blood stasis wilting is characterized by wilting, limpness, and pain of the limbs preventing normal movement and a rough pulse.

Medication:  Quicken blood and move stasis using Peach Kernel and Carthamus Four Agents Decoction (táo hóng   täng) and variations.

Acupuncture:  Use the basic treatments given under wilting with points that dispel stasis such as BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and BL-40 (wêi zhöng, Bend Center) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage or prick to bleed with a three-edged needle. If blood stasis is due to incomplete elimination of the lochia, see persistent flow of lochia.

blood strangury

xuè lín (

dribbling urination) with blood in the urine. Distinction is made between blood vacuity, blood cold, blood heat, and blood stasis.

Blood vacuity  (xuè ) causes strangury with nonacute pain on urination, pale red urine, and a rapid vacuous pulse.

Medication:  Enrich yin and nourish the blood using Six-Ingredient Rehmannia Decoction (lìu wèi  huáng täng) plus Biotae Folium ( bâi ), Plantaginis Semen (chë qián ), and Paeoniae Radix Alba (bái sháo yào), or swallowing Origin-Boosting Powder ( yuán sân) with Eight-Gem Decoction ( zhën täng).

Blood cold  (xuè hán) causes strangury with dark-colored bloody urine, dry-white facial complexion, and a slow sunken pulse.

Medication:  Warm the kidney using either Golden Coffer Kidney Qi Pill (jïn guì shèn  wán) plus Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix (níu ), a decoction of Zanthoxyli Radix (huä jiäo gën) taken cold.

Blood heat  (xuè ) causes strangury marked by scorching heat and stabbing pain with bright red bloody urine, and forceful pulse.

Medication:  Cool the blood and clear heat using formulas such as Cephalanoplos Drink (xiâo  yîn zi), Red-Abducting Powder (dâo chì sân), or Anemarrhena, Phellodendron, and Rehmannia Decoction (zhï bâi  huáng täng).

Blood stasis  (xuè ) causes strangury marked by pain in the penis like the cutting of a knife, dark clots in the urine, hard fullness of the smaller abdomen, and a sunken stringlike or rapid pulse.

Medication:  Quicken the blood and dispel stasis using a paste made of Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix (níu ), or formulas such as Peach Kernel and Carthamus Four Agents Decoction (táo hóng   täng) or Peach Kernel Qi-Coordinating Decoction (táo  chéng  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on the three yin channels of the foot and alarm and back transport points of BL (CV-3 and BL-28). Main points: BL-28 (páng guäng shü, Bladder Transport) , CV-3 (zhöng , Central Pole) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) , and KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) . Selection of points according to pattern: For blood vacuity, add KI-2 (rán , Blazing Valley) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , needling with supplementation. For blood cold, add BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , needling with drainage and adding moxa. For blood heat, add SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and BL-27 (xiâo cháng shü, Small Intestine Transport) , needling with drainage. For blood stasis, add BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , needling with drainage or with even supplementation and drainage.

blood swelling

xuè zhông due to

blood stasis inhibiting the transformation of water-damp. Blood swelling is characterized by swelling, red filiform marks under the skin, and long voidings of clear urine. In women, there may be sudden water swelling after a sudden interruption in the menstrual flow with abdominal pain exacerbated by pressure.

Medication:  Use Peach Kernel and Carthamus Four Agents Decoction (táo hóng   täng) or Substitute Dead-On Pill (dài  dàng wán) and variations.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on the CV, back transport points, and the three yin channels of the foot, selecting BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , CV-9 (shuî fën, Water Divide) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , BL-22 (sän jiäo shü, Triple Burner Transport) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , and SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) . Needle with even supplementation and drainage.

blood thirst

xuè  due to

blood vacuity and diminished liquid stemming from loss of blood.

Medication:  Treat by major supplementation of the blood with formulas such as Four Agents Decoction (  täng) or Tangkuei Blood-Supplementing Decoction (däng guï  xuè täng) and variations.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on the back transport points, ST, SP, and LR. Select , , TB-2 ( mén, Humor Gate) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with supplementation.

blood tumor

xuè líu

A tumor (a growth on the outside of the body) attributed to blood bind and qi stagnation that block the channels and network vessels and are exacerbated by contraction of external evil. The tumor is purple or red in color, has hard and soft spots, and is surrounded by dimly visible red threads. If accidentally ruptured by grazing, it bleeds persistently. It may grow on the lips, neck, or limbs.

Western Medical Concept:  angioma* angioma.

Medication:  Cool and nourish the blood; enrich yin and repress fire. Use Scutellaria, Coptis, Anemarrhena, and Fritillaria Pill (qín lián èr  wán). See tumor.

blood vacuity

xuè 

The manifestation of insufficiency of the blood. Blood vacuity may develop from excessive loss of blood before replenishment is complete. It may also be caused by insufficiency of blood formation stemming from splenic movement and transformation failure. A further cause is failure to eliminate static blood and engender new blood. Blood vacuity is characterized by a pale white or withered-yellow facial complexion, dizzy head, flowery vision, relatively pale tongue, and a fine pulse. Other commonly observed signs include heart palpitations or fearful throbbing, insomnia, and numbness of the extremities. Blood vacuity signs can reflect the insufficient supply of blood to nourish specific organs and channels. Thus, general signs must be correlated with organ-specific data to determine the focus of the vacuity. Since the blood is governed by the heart, stored by the liver, and produced and managed by the spleen, blood vacuity is intimately related to diseases of these viscera. Heart blood vacuity is characterized by signs of insufficiency of heart blood and disquieted heart spirit. Heart-spleen blood vacuity is characterized by signs of insufficiency of heart blood and the spleen failing to manage the blood. Liver blood vacuity is characterized by signs of insufficient supply of nourishment to the eyes and sinews or by diseases of the thoroughfare and controlling vessels. Since blood is yin in nature, blood vacuity and yin vacuity have much in common, both presenting such signs as dizzy head, flowery vision, heart palpitations, and a fine pulse. Blood vacuity, however, is not generally associated with heat signs, and may even be accompanied by cold signs when occurring with qi vacuity. It is readily distinguished from yin vacuity (vacuity of fluids in general), which is characterized by signs of heat and dryness such as upbearing fire flush, a rapid fine stringlike pulse, and a distinctly red tongue, all of which indicate internal heat or hyperactivity of yang.

Medication:  Supplement the blood. Blood-supplementing medicinals include Angelicae Sinensis Radix (däng guï), Rehmanniae Radix Conquita (shú  huáng), Paeoniae Radix Alba (bái sháo yào), Polygoni Multiflori Radix ( shôu ), Asini Corii Gelatinum (ë jiäo), and Ecliptae Herba ( hàn lián). Spirit-quieting blood-nourishing medicinals used to treat heart blood vacuity include Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix (dän shën), Ziziphi Spinosi Semen (suän zâo rén), and Longanae Arillus (lóng yân ròu). These medicinals may be combined with spleen-fortifying medicinals to treat heart-spleen blood vacuity. Liver-nourishing medicinals use to treat liver blood vacuity include Lycii Fructus (gôu  ), Mori Fructus (säng shèn), and Millettiae Radix et Caulis ( xuè téng). Blood-supplementing formulas include Four Agents Decoction (  täng) for insufficiency of liver blood and menstrual irregularities, Celestial Emperor Heart-Supplementing Elixir (tiän wáng  xïn dän) for insufficiency of yin-blood and disquieted spirit, and Spleen-Returning Decoction (guï  täng) for heart-spleen blood vacuity.

Acupuncture:  General blood-supplementing points are LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , LR-13 (zhäng mén, Camphorwood Gate) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , and BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) . Needle with supplementation and moxa.

blood vacuity abdominal pain

xuè   tòng due to

blood vacuity that results from excessive loss of blood or when excessive thought and anxiety cause wear on yin blood. Blood vacuity abdominal pain is a mild pain of unfixed location, and is exacerbated by hunger and taxation. It is accompanied by a withered-yellow facial complexion, fatigue and lack of strength, and a rough fine or rapid fine pulse.

Medication:  Supplement the blood and relieve the center using formulas such as Four Agents Decoction (  täng) plus Saussureae (seu Vladimiriae) Radix ( xiäng) and Citri Exocarpium (chén ), or Tangkuei Center-Fortifying Decoction (däng guï jiàn zhöng täng) and variations.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on the back transport points and CV, selecting BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) . Needle with supplementation. See abdominal pain.

blood vacuity deafness

xuè  êr lóng due to liver-

kidney essence-blood depletion depriving the ear orifices of nourishment. Blood vacuity deafness is of gradual onset, and is accompanied by limp aching lumbus and knees, tinnitus, night sweating, reddening of the cheeks, and dizziness.

Medication:  Enrich yin, supplement the blood, and open the orifices using Lycium Berry, Chrysanthemum, and Rehmannia Pill (   huáng wán) and variations.

Acupuncture:  See deafness.

blood vacuity delayed menstruation

xuè  jïng xíng hòu  (

late periods) due to blood vacuity and insufficiency of the thoroughfare and controlling vessels preventing the timely filling of the uterus. Blood vacuity delayed menstruation is associated with thin pale menstrual flow, withered-yellow facial complexion, emaciation, and continual abdominal pain relieved by pressure.

Medication:  Supplement the blood, nourish construction, and boost qi with formulas such as Ginseng Construction-Nourishing Decoction (rén shën yâng róng täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV, back transport points, and the three yin channels of the foot. Select CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , KI-13 ( xué, Qi Point) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , and ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa. See delayed menstruation.

blood vacuity dizziness

xuè  xuàn yün attributable to yin-

blood depletion, which may stem from blood loss, from damage to construction-blood in heat (febrile) disease, from intense vacuity fire, or from heart-spleen qi vacuity. Blood vacuity dizziness is accompanied by vexing heat in the five hearts, insomnia, emaciation, a red tongue, and a fine pulse, which indicate yin vacuity. Signs such as bright white facial complexion, lassitude of spirit and lack of strength, heart palpitations, and reduced food intake indicate dual vacuity of the heart and spleen.

Medication:  Enrich yin and nourish the blood or boosting qi and engendering blood. Use Tangkuei Blood-Supplementing Decoction (däng guï  xuè täng), Anemarrhena and Phellodendron Four Agents Decoction (zhï bâi   täng), or Spleen-Returning Decoction (guï  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on SP, ST, and back transport points. Select GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , and BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa. See dizziness.

blood vacuity engendering wind

xuè  shëng fëng

See liver wind stirring internally.

blood vacuity habitual miscarriage

xuè  huá täi due to blood vacuity.

Signs include lassitude of spirit and lack of strength, pale yellow facial complexion, water swelling, aching lumbus, and abdominal pain. Blood vacuity habitual miscarriage occurs when blood vacuity is exacerbated by pregnancy. Miscarriage is heralded by bleeding.

Medication:  Supplement the blood and boost qi with Fetal Origin Beverage (täi yuán yîn), adding Asini Corii Gelatinum (ë jiäo) and Artemisiae Argyi Folium Carbonisatum (ài  tàn) if there is bleeding. See habitual miscarriage.

blood vacuity headache

xuè  tóu tòng attributable to blood vacuity failing to nourish the upper body.

Blood vacuity headache is characterized by pulling pain from the eyebrows to the corners of the head or dull pain in the head, dizzy head and flowery vision, bright white facial complexion and heart palpitations.

Medication:  Supplement the blood using formulas such as Four Agents Decoction (  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on GV, back transport points, SP and ST. Select GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) . Needle with supplementation and add moxa according to need. For selection of points according to affected area, see headache.

blood vacuity heart palpitations

xuè  xïn  due to blood vacuity depriving the heart of nourishment.

It is associated with lusterless facial complexion, somber white nails, lack of strength in the limbs, dizziness, insomnia, pale tongue, and weak fine pulse.

Medication:  Nourish the blood and boost yin. Use Cinnabar Spirit-Quieting Pill (zhü shä än shén wán) or Spleen-Returning Decoction (guï  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on back transport points, CV, HT, PC, and ST. Select BL-15 (xïn shü, Heart Transport) , CV-14 ( què, Great Tower Gate) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) , PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and HT-5 (töng , Connecting Li) ; needle with even supplementation and drainage. See heart palpitations.

blood vacuity heat~effusion

xuè    due to

blood vacuity. Blood vacuity heat~effusion is attributed most commonly to blood ejection, bloody stool, or postpartum flooding and spotting, but sometimes to internal damage to the spleen and stomach from dietary irregularities or taxation fatigue. Signs include heat in the flesh, a red facial complexion, thirst, and sometimes vexation and agitation, and unquiet sleep. The pulse is large and vacuous and is forceless under pressure.

Medication:  Enrich yin and nourish the blood or nourish the blood and boost qi. Use formulas such as Four Agents Decoction (  täng), Tangkuei Blood-Supplementing Decoction (däng guï  xuè täng), or Sagacious Cure Decoction (shèng  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on the back transport points, SP, ST, and LI, selecting ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , and LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) . Needle with supplementation or even supplemenation and drainage.

blood vacuity impediment

xuè   depriving the limbs of nourishment,

sometimes with contraction of wind-damp evil. Blood vacuity impediment is characterized by numbness of the skin, or inability to lift the limbs, and a scallion-stalk pulse.

Medication:  Apply the method of nourishing the blood, combined as necessary with boosting qi and dispelling wind. Use formulas such as Tangkuei Center-Fortifying Decoction (däng guï jiàn zhöng täng).

Acupuncture:  Use the basic treatments for impediment combined with qi-supplementing blood-nourishing points such as LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , and BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) . Needle with supplementation and add moxa. See impediment.

blood vacuity infertility

xuè   yùn

Female infertility due to emptiness of the thoroughfare and controlling vessels, preventing the nourishment of essence needed for conception. Blood vacuity infertility stems from spleen-stomach vacuity, from enduring illness, from loss of blood, or from damage to yin, and is accompanied by emaciation, withered-yellow facial complexion, fatigue and lack of strength.

Medication:  Supplement the blood, nourish yin, and enrich the kidney using Essence-Nourishing Jade-Planting Decoction (yâng jïng zhòng  täng), comprising Rehmanniae Radix Conquita (shú  huáng), Angelicae Sinensis Radix (däng guï), Paeoniae Radix Alba (bái sháo yào), and Corni Fructus (shän zhü ).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on back transport points, SP, and ST. Select BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , ST-13 ( , Qi Door) , and ; needle with supplementation and add moxa.

blood vacuity lumbar pain

xuè  yäo tòng due to loss of blood or general blood vacuity depriving the sinews of nourishment.

Medication:  Nourish the blood using variations of Four Agents Decoction (  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on the back transport points, BL, SP and ST. Needle with even supplemenation and drainage at BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , GV-3 (yäo yáng guän, Lumbar Yang Pass) , BL-40 (wêi zhöng, Bend Center) , and , and with supplementation and moxa at BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) . BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) . See lumbar pain.

blood vacuity night sweating

xuè  dào hàn due to insufficiency of yin-

blood. See yin vacuity night sweating.

blood vacuity scant menstruation

xuè  yuè jïng guò shâo resulting from constitutional vacuity,

damage to yin through enduring sickness or blood loss, or insufficiency of the source of engendering transformation from damage to the spleen and stomach. Blood vacuity scant menstruation is marked by a scant thin pale flow, and is accompanied by empty pain in the smaller abdomen, headache, dizziness, heart palpitations, and withered-yellow facial complexion.

Medication:  Supplement the blood, boost qi, and fortify the spleen using formulas such as Ginseng Construction-Nourishing Decoction (rén shën yâng róng täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on SP, ST, and back transport points, selecting ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) , and LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) . Needle with supplementation and add moxa.

blood vacuity spontaneous sweating

xuè   hàn stemming from blood vacuity.

Spontaneous sweating is essentially associated with qi vacuity, but since blood vacuity invariably causes some degree of qi vacuity, it is also observed in blood vacuity patterns, especially when due to major blood loss where it is a sign of qi deserting with the blood.

Medication:  Enrich yin and supplement the blood using Four Agents Decoction (  täng) plus Astragali (seu Hedysari) Radix (huáng ). If blood vacuity is accompanied by heat, Tangkuei Six Yellows Decoction (däng guï lìu huáng täng) can be used. Spontaneous sweating due to major blood loss requires emergency qi supplementation with Pure Ginseng Decoction ( shën täng) followed up with blood-supplementing formulas. See spontaneous sweating.

Acupuncture:  For general blood vacuity, base treatment mainly on back transport points, SP, ST, LI, HT, and SI. Select LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , HT-6 (yïn , Yin Cleft) , SI-3 (hòu , Back Ravine) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , and BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) ; needle with supplementation and moxa to enrich yin and supplement the blood. Add LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) for blood vacuity with heat. For major blood loss, base treatment mainly on back transport points, CV, and SP. Select CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , and BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) ; needle with supplementation and large amounts of moxa; needle LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , HT-6 (yïn , Yin Cleft) , and SI-3 (hòu , Back Ravine) to check sweating.

blood vacuity wilting

xuè  wêi (

weakness, limpness, withering) attributable to blood vacuity from postpartum or other major blood loss depriving the sinews of nourishment, characterized by wilting and lack of strength in the extremities hampering movement, and associated with a withered-yellow facial complexion and a weak fine pulse.

Medication:  Nourish the blood using Four Agents Decoction (  täng) combined with Mysterious Two Pill (èr miào wán) and Yin-Supplementing Pill ( yïn wán), or Blood-Supplementing Sinew-Enhancing Pill ( xuè róng jïn wán).

Acupuncture:  Use the general treatments given under wilting, and add CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , and BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa.

blood wheel

xuè lún

The canthi; related to the heart.

bloody stool

biàn xuè

Synonym:  precipitation of blood ;

Synonym:  blood in the stool .

Loss of blood through the anus, with varying amounts of stool.

Western Medical Concept:  Bloody stool is attributable either to the spleen failing to manage the blood or to damp-heat pouring down into the large intestine and damaging the network vessels. Bright red blood indicates heat, whereas dark red blood indicates qi vacuity or damp toxin.

Fire evil and heat toxin  (huô xié  ) causing the frenetic movement of the blood gives rise to fresh thick blood.

Medication:  Cool the blood and drain fire with formulas such as Coptis Pill (huáng lián wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on BL, ST, and LI. Select ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , BL-25 ( cháng shü, Large Intestine Transport) , ST-37 (shàng  , Upper Great Hollow) , GV-1 (cháng qiáng, Long Strong) , BL-57 (chéng shän, Mountain Support) , BL-32 ( liáo, Second Bone-Hole) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) , and PC-8 (láo göng, Palace of Toil) ; needle with drainage. See heat toxin precipitation of blood.

Damp toxin  (shï ) brewing and binding in the large intestine causes passage of dull-colored blood that may be blackish purple like the juice of (cooked) Phaseoli Calcarati Semen (chì xiâo dòu).

Medication:  Transform damp toxin with formulas such as Sophora Flower Powder (huái huä sân).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on ST and SP. Select ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , BL-25 ( cháng shü, Large Intestine Transport) , ST-37 (shàng  , Upper Great Hollow) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , SP-9 (yïn líng quán, Yin Mound Spring) , and LR-2 (xíng jiän, Moving Between) ; needle with drainage and add moxa.

Wind evil binding in the yin aspect:  (fëng xié jié  yïn fèn) See binding in yin.

Spleen-stomach yang vacuity  ( wèi yáng ) bloody stool is marked by pale blood.

Medication:  Warm and supplement the spleen and stomach with Perfect Major Supplementation Decoction (shí quán   täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on back transport points, CV, SP, and ST. Select BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , SP-3 (tài bái, Supreme White) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , BL-35 (huì yáng, Meeting of Yang) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa.

Spleen vacuity  ( ) bloody stool is due to damage by thought and preoccupation and qi vacuity fall is marked by reduced eating, fatigue, withered-yellow facial complexion, pale tongue, and fine pulse. When the heart is deprived of nourishment, there are heart palpitations and insomnia.

Medication:  Supplement qi and contain the blood with Spleen-Returning Decoction (guï  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV, ST, SP, and GV. Select CV-12 (zhöng wân, Center Stomach Duct) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , SP-1 (yîn bái, Hidden White) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , and GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) ; needle with supplementation and add moxa. Apart from the above pattern types, a different method of differentiation is to determine whether blood is passed before or after stool. Blood followed by stool is called distal bleeding, whereas stool followed by blood is called proximal bleeding. Distal bleeding is a sign of vacuity or visceral toxin, whereas proximal bleeding is a sign of intestinal wind. Finally, bloody stool associated with diarrhea, abdominal pain, and tenesmus indicates dysentery.

bloody urine

niào xuè

Synonym:  blood in the urine .

The presence of liquid blood or blood clots in the urine, without any pronounced discomfort.

Western Medical Concept:  hematuria. Bloody urine is distinguished from blood strangury by the absence of pain on urination. It is also distinct from reddish urine, which is urine darker in color than normal. Bloody urine is usually attributed to insufficiency of kidney yin with effulgent heart-liver fire spreading to the small intestine or to dual depletion of the spleen and kidney preventing the blood from being contained.

Effulgent yin vacuity fire  (yïn  huô wàng) patterns are marked by red urine or passing of pure blood attended by limp aching lumbus and legs, tinnitus and flowery vision, vexation and dry mouth, red tongue, and a fine rapid pulse.

Medication:  Enrich yin and clear fire; cool the blood and stanch bleeding. Use with formulas such as Ass Hide Glue Powder (ë jiäo sân), Red-Abducting Powder (dâo chì sân), Anemarrhena, Phellodendron, and Rehmannia Pill (zhï bâi  huáng wán) combined with Cephalanoplos Drink (xiâo  yîn zi).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on back transport points, HT, and the three yin channels of the foot; select BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , KI-10 (yïn , Yin Valley) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , LR-1 ( dün, Large Pile) , HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) ; needle with even supplemenation and drainage.

Dual depletion of the spleen and kidney  ( shèn liâng kuï) gives rise to pale red urine, withered-yellow facial complexion, reduced food intake, aching lumbus and cold limbs, pale tongue, and a soft vacuous pulse.

Medication:  Fortify the spleen and supplement the kidney; boost qi and contain the blood. Use Center-Supplementing Qi-Boosting Decoction ( zhöng   täng) or Matchless Dioscorea Pill (  shän yào wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment on the back transport points, BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-17 ( shü, Diaphragm Transport) , BL-27 (xiâo cháng shü, Small Intestine Transport) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and SP-10 (xuè hâi, Sea of Blood) ; needle with supplementation.

blown blossom lichen

chuï huä xiân

Synonym:  peach-

blossom lichen .

Reddening of the skin of the face with small papules that form into clearly circumscribed plaques covered with thin scales, slightly itchy and dry.

Western Medical Concept:  pityriasis of the face* pityriasis of the face.

Medication:  Apply a tincture of Pseudolaricis Kaempferi Cortex (Radicis) ( jïng ).

blue whites of the eye

hëi jïng qïng lán

Whites of the eyes bearing a bluish coloration; observed in the later stages of fire gan, when pain and redness abate to leave purple-blue or blue-gray patches. See fire gan.

bobble wind

xìu qíu fëng

scrotal wind.

body

xíng 

The physical body and constitution.

body-inch

tóng shën cùn

Synonym:  cun .

From A Thousand Gold Pieces Prescriptions (qiän jïn yào fäng) A proportional unit of measurement used to determine the location of acupuncture points on the body, calculated from the length of specific body parts according to the finger standard and bone standard.

body odor

 chòu

See foxy odor.

body palpation

chù zhên

Palpation of the body surface, palpation of the chest and abdomen, and palpation of the acupuncture points. The chief aim of palpating the body surface is to ascertain the presence of heat and cold, so as to judge the relative strength of the right and evil. Exuberant evil qi is generally characterized by generalized heat in the body surface, especially at the forehead, whereas debilitation of yang qi is reflected in a cold body surface. Palpation of the fleshy exterior does not simply aim to judge the temperature; the degree of heat can help identify exterior and interior, vacuity and repletion. If the patient has heat~effusion, pronounced heat felt on initial palpation that abates with extended palpation indicates heat in the exterior; if the heat becomes more pronounced with extended palpation, it is steaming out from the inner body, i.e., the heat is in the interior. If the body surface feels soft and the patient feels comforted by palpation, the pattern is one of vacuity; if an area is hard and painful, and the pain is exacerbated by palpation, the pattern is one of repletion. If pain is felt by light pressure, there is disease in the surface of the body (e.g., a superficial injury from a knock or fall); if the pain is only felt when heavy pressure is applied, the disease is at a deeper location. By touching the fleshy exterior lightly, the practitioner can determine the degree of moisture and whether or not there is sweating. In an externally contracted heat (febrile) disease of recent onset, the dryness or moistness tells whether sweating has commenced or not. A dry body surface indicates the absence of sweating, whereas a moist surface indicates that the patient is sweating. In enduring conditions, dry skin lacking natural moisture indicates insufficiency of the fluids; severely dry rough hardened skin in patients that are usually emaciated is called encrusted skin, and indicates damage to yin or dry blood in the inner body. In external medicine, sores that are felt to be swollen, hard and numb constitute a cold pattern. Sores that are swollen and scorching hot to the touch indicate heat. Sores with flat bases and diffuse swelling are attributable to vacuity, whereas those with a well-confined base and high swelling are due to repletion. If the affected area is hard, but not markedly hot, or only feels swollen but not painful under heavy pressure, pus has not formed. If, by contrast, there is marked heat, and application of pressure reveals hard outer surface enclosing a soft center, the sore contains pus. The main aim of palpating the extremities is to determine the presence of heat or cold. At the onset of disease, cold extremities indicate yang vacuity and exuberant cold, whereas hot extremities indicate exuberant yang and intense heat. Heat and cold in the extremities can also differentiate externally contracted febrile disease from internal damage. If the dorsal aspects of the hands and feet are hotter than the palms and soles, the disease is an external contraction; if the palms and soles are hotter, the heat~effusion is due to internal damage. The relative degree of heat of the palms and forehead tells whether the heat is in the exterior or interior. If heat in the forehead is more pronounced than heat in the palms, the pattern is one of exterior heat; if the reverse is true, the pattern is one of interior heat. In infants and children, cold fingertips indicate fright reversal. If the middle finger alone is hot, this is an indication of externally contracted wind-cold; if the middle finger alone is cold, measles or pox is about to erupt. Warmth and cold in the extremities are useful in determining the severity of yang vacuity. If in yang vacuity patterns, there is still warmth in the extremities, yang qi has not collapsed. By contrast, reversal cold of the extremities is an unfavorable sign indicating a poor prognosis. Palpation of the chest and abdomen can help to determine interior and exterior patterns, and vacuity and repletion of the bowels and viscera. A light touch can establish the degree of moisture of the skin, so as to determine the presence of heat and cold. By applying medium pressure along the muscle grain or the lines of the channels and by asking the patient when he or she feels discomfort, it is possible to determine the presence of evil qi. By heavy pressing and pushing, it is possible to feel hardness and softness and so identify vacuity or repletion in the bowels and viscera and the degree of accumulation of evils. The main points of palpation of the chest and abdomen are as follows: Vacuous Li ( xu1 li3, the apical pulse): Vacuous li is located at a point between the fourth and fifth rib below the nipple, and reflects the pulsation of the heart. Formerly, it was accorded great importance as a convergence point of all channels and the great network vessel of the stomach. Examination of the apical pulse can help to determine the severity of disease. If it strikes the fingers when palpated, is stirring but not tight, is moderate and not urgent, ancestral qi is accumulated in the chest and there is no disease. If the pulsation is faint or cannot be felt at all, ancestral qi is vacuous. A pulsation felt to beat against the clothing indicates ancestral qi discharging through the outer body. In some cases, such as in states of fright, fear or anger, intoxication or after hard running, marked pulsation is only temporary, and quickly returns to normal. If the pulsation is on the verge of expiration, but there are no fatal signs, the pattern is usually one of phlegm-rheum or food accumulation. Expiration of the apical pulse together with all other pulses is a fatal sign. Chest and rib-side: The chest contains the lung and heart, whereas the rib-side on the right-hand side of the body protects the liver. If the anterior chest is elevated, a sign known as raised chest, and the patient responds to local palpation with panting, the condition is pulmonary distention. If palpation of the chest and rib-side produces a feeling of distention and pain, the cause may be phlegm-heat qi bind or water-rheum. The liver is covered by the ribs and normally cannot be felt. If it is swollen and either hard or soft to the touch, the cause is qi stagnation and blood stasis. It is known from Western medicine that if the liver is felt to have an uneven surface, there may be cancer. If the patient complains of distending pain in the right rib-side, and the local body surface feels hot, but cannot be pressed without causing pain, the cause is a liver welling-abscess . A mass felt under the ribs may be felt in chronic malaria and is referred to as mother-of-malaria. Region below the heart: The area below the breast bone is the point at which the stomach can be felt. If the patient complains of a subjective feeling of fullness or blockage in this area, referred to as glomus, palpation can provide additional information. If the area feels soft and is not tender, the pattern is one of vacuity; if hard, resistant to pressure, and tender, the pattern is one of repletion. Commonly observed repletion patterns include chest bind, which includes minor and major patterns. Tenderness below the heart constitutes minor chest bind pattern, whereas hardness, fullness, and pain stretching into the chest and abdomen constitutes a major chest bind pattern. When there is fullness below the heart and palpation reveals a tangible mass that moves and produces a gurgling sound when pushed, there is water-rheum in the stomach. Abdomen: Abdominal palpation is conducted to detect cold and heat, hardness, distention, lumps, and tenderness. A cold abdomen that likes warmth and pressure is a vacuity cold pattern, whereas scorching heat relieved by cold objects is a repletion heat pattern. Abdominal pain is ascribed to vacuity if it likes pressure and to repletion if it refuses pressure. An area of scorching heat that cannot be pressed without causing severe pain indicates an internal welling-abscess. Abdominal distention feels solid, is tender, and produces a dull heavy turbid sound when tapped is ascribed to repletion. Distention that does not feel solid, is not tender, and produces a hollow sound when tapped is qi distention. A highly enlarged abdomen with a projecting umbilicus is a severe condition called drum distention. Distinction is made between water drum and qi drum. In water drum, the abdomen feels like a bag of water, pressure leaves an indentation, and a gentle patting by one hand on one side of the abdomen produces a wave that can be felt by the other hand resting on the opposite side. In qi drum, tapping produces a hollow drumlike sound, pressure leaves no indentation, and patting produces no wave. The large abdomen of obese people differs from this drum distention by being soft to the touch and having a normal umbilicus. Abdominal lumps can also be felt by palpation. Accumulations and gatherings are lumps that may or many not be painful. Accumulations have a clearly defined shape, do not move, and are associated with pain of fixed location; they are ascribed to disease in the blood aspect. Gatherings are amorphous, move, and are associated with pain of unfixed location, and a clearly defined shape; they are ascribed to disease in the qi aspect. In the lower abdomen, traditionally referred to as the smaller abdomen, a stringlike formation of lumps is a sign of old stool in the intestine. A palpable lump in the smaller abdomen with pain that refuses pressure is an intestinal welling-abscess , i.e., appendicitis. Palpation can reveal three signs that indicate the presence of worms: a) an abdominal lump that is tough as sinew, and is felt to move after long palpation; b) the wriggling sensation felt under the fingers with careful palpation; c) an uneven abdominal wall with a constantly changing topography (constant rising, sinking, gathering and dispersing). The back transport points can be used in diagnosis. If there is disease in one of the bowels or viscera, pressure can produce a pain or even a pleasant sensation at its corresponding back transport point. Transport point palpation finds its earliest mention in The Magic Pivot (líng shü) ``If pressing a spot relieves internal pain, the spot is a transport point.'' Any channel point, particular the source points, may become a tender spot when its associated bowel or viscus is diseased. The Magic Pivot (líng shü) states, ``When there is disease in the viscera, it is reflected in the sources i.e., source points of which there are twelve. The sources each have an exit point. By knowing sources and observing their responses, it is possible to understand disease in the viscera.'' Thus, disease of the liver is reflected at LR-3 (tài chöng, Supreme Surge) ; lung disease at LU-9 (tài yuän, Great Abyss) ; heart disease at HT-7 (shén mén, Spirit Gate) and PC-7 ( líng, Great Mound) ; spleen disease at SP-3 (tài bái, Supreme White) ; and kidney disease at KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) . The modern meridiometer is used for assessment of the channels, of qi and blood, and in electroacutherapy. Modern research shows that channel and nonchannel points have different cutaneous electrical resistance values, which are affected when there is disease in the organs or channels. These changes in resistance are understood to reflect changes in the flow of qi and blood at acupoints. The meridiometer can thus provide information about the flow of qi and blood at various acupoints, the location of disease, and the presence of vacuity and repletion. The use of the meridiometer in diagnosis is, however, still at an experimental stage.

boil

jié

A small, round, superficial swelling that is hot and painful, suppurates within a few days, and easily bursts. It is attributable to heat toxin or to summerheat-heat and usually occurs in the summer and autumn.

Western Medical Concept:  furuncle* boil* furuncle (boil).

Medication:  Clear heat and resolve toxin as for external welling-abscess.

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on local and affected channel points. One of a number of methods may be applied individually or combined: Encirclement needling: For boils in the initial stage of swelling prior to suppuration, select 2--4 around the sites and insert needles at a slight oblique angle pointing toward the root of the boil. If the boil is over 4 cm in diameter, an appropriate number of needles can be inserted in the center. If it is hard and painful, it should be needled in the center. Points can be needled with supplementation or drainage depending on whether the condition is one of vacuity or repletion; generally, draining is called for. Moxa can also be used at points around the boil. If the boil has already become painful, moxa until the pain abates; if not, moxa until slight pain is felt. Selection of distant points on the affected channel: Select one or two affected-channel points. For example, if the boil is on the hand yang brightness channel, select points such as LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , and LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , needling with drainage. Heat-clearing toxin-resolving formula: Prick BL-40 (wêi zhöng, Bend Center) and LU-5 (chî , Cubit Marsh) to bleed, and needle with drainage at LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) , and LI-4 ( , Union Valley) . Prick GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) to bleed and fire-cup. Selection of points according to location of the boil: For head and face, needle LI-4 ( , Union Valley) and LI-11 ( chí, Pool at the Bend) . For chest and abdomen, needle ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) . For neck, needle GV-14 ( zhuï, Great Hammer) and GV-10 (líng tái, Spirit Tower) . For lumbus and back, needle BL-40 (wêi zhöng, Bend Center) , needling with drainage. Compare welling-abscess. See sore.

boiling

zhû

Cooking (foods or medicines) in boiling water or other liquid. Boiling, as a method of processing individual medicinals, has the aim of eliminating toxicity and irritants, preventing side-effects, increasing effectiveness, or facilitating storage. For example, boiling Daphnes Genkwa Flos (yuán huä) in vinegar can reduce its toxicity; boiling Mirabilitum Non-Purum ( xiäo) with radish can remove impurities, making it into Mirabilitum Depuratum (xuán míng fên). Boiling is also the method of making a formula into a decoction. See processing of medicinals.

boiling reversal

jiän jué

An ancient disease name denoting internal heat that scorches yin fluids, giving rise to clouding reversal. It arises in patients suffering from depletion of yin essence and hyperactivity of yang qi, when they contract summerheat-heat qi. Signs include tinnitus, deafness, blindness, and, in severe cases, sudden clouding reversal.

Western Medical Concept:  cerebrovascular spasm* hemorrhage*!cerebral cerebral hemorrhage* hemorrhage*!subarachnoid subarachnoid hemorrhage* cerebrovascular spasm, cerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage. See reversal pattern and wind stroke.

boil swelling

jié zhông

A swelling of a boil. See boil.

bolt bone

jiàn 

seat board bone.

bone

The hardest substance of the body that holds the body up and defines the body's shape. Since bone stores marrow, it is an extraordinary organ. See kidney governs the bones and engenders marrow.

bone-clinging flat-abscess

  

Synonym:  bone flat-

abscess .

A headless flat-abscess located on a bony and sinewy part of the body, usually caused by congealing stagnation of qi and blood that develops from wind-cold and damp in the sinew and bone. Bone flat-abscess is characterized at onset by alternating heat~effusion and aversion to cold, and subsequently by sinew and bone pain with difficulty in bending and stretching, but without any localized heat or redness. When depressed heat transforms into fire, the flesh becomes putrid and suppuration begins. The flat-abscess takes the form of a broad swelling without a head, and without any change in skin color. After rupturing, there is a persistent dribbling discharge of pus from the opening, which does not heal easily. Any pieces of dead bone must be removed before healing is possible.

Western Medical Concept:  osteomylitis*!pyogenic pyogenic osteomylitis. Compare headless flat-abscess; flat-abscess; sore.

bone-clinging tumor

tië  

See bone tumor.

bone damage

 shäng

Any damage to a bone or bones, notably including fracture.

bone-eating flat-abscess

yâo  

bone flat-abscess.

bone erosion

 shí

A disease characterized by bone pain, atrophy of the muscles, shrinking of the affected limb, and limping gait. Bone erosion arises when evils entering the body in the presence of vacuity or damage to the sinew and bone causes stagnation of qi and blood and obstruction of the channels.

Medication:  Treat with oral formulas such as Harmonious Yang Decoction (yáng  täng) or Golden Coffer Kidney Qi Pill (jïn guì shèn  wán) and topical application of Harmonious Yang Decongealing Plaster (yáng  jiê níng gäo).

Western Medical Concept:  epiphysitis* osteochondritis* epiphysitis; osteochondritis.

bone flat-abscess

 

bone-clinging flat-abscess.

bone fracture

 zhé

Any break in a bone. Bone fractures result from knocks and falls or pulling of sinews and flesh. They occur more easily in old age, vacuity detriment, and disease affecting the bone. They are characterized by local blood stasis, painful swelling, displacement or deformity, the sound of bones grating against each other, and abnormal movement. Bone-righting manipulation is used to put the affected bone or parts thereof back into place. The fracture is then set with splints and bandages. Medication aims to quicken the blood and transform stasis and to disperse swelling and relieve swelling. Bone-Righting Purple Gold Elixir (zhèng   jïn dän) and Origin-Restorative Blood-Quickening Decoction ( yuán huó xuè täng). Erythrina Decoction (hâi tóng  täng) can be used as an external wash.

bone-hole

A hole through or crevice in a bone. This term is used in acupuncture point names located at such sites, including BL-31 through BL-34 ( liáo, Eight Bone-Holes) , LI-19 ( liáo, Grain Bone-Hole) , and ST-3 ( liáo, Great Bone-Hole) .

bone impediment

  patterns characterized by pronounced joint signs such as pain and swelling.

The bones feel heavy and difficult to lift and there is aching pain in the bone and marrow. It is attributed to wind-cold-damp that seizes vacuity and invades the bones. Distinction is made between repletion and vacuity patterns. Repletion patterns are treated with Five Impediments Decoction (  täng) with extra Tigris Os ( ) and the addition of Angelicae Duhuo Radix ( huó), Cinnamomi Cortex Tubiformis (guän guì), Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix (níu ), Astragali (seu Hedysari) Radix (huáng ), and Dioscoreae Hypoglaucae Rhizoma ( xiè). Vacuity patterns are treated with Minor Life-Prolonging Decoction (xiâo  mìng täng).

Acupuncture:  Select BL-11 ( zhù, Great Shuttle) as the main point. For repletion patterns, select points according to pattern (wind, cold, dampness, or complications). See wind impediment; cold impediment; damp impediment. For vacuity patterns, apply the basic treatments for impediment patterns, and needle with supplementation and moxa at points such as BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , GV-4 (mìng mén, Life Gate) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) . See impediment for selection of points according to location.

bone juncture

 

Seventh costosternal articulation.

bone pain

 tòng

Pain felt to come from the bone. It is observed in impediment patterns, bone fractures, and vacuity taxation. Incisive Light on the Source of Miscellaneous Disease ( bìng yuán líu  zhú) states, ``Pain in the human body may be caused by wind spreading and dampness stagnating, or by blood pricking and phlegm attacking. When shallow, it is no deeper than the skin and body hair; when deep, it penetrates as far as the channels and network vessels. If it enters the interior and stretches into the bone, causing aching and pain, although it differs depending on whether the cause is cold or heat It is treated with Tiger Bone Powder (  sân) or Mysterious Three Powder (sän miào sân). If prolonged standing has damaged the bone, or if there is bone damage, causing pain or gradually giving rise to wilting, this urgently requires treatment at onset, using Psoraleae Semen (  zhï), Medulla Bovis (níu  suî), Cervi Cornu Parvum ( róng), and Drynariae Rhizoma ( suì ).'' Compare aching bones.

bone righting

zhèng 

Treatment of bone fractures and dislocations by manipulating bones into their correct positions and fixing them with splints and bandages, and providing medication to aid healing.

bones stuck in the throat

 gêng

The condition in which fish or splintered animal bones become lodged in the flesh of the throat. Fish bones and splintered chicken bones may get stuck in the throat if accidentally swallowed. They can give rise to a feeling of blockage, difficulty in swallowing, and bleeding. Nowadays, bones stuck in the throat that fail to dislodge themselves are usually removed by pincers. Traditionally, they were often freed with the aid of decoctions. Clematidis Radix (wëi líng xiän) is particularly noted for this action. It can be combined with Amomi Tsao-Ko Fructus (câo guô), Amomi Semen seu Fructus (shä rén), and Saccharon Granulatum Album (bái shä táng), and decocted in half water half vinegar and sipped slowly.

bone standard

  The Magic Pivot (líng shü)

A proportional standard for measuring parts of the body based on the size of bones. See Table on following page.

bone trough wind

 cáo fëng

A sore in front of the ear that eventually affects the ``bone trough,'' i.e., the tooth bed. It is heralded by dull pain under the skin stretching into the sinew and bone; it starts as a small node that grows to the size of a walnut. If it bursts, it does not heal easily, and discharges pus that is foul-smelling and sometimes clear and thin. If it persists, rotten bone is discharged, and the gums swell and become purple-black in color, and bleed. In severe cases, the movement of the jaw is inhibited, the tooth bed putrefies, and teeth fall out. It is attributable to wind-fire toxin in the hand lesser yang or foot yang brightness stomach channel, which can be exacerbated by spleen yang vacuity that prevents expulsion of the toxin.

Medication:  Dispel wind, dissipate fire, and resolve toxin with Yang-Upbearing Fire-Dissipating Decoction (shëng yáng sàn huô täng). Persistent cases can be treated with Aconite Center-Rectifying Decoction (   zhöng täng) or Harmonious Yang Decoction (yáng  täng) to expressing the toxin.

bone tumor

 líu

A tumor (growth on the outside of the body) that grows on bone. A disease called ``bone flat-abscess'' possibly fitting the description of bone tumor was mentioned in The Inner Canon (nèi jïng) The term gu3 liu2 first appeared in the in A Unified Treatise on Diseases, Patterns, and Remedies According to the Three Causes (sän yïn   bìng zhèng fäng lùn) in the Song Dynasty, but without any description. Pivot of External Medicine (wài  shü yào) states, ``If there is taxation damage to kidney water preventing it from giving luxuriance to the bone, there is swelling which rises from the bone and which is hard to the touch. This is called a bone tumor.'' Life-for-All Compendium of External Medicine, Patterns and Treatment (wài  zhèng zhì quán shëng ) of the Qing dynasty states, ``There is also a bone-clinging tumor that grows on the bone and is extremely painful.'' This latter description may be that of what Western medicine calls an advanced malignant bone tumor. Bone tumor is attributed to insufficiency of kidney qi and cold-damp carrying phlegm into the bone, causing qi and blood to congeal. In mild (in Western medicine, benign) cases, it develops slowly and is not marked by pronounced signs. In severe cases, onset is characterized by a dull pain that gradually worsens until it becomes unbearable, especially at night; the tumor grows swiftly, and is attached to the bone, immovable, and hard as stone, while the skin becomes purple brown in color with dilated vessels. Accompanying signs include low fever, emaciation, lassitude of spirit, and poor appetite.

Medication:  Supplement kidney qi, disperse swelling, and break hardness. Use Kidney Qi Pill (shèn  wán) as oral medication and apply Harmonious Yang Decongealing Plaster (yáng  jiê níng gäo) topically.

bone wilting

 wêi

Synonym:  kidney wilting .

Desiccation of the bone and vacuity of the marrow characterized by limp aching lumbar spine preventing normal movement, weak wilting lower limbs preventing the patient from getting out of bed, desiccated teeth, and a somber black facial complexion; attributed to damage to the kidney by heat evil.

Medication:  Enrich yin and clear heat; supplement the kidney and boost essence. Use formulas such as Hidden Tiger Pill ( qián wán) or Metal Strength Pill (jïn gäng wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on KI and GB. Select BL-23 (shèn shü, Kidney Transport) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) , KI-1 (yông quán, Gushing Spring) , GB-30 (huán tiào, Jumping Round) , GB-31 (fëng shì, Wind Market) , GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , and GB-39 (xuán zhöng, Suspended Bell) . Needle with supplementation. See wilting.

boost

See supplement.

boosting and supplementing lung qi

  fèi 

A method of treating lung qi vacuity characterized by feeble speech, cough and panting and shortness of breath, using medicinals such as Codonopsitis Radix (dâng shën), Astragali (seu Hedysari) Radix (huáng ), Glycyrrhizae Radix (gän câo), and Schisandrae Fructus ( wèi ). A representative lung-qi--boosting formula is Lung-Supplementing Decoction ( fèi täng).

boosting fire and dispersing yin

 huô xiäo yïn

boosting the source of fire to disperse the shroud of yin.

boosting fire and engendering earth

 huô shëng 

Warming and supplementing kidney yang to treat spleen-kidney yang vacuity with signs such as clear-food diarrhea, enduring diarrhea, or early morning diarrhea. In this context, ``fire'' refers to kidney yang, not to the heart.

boosting qi and engendering liquid

  shëng jïn

A method of treating qi vacuity and liquid depletion arising from excessive sweating, and characterized by fatigue, shortness of breath, dry mouth and thirst, and a vacuous pulse. An example of a qi-boosting liquid-engendering formula is Pulse-Engendering Powder (shëng mài sân), which contains Ginseng Radix (rén shën), Ophiopogonis Tuber (mài mén döng), and Schisandrae Fructus ( wèi ).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on CV, ST, SP, back transport points, and KI. Select CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) , LU-9 (tài yuän, Great Abyss) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , KI-3 (tài , Great Ravine) , and KI-6 (zhào hâi, Shining Sea) ; needle with supplementation and moxa. For excessive sweating, add LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , and KI-7 ( lïu, Recover Flow) ,

boosting qi and harmonizing the stomach

   wèi

A method of treatment used to address qi vacuity stomach problems characterized by glomus and oppression in the chest and stomach duct, no thought of food and drink, and, in severe cases, vomiting of food after ingestion.

Medication:  A commonly used qi-boosting stomach-harmonizing formula is Saussurea and Amomum Six Gentlemen Decoction (xiäng shä lìu jün  täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on ST, CV, and back transport points. Select BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , ST-25 (tiän shü, Celestial Pivot) , and PC-6 (nèi guän, Inner Pass) , needle with supplementation and large amounts of moxa.

boosting qi and resolving the exterior

  jiê biâo

Synonym:  supplementing qi and resolving the exterior .

A method of treatment used to address continual common colds and copious sweat from qi vacuity that increases vulnerability to external evils and reduces the body's ability to expel an evil once it has entered. In such cases, qi-boosting medicinals may be combined with exterior-resolving medicinals. An example of such a formula is Ginseng and Perilla Beverage (shën  yîn), which contains Codonopsitis Radix (dâng shën), Perillae Albae Folium (bái  ), Puerariae Radix ( gën), Peucedani Radix (qián ), Pinelliae Tuber cum Zingibere Praeparatum (jiäng bàn xià), Citri Exocarpium (chén ), Platycodonis Radix (jié gêng), Poria ( líng), Saussureae (seu Vladimiriae) Radix ( xiäng), Aurantii Fructus (zhî ), and Glycyrrhizae Radix (gän câo).

Acupuncture:  Use points given under exterior resolution in combination with qi-boosting points such as ST-36 ( sän , Leg Three Li) , CV-6 ( hâi, Sea of Qi) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , BL-20 ( shü, Spleen Transport) , BL-21 (wèi shü, Stomach Transport) , and LU-9 (tài yuän, Great Abyss) . Needle with supplementation, and for pronounced qi vacuity, add moxa.

boosting the source of fire to disperse the shroud of yin

 huô zhï yuán  xiäo yïn  <

boosting the source of fire> A method of treatment involving supplementation of kidney yang to treat cold patterns. This term is actually a comment by Wang Bing of the Tang dynasty on the line in Elementary Questions ( wèn) that reads ``Wherever heat is applied, but cold [remains], treat the yang.'' The implication of this comment is that wherever the use of warm or hot medicinals to treat cold patterns produces no effect or makes the cold worse, the cold pattern is one of yang vacuity with exuberant yang, i.e., the condition is essentially one of yang vacuity that is treated by supplementing kidney yang (the true fire of the life gate). According to this principle, insufficiency of kidney yang with aching lumbus and weak legs, cold sensation in the lower half of the body, impotence, and seminal cold is treated with Eight-Ingredient Rehmannia Pill ( wèi  huáng wán), which contains Rehmanniae Radix Conquita (shú  huáng), Corni Fructus (shän zhü ), Dioscoreae Rhizoma (shän yào), Poria ( líng), Moutan Radicis Cortex ( dän ), Alismatis Rhizoma ( xiè), prepared Aconiti Tuber Laterale Conquitum (shú  ), and Cinnamomi Cortex (ròu guì). Boosting the source of fire to disperse the shroud of yin is now often referred to as boosting fire to disperse yin or supporting yang to abate yin.

boosting the spleen

 

fortifying the spleen.

boosting the stomach

 wèi

Supplementing stomach vacuity, which means a)~to warm the stomach and fortify the center to treat stomach qi vacuity cold or b)~to enrich stomach yin in the treatment of insufficiency of stomach yin.

boosting yin

 yïn

supplementing yin.

borborygmus

cháng míng borborygmi.

rumbling intestines.

borderland

fän

Region anterior to the ear and inferolateral to the cheek bone.

border of the red and white flesh

chì bái ròu 

The division between the darker sun-tanned flesh and paler flesh of the backs of the arms and legs. The ``red'' (sun-tanned) flesh forms the yang side, whereas the ``white'' (paler) flesh is the yin side. The dividing line between the two represents one of the landmarks in acupuncture point location.

bound

jié

See bind.

bound or intermittent pulse

jié dài mài jie=

2 dai=4 Any pulse that is moderate and interrupted. The Magic Pivot (líng shü) states, ``These two evils become conglomerated, and channel qi becomes bound or intermittent. See bound pulse; intermittent pulse.

bound pulse

jié mài

Synonym:  slow irregularly interrupted pulse .

A pulse that is moderate or slow and pauses at irregular intervals. The Pulse Canon (mài jïng) states that it ``indicates exuberant yin and bound qi, congested qi and stagnant phlegm, or concretions, conglomerations, accumulations, and gatherings.'' See pulse condition.

bowel

Any of the organs of the exterior (stomach, small and large intestines, gallbladder, bladder, and triple burner). See bowels and viscera.

bowel and visceral fright pattern

zàng  jïng zhèng

Patterns of fright convulsions of the extremites associated with the bowels and viscera. Children's Diseases: Remedies and Sources (xiâo ér bìng yuán fäng lùn) states, ``In liver fright, the eyes are red and the stool is green-blue; In gallbladder fright, the face is green-blue and white below; in heart fright, the face is red; in small intestinal fright, there is night crying through to dawn; in spleen fright, there is heat in the five hearts and dry retching; in stomach fright, there is abdominal distention and inability to eat; in lung fright, there is panting and swallowing of water ( chi1 shui3); in large intestinal fright, there is phlegm rale in the throat; in kidney fright, there is grinding of the teeth in sleep; in triple burner fright, there is fright crying during sleep.

bowel and visceral pattern identification

zàng  biàn zhèng

The correlation of information derived from the four examinations with doctrine of visceral manifestation to determine what bowels or viscera are affected by disease, and identify morbid changes in their qi-blood and yin-yang aspects. The first step of bowel and visceral pattern identification involves identifying the affected organ on the basis of its physiopathological characteristics.

Heart:  (xïn) The heart governs the blood vessels and stores the spirit. Therefore, heart palpitations, interrupted ( jie2 dai4) pulses, and derangement of the heart spirit all point to disease of the heart.

Lung:  (fèi) The lung is connected with the surface skin and governs qi, and lung qi diffuses, depurates, and bears downward; hence signs such as cough, panting, and insecurity of the defensive exterior are seen to be lung disorders.

Spleen:  () The spleen governs movement and transformation of the food, the stomach governs ingestion, and the intestines govern the conveyance and transformation of waste; hence vomiting, abdominal distention and fullness, and diarrhea are associated with diseases of the spleen, stomach and intestines.

Liver:  (gän) The liver governs free coursing and stores blood, and liver yang is prone to upbearing and stirring; hence rib-side pain, blood loss, dizziness, and spasms indicate liver disease.

Kidney:  (shèn) The kidney governs water, stores essence, governs the bones and engenders marrow; hence water swelling, urinary block, enuresis, seminal emission, limp aching lumbus and knees, and sluggish movement are associated with kidney disease.

Yin-yang and qi-blood:  (yïn yáng  xuè) Once the affected bowel or viscus has been identified, the relative states of yin, yang, qi, and blood can be determined with the information derived from eight-principle and qi-blood pattern identification. Each bowel and viscus is associated with characteristic pathologies of yin, yang, qi, and blood. The heart and the liver are associated with disease of all four aspects, whereas the lung is mainly susceptible to pathologies of yin and qi; the spleen is primarily affected by disorders of qi and yang, whereas kidney diseases include yin-yang and essential qi pathologies. Determining the affected aspect of an organ is of vital importance in treatment. Thus, identifying heart palpitations as a sign of heart disease provides an inadequate basis for prescribing treatment, since it may be attributable to vacuity of heart yin, heart blood, heart yang, or heart qi. The bowels and viscera are each closely related not only to one another but also to the other organs and tissues of the body. Therefore, understanding the development of diseases, making a correct diagnosis, and determining appropriate treatment are all dependent on a holistic approach. For example, once insomnia has been identified as the result of heart blood or heart yin vacuity, it is important to determine whether the spleen or kidney is also affected, since the dual disorders, heart-spleen blood vacuity and noninteraction of the heart and kidney, are treated in different ways. See under the heart, lung, spleen, liver, kidney, etc., for more detail.

bowel and visceral qi

zàng  zhï 

The qi of the bowels and viscera. Each organ has its own qi, which is the basis of its physiological activity and manifests as a major aspect of its physiological function. The heartbeat is the manifestation of heart qi, and bowel movements are a manifestation of large intestine qi.

bowel and visceral stroke

zhòng zàng  taking the form of bowel stroke or visceral stroke.

See wind stroke.

bowel of center clearness

zhöng qïng zhï 

The gallbladder; so named because the gall is considered a clear or pure fluid, rather than waste.

bowel of center essence

zhöng jïng zhï 

The gallbladder. See bowel of center clearness.

bowels and viscera

zàng 

Organs of the chest and abdomen. The five viscera are the heart, lung, spleen, liver, and kidney. The pericardium is considered a sixth viscus in channel theory. The six bowels (paired by functional relationship with the viscera respectively) are the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, gallbladder, bladder, and triple burner. The function of the viscera is to produce and store essence, that of the bowels is to decompose food and convey waste. Thus, Elementary Questions ( wèn) states, ``The so-called five viscera store essential qi and do not discharge waste. Thus they are full, but cannot be filled. The six bowels process and convey matter, and do not store. Thus, they are filled, but are not full.''

bowel stroke

zhòng  not quite as severe as visceral stroke and marked by sudden clouding collapse that after regaining of consciousness leaves the patient with hemiplegia,

deviated eyes and mouth, difficult speech, and possibly urinary and fecal stoppage.

brain

nâo

Synonym:  head marrow .

Extraordinary organ located in the skull. According to traditional doctrine of visceral manifestation, ``the brain is the sea of marrow; all marrow belongs to the brain, flowing up to the brain and down to the coccyx.'' The brain is most closely related to the kidney, which engenders the marrow. Modern observation shows that diminished cerebral function can manifest in signs of insufficiency of kidney essence. The Magic Pivot (líng shü) ``If the sea of marrow is insufficient, the brain turns and the ears ring, there is aching in the neck, dizziness, poor vision, and lethargy.'' Later, Li Shi-Zhen (1518--1593), Jin Zheng-Xi, and others explicitly stated, ``The brain is the seat of the original spirit,'' and believed that the senses and control of physical movement were related to the brain. However, the main functions of the brain as perceived by Western medicine are ascribed in the doctrine of visceral manifestation to the heart, liver, kidney, and other viscera. The heart stores the spirit refers basically to the brain's function of mental activity and thought. Such conditions as heat entering the pericardium and phlegm confounding the orifices of the heart correspond to what Western medicine describes as disorders of the central nervous system. Imbalance of heart yin and heart yang, and heart qi and heart blood, are explained in Western medicine as disturbance of the brain function. The liver governs free coursing and the liver governs the sinews corresponds to what in Western medicine are brain functions. Disease patterns such as liver qi depression and ascendant liver yang may also be partly explained in Western medicine as being associated with the nervous system.

brain-gripping sand

kòng nâo shä

Definition: 

A disease marked by runny nose with yellow watery discharge associated with dryness in the nose, impaired sense of smell, and occasional nosebleeds, and attributed to damp-heat.

Medication:  Treat with Dryness-Clearing Lung-Rescuing Decoction (qïng zào jìu fèi täng) minus Gypsum (shí gäo).

Western Medical Concept:  rhinitis*!atrophic atrophic rhinitis. Compare withered nose.

Definition:  Severe deep-source nasal congestion.

brain is the house of the original spirit

nâo wéi yuán shén zhï 

From The Comprehensive Herbal Foundation (bên câo gäng ) The brain is the seat of mental function.

brain is the sea of marrow

nâo wéi suî zhï hâi

From The Magic Pivot (líng shü) The ancient Chinese considered the brain and the marrow to be the same in substance. Since the kidney engenders marrow, the brain, as the sea of marrow, is closely related to the kidney. See kidney engenders bone and marrow.

brain leak

nâo lòu

A severe form of deep-source nasal congestion.

brain-squeezing wind

jiá nâo fëng

See head wind.

brain wind

nâo fëng

A disease similar to head wind, attributed to wind evil entering the brain, and characterized by aversion to cold on the nape and neck and extreme cold of GV-17 (nâo , Brain's Door) area with unbearable pain.

Medication:  Warm and dissipate using formulas such as Tangkuei Counterflow Cold Decoction (däng guï   täng).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on points of the three yang channel, GV and LU. Select GB-20 (fëng chí, Wind Pool) , GV-20 (bâi huì, Hundred Convergences) , GV-22 (xìn huì, Fontanel Meeting) , , GV-23 (shàng xïng, Upper Star) , LI-4 ( , Union Valley) , LU-7 (liè quë, Broken Sequence) , and SI-3 (hòu , Back Ravine) . Needle with drainage, and use large amounts of moxa. See headache; head wind.

branch

zhï

See heavenly stems and earthly branches.

bran-frying

 châo

Stir-frying medicinal materials in a wok with bran until a thick yellow-black smoke is given off. This process increases a medicinal's capacity to fortify the spleen and stomach and causes oils that would otherwise cause side effects and unpleasant smells to be absorbed by the bran. The same method is used to process Atractylodis Ovatae Rhizoma (bái zhú) and Aurantii Fructus (zhî ).

breakdown of heart-kidney interaction

xïn shèn  jiäo

noninteraction of the heart and kidney.

breaking blood

Dispelling static blood with drastic stasis-dispelling medicinals such as Rhei Rhizoma ( huáng), Persicae Semen (táo rén), Manitis Squama (chuän shän jiâ), and Eupolyphaga seu Opisthoplatia (zhè chóng). See disperse.

breaking qi

Rectifying qi with drastic medicinals such as Citri Exocarpium Immaturum (qïng ) and Aurantii Fructus Immaturus (zhî shí), which dissipate binds and abduct stagnation.

breaking stasis and dispersing concretions

See dispelling stasis and quickening the blood.

breast

 fáng

Either of two fleshy protruberances of the female chest each headed by a nipple and whose function is produce milk for breast-feeding. The breasts lie on the foot yang brightness channel. The nipples belong to the liver. See also areola; nipple.

breast blowing

chuï nâi

mammary welling-abscess.

breastbone

Definition: 

The vertical bone of the center of the chest that joins the ribs.

Western Medical Concept:  sternum* sternum. See also heart-covering bone; turtle-dove's tail.

Definition:  Any bone of the chest.

breast milk stoppage

 zhï  xíng

scant breast milk.

breast node

 

mammary node.

breath gate

 mén

One of the seven gates. The organ that covers the opening of the wind-pipe in the throat when swallowing; hence the name.

Western Medical Concept:  epiglottis* epiglottis.

breathing

 

Synonym:  respiration .

The taking of air into and putting of air out of the lung. Normal breathing depends on the diffusion and depurative downbearing of lung qi. The principal disturbances of normal breathing include panting, shortage of qi, hasty breathing, qi ascent, shortness of breath, and rough breathing. See also lung disease.

brew

jiän

Definition: 

decoction; a term occurring in names of decoctions, e.g., Ferry Brew ( chuän jiän).

Definition:  decoct.

brew

yùn

To gather, ferment (usually in a concealed or inconspicuous way); describes certain forms of internal (and especially lung) heat. See heat.

brightening the eyes

míng 

Enhancing visual acuity.

bright hall

míng táng

Definition: 

The nose.

Definition:  Any of the marks on an acupuncture model that indicate an acupuncture point.

bright white facial complexion

See white facial complexion.

brittle foot

A form of swelling in pregnancy. The swelling of the foot is marked by pitting and thin shiny appearance of the skin, and is not associated with other discomforts. It arises in women ordinarily suffering from devitalized spleen yang when the growing fetus hampers the spread of spleen-yang, which causes water-damp to pour downward.

Medication:  Fortify the spleen and percolate dampness. Use Life-for-All Ovate Atractylodes Powder (quán shëng bái zhú sân). Compare wrinkly foot; swelling and distention in pregnancy.

broad and bright

guâng míng

The anterosuperior region of the body.

broken metal failing to sound

Definition: 

Damage to lung qi causing a hoarse voice. The lung governs the voice; in the doctrine of the five phases, it belongs to metal, a substance frequently utilized, as in bells and gongs, for its sonorous qualities. When lung qi is damaged, the voice looses its normal sonorous quality just as a broken bell fails to ring. The lung governs the movement of qi, whereas the kidney governs qi absorption. The voice is therefore dependent not only on the lung but also the kidney.

Definition:  Enduring loss of voice.

bruise

qïng 

Local purple or green-blue coloring of the skin due to external injury.

bruxism

niè chî

grinding of the teeth.

bubo sore

Swelling in the groin. At onset, it is the size of an almond; it can grow to the size of a goose's egg, becoming hard, painful, and either red and scorching hot or mildly reddened and warm. It ruptures to exude pus.

Western Medical Concept:  lymphadenectasis* corresponds to various kinds of lymphadenectasis (dilation or distention of a lymph node). See red bayberry sore. Compare fish mouth; bian toxin sore.

bulging

tui=

2

Synonym:  prominence

A general name for diseases of the anterior yin, including, in males, swelling of the testicles and sagging of one testicle etc, and in females, vaginal protrusion, etc.

bulging fontanel

xìn tián

From The Origin and Indicators of Disease (zhü bìng yuán hòu lùn) A condition characterized by bulging at the anterior fontanel (traditionally called the ``fontanel gate,'' see fontanel). Distinction is made between heat and cold patterns. A hard bulging fontanel associated with absence of heat~effusion and lack of warmth in the limbs is attributable to congealing cold and stagnant qi. A soft bulging fontanel associated with red facial complexion and limbs and with purple finger veins is due to upsurge of fire qi.

Western Medical Concept:  hydrocephalus* hydrocephalus.

Medication:  For congealing cold and stagnant qi, dissipate cold using Ginseng and Perilla Beverage (shën  yîn). For upsurge of fire qi, clear heat using Green-Blue--Draining Pill (xiè qïng wán).

bulging mounting

From Elementary Questions (su4 wen4, yin1 yang2 bie2 lun4).

Definition:  Swelling of the scrotum. Described by Yang Zi-He as follows: ``Bulging mounting takes the form of a scrotum swollen and pendulous like a dipper, without pain or itching; it arises from being in low places with damp qi.''

Medication:  Use Tangerine Pip Pill (  wán).

Acupuncture:  Base treatment mainly on LR, CV, and SP. Select LR-5 ( göu, Woodworm Canal) , GB-34 (yáng líng quán, Yang Mound Spring) , CV-4 (guän yuán, Pass Head) , SP-6 (sän yïn jiäo, Three Yin Intersection) , and LR-12 ( mài, Urgent Pulse) ; needle with drainage and add moxa.

Definition:  From Elementary questions (su4 wen4, mai4 jie3 pian1). A pattern of abdominal swelling in women.

Definition:  Protrusion of the vagina. tui2

bundle bone

shù 

The fifth metatarsophalangeal articulation (lateral aspect).

burn

shäo

To undergo or subject to the destructive or transformative action of fire or heat. In medicinal processing, medicinal materials may be burned (calcined or charred) to enhance certain of their properties.

burn

shäo shäng

Injury to the body by burning action of fire, or hot fluids or objects, those specifically being caused by hot liquids being called scalds. Mild burns are characterized by local redness, blistering or erosion of the skin. Severe burns cause damage to deeper tissue, and when the fire toxin attacks the inner body there are general signs such as thirst, heat~effusion, clouding of the spirit, constipation, and inhibited urination.

Medication:  Treat mild cases by topical application of medicinals such as powdered Sanguisorbae Radix ( ) and Rhei Rhizoma ( huáng) in equal proportions with a pinch of Borneolum (bïng piàn), blended with Sesami Seminis Oleum ( yóu). For severe burns, oral administration of heat-clearing toxin-resolving and construction-cooling wind-extinguishing formulas such as Coptis Toxin-Resolving Decoction (huáng lián jiê  täng), Rhinoceros Horn and Rehmannia Decoction ( jiâo  huáng täng), or Antelope Horn and Uncaria Decoction (líng jiâo göu téng täng) is necessary. In recent years, a number of new Chinese medical techniques have been developed to treat burns and reduce scarring.

burning mountain fire method

shäo shän huô

A complex needle manipulation technique that combines a number of simple supplementing techniques such as lifting and thrusting and open and closed needle extraction to treat vacuity cold diseases such as the three yin stages of cold damage disease, impotence, incontinence, vaginal protrusion, and swelling and sagging of one testicle. Determine the depth to which the needle will be inserted. Divide this depth into three equal segments. Proceeding from the surface of the skin, these depths are labeled the level of heaven, the level of human, and the level of earth, respectively. Ask the patient to inhale deeply. Steps 2, 3, and 4 are performed during exhalation. Upon exhalation, thrust the needle quickly and lift slowly nine times to the level of heaven. Thrust the needle quickly and lift slowly nine times in the level of human. Thrust the needle quickly and lift slowly nine times in the level of earth. Ask the patient to exhale, and slowly withdraw the needle. If the procedure is to be repeated, withdraw the needle to the level of heaven and repeat steps 2, 3, and 4; if not, withdraw the needle fully from the skin. Press the site gently with a cotton swab after the needle has been withdrawn.

burning preserving nature

shäo cún xìng

See char-frying.

burns and scalds

shuî huô tàng shäng

See burn.

burnt-yellow tongue fur

shé täi jiäo huáng

A dark yellow or brown tongue fur that is dry and bears the look of having been burnt; a sign of repletion heat bind.